Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Edris Madadian

8 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy

Abstract:

Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potential

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7 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat

Abstract:

The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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6 Detection of PCD-Related Transcription Factors for Improving Salt Tolerance in Plant

Authors: A. Bahieldin, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, S. M. Hassan, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, A. S. M. Al- Hajar, F. M. El-Domyati

Abstract:

The idea of this work is based on a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes related to the program cell death (or PCD) mechanism might help the plant cells to efficiently tolerate abiotic stresses. The scope of this work was the detection of PCD-related transcription factors (TFs) that might also be related to salt stress tolerance in plant. Two model plants, e.g., tobacco and Arabidopsis, were utilized in order to investigate this phenomenon. Occurrence of PCD was first proven by Evans blue staining and DNA laddering after tobacco leaf discs were treated with oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM) for 24 h. A number of 31 TFs up regulated after 2 h and co-expressed with genes harboring PCD-related domains were detected via RNA-Seq analysis and annotation. These TFs were knocked down via virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), an RNA interference (RNAi) approach, and tested for their influence on triggering PCD machinery. Then, Arabidopsis SALK knocked out T-DNA insertion mutants in selected TFs analogs to those in tobacco were tested under salt stress (up to 250 mM NaCl) in order to detect the influence of different TFs on conferring salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Involvement of a number of candidate abiotic-stress related TFs was investigated.

Keywords: VIGS, PCD, RNA-Seq, transcription factors

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5 Identification of Tissue-Specific Transcription Factors in C. roseus with Emphasis to the TIA Biosynthetic Pathway

Authors: F. M. El-Domyati, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, Y. M. Saad, H. S. Al-Zahrani, A. Bahieldin

Abstract:

Transcriptome retrieved from SRA database of different tissues and treatments of C. roseus was assembled in order to detect tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) and TFs possibly related to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA) pathway. A number of 290 TF-like transcripts along with 12 transcripts related to TIA biosynthetic pathway were divided in terms of co-expression in the different tissues, treatments and genotypes. Three transcripts encoding peroxidases 1 and 12 were downregulated in hairy root, while upregulated in mature leaf. Eight different transcripts of the TIA pathway co-expressed with TFs either functioning downstream tryptophan biosynthesis, e.g., tdc, str1 and sgd, or upstream vindoline biosynthesis, e.g., t16h, omt, nmt, d4h and dat. The results showed no differential expression of TF transcripts in hairy roots knocked down for tdc gene (TDCi) as compared to their wild type controls. There were several evidences of tissue-specific expression of TF transcripts in flower, mature leaf, root/hairy root, stem, seedling, hairy root and immature/mature leaves. Regulation included transcription factor families, e.g., bHLH, MYB and WRKY mostly induced by ABA and/or JA (or MeJA) and regulated during abiotic or biotic stress. The information of tissue-specific regulation and co-expression of TFs and genes in the TIA pathway can be utilized in manipulating alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus.

Keywords: SRA database, bHLH, MYB, WRKY, co-expression

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4 RNA-Seq Analysis of the Wild Barley (H. spontaneum) Leaf Transcriptome under Salt Stress

Authors: Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Nour O. Gadalla, Sherif Edris, Ahmed M. Alzohairy, Nezar A. Radhwan, Mohammed N. Baeshen, Ahmed M. Ramadan, Hala F. Eissa, Sabah M. Hassan, Nabih A. Baeshen, Osama Abuzinadah, Magdy A. Al-Kordy, Fotouh M. El-Domyati, Robert K. Jansen

Abstract:

Wild salt-tolerant barley (Hordeum spontaneum) is the ancestor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare or H. vulgare). Although the cultivated barley genome is well studied, little is known about genome structure and function of its wild ancestor. In the present study, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on young leaves of wild barley treated with salt (500 mM NaCl) at four different time intervals. Transcriptome sequencing yielded 103 to 115 million reads for all replicates of each treatment, corresponding to over 10 billion nucleotides per sample. Of the total reads, between 74.8 and 80.3% could be mapped and 77.4 to 81.7% of the transcripts were found in the H. vulgare unigene database (unigene-mapped). The unmapped wild barley reads for all treatments and replicates were assembled de novo and the resulting contigs were used as a new reference genome. This resultedin94.3 to 95.3%oftheunmapped reads mapping to the new reference. The number of differentially expressed transcripts was 9277, 3861 of which were uni gene-mapped. The annotated unigene- and de novo-mapped transcripts (5100) were utilized to generate expression clusters across time of salt stress treatment. Two-dimensional hierarchical clustering classified differential expression profiles into nine expression clusters, four of which were selected for further analysis. Differentially expressed transcripts were assigned to the main functional categories. The most important groups were ‘response to external stimulus’ and ‘electron-carrier activity’. Highly expressed transcripts are involved in several biological processes, including electron transport and exchanger mechanisms, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, ethylene production, signaling network and protein refolding. The comparisons demonstrated that mRNA-Seq is an efficient method for the analysis of differentially expressed genes and biological processes under salt stress.

Keywords: electron transport, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species, rnaseq

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3 Molecular Characterization of Two Thermoplastic Biopolymer-Degrading Fungi Utilizing rRNA-Based Technology

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi, Magda Mohamed Aly, Fardus M. Bokhari, Ahmed Bahieldin, Sherif Edris

Abstract:

Out of 30 fungal isolates, 2 new isolates were proven to degrade poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Enzyme assay for these isolates indicated the optimal environmental conditions required for depolymerase enzyme to induce the highest level of biopolymer degradation. The two isolates were basically characterized at the morphological level as Trichoderma asperellum (isolate S1), and Aspergillus fumigates (isolate S2) using standard approaches. The aim of the present study was to characterize these two isolates at the molecular level based on the highly diverged rRNA gene(s). Within this gene, two domains of the ribosome large subunit (LSU) namely internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S were utilized in the analysis. The first domain comprises the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 regions ( > 500 bp), while the second domain comprises the D1/D2/D3 regions ( > 1200 bp). Sanger sequencing was conducted at Macrogen (Inc.) for the two isolates using primers ITS1/ITS4 for the first domain, while primers LROR/LR7 for the second domain. Sizes of the first domain ranged between 594-602 bp for S1 isolate and 581-594 bp for S2 isolate, while those of the second domain ranged between 1228-1238 bp for S1 isolate and 1156-1291 for S2 isolate. BLAST analysis indicated 99% identities of the first domain of S1 isolate with T. asperellum isolates XP22 (ID: KX664456.1), CTCCSJ-G-HB40564 (ID: KY750349.1), CTCCSJ-F-ZY40590 (ID: KY750362.1) and TV (ID: KU341015.1). BLAST of the first domain of S2 isolate indicated 100% identities with A. fumigatus isolate YNCA0338 (ID: KP068684.1) and strain MEF-Cr-6 (ID: KU597198.1), while 99% identities with A. fumigatus isolate CCA101 (ID: KT877346.1) and strain CD1621 (ID: JX092088.1). Large numbers of other T. asperellum and A. fumigatus isolates and strains showed high level of identities with S1 and S2 isolates, respectively, based on the diversity of the first domain. BLAST of the second domain of S1 isolate indicated 99 and 100% identities with only two strains of T. asperellum namely TR 3 (ID: HM466685.1) and G (ID: KF723005.1), respectively. However, other T. species (ex., atroviride, hamatum, deliquescens, harzianum, etc.) also showed high level of identities. BLAST of the second domain of S2 isolate indicated 100% identities with A. fumigatus isolate YNCA0338 (ID: KP068684.1) and strain MEF-Cr-6 (ID: KU597198.1), while 99% identities with A. fumigatus isolate CCA101 (ID: KT877346.1) and strain CD1621 (ID: JX092088.1). Large numbers of other A. fumigatus isolates and strains showed high level of identities with S2 isolate. Overall, the results of molecular characterization based on rRNA diversity for the two isolates of T. asperellum and A. fumigatus matched those obtained by morphological characterization. In addition, ITS domain proved to be more sensitive than 26S domain in diversity profiling of fungi at the species level.

Keywords: Aspergillus fumigates, Trichoderma asperellum, PHB, degradation, BLAST, ITS, 26S, rRNA

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2 Importance of Remote Sensing and Information Communication Technology to Improve Climate Resilience in Low Land of Ethiopia

Authors: Hasen Keder Edris, Ryuji Matsunaga, Toshi Yamanaka

Abstract:

The issue of climate change and its impact is a major contemporary global concern. Ethiopia is one of the countries experiencing adverse climate change impact including frequent extreme weather events that are exacerbating drought and water scarcity. Due to this reason, the government of Ethiopia develops a strategic document which focuses on the climate resilience green economy. One of the major components of the strategic framework is designed to improve community adaptation capacity and mitigation of drought. For effective implementation of the strategy, identification of regions relative vulnerability to drought is vital. There is a growing tendency of applying Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technologies for collecting information on duration and severity of drought by direct measure of the topography as well as an indirect measure of land cover. This study aims to show an application of remote sensing technology and GIS for developing drought vulnerability index by taking lowland of Ethiopia as a case study. In addition, it assesses integrated Information Communication Technology (ICT) potential of Ethiopia lowland and proposes integrated solution. Satellite data is used to detect the beginning of the drought. The severity of drought risk prone areas of livestock keeping pastoral is analyzed through normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ten years rainfall data. The change from the existing and average SPOT NDVI and vegetation condition index is used to identify the onset of drought and potential risks. Secondary data is used to analyze geographical coverage of mobile and internet usage in the region. For decades, the government of Ethiopia introduced some technologies and approach to overcoming climate change related problems. However, lack of access to information and inadequate technical support for the pastoral area remains a major challenge. In conventional business as usual approach, the lowland pastorals continue facing a number of challenges. The result indicated that 80% of the region face frequent drought occurrence and out of this 60% of pastoral area faces high drought risk. On the other hand, the target area mobile phone and internet coverage is rapidly growing. One of identified ICT solution enabler technology is telecom center which covers 98% of the region. It was possible to identify the frequently affected area and potential drought risk using the NDVI remote-sensing data analyses. We also found that ICT can play an important role in mitigating climate change challenge. Hence, there is a need to strengthen implementation efforts of climate change adaptation through integrated Remote Sensing and web based information dissemination and mobile alert of extreme events.

Keywords: climate changes, ICT, pastoral, remote sensing

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1 Review of Urbanization Pattern in Kabul City

Authors: Muhammad Hanif Amiri, Edris Sadeqy, Ahmad Freed Osman

Abstract:

International Conference on Architectural Engineering and Skyscraper (ICAES 2016) on January 18 - 19, 2016 is aimed to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration. Therefore, we are very keen to participate and share our issues in order to get valuable feedbacks of the conference participants. Urbanization is a controversial issue all around the world. Substandard and unplanned urbanization has many implications on a social, cultural and economic situation of population life. Unplanned and illegal construction has become a critical issue in Afghanistan particularly Kabul city. In addition, lack of municipal bylaws, poor municipal governance, lack of development policies and strategies, budget limitation, low professional capacity of ainvolved private sector in development and poor coordination among stakeholders are the other factors which made the problem more complicated. The main purpose of this research paper is to review urbanization pattern of Kabul city and find out the improvement solutions and to evaluate the increasing of population density which caused vast illegal and unplanned development which finally converts the Kabul city to a slam area as the whole. The Kabul city Master Plan was reviewed in the year 1978 and revised for the planned 2million population. In 2001, the interim administration took place and the city became influx of returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan mostly for the purpose of employment opportunities, security and better quality of life, therefore, Kabul faced with strange population growth. According to Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan population of Kabul has been estimated approx. 5 million (2015), however a new Master Plan has been prepared in 2009, but the existing challenges have not been dissolved yet. On the other hand, 70% of Kabul population is living in unplanned (slam) area and facing the shortage of drinking water, inexistence of sewerage and drainage network, inexistence of proper management system for solid waste collection, lack of public transportation and traffic management, environmental degradation and the shortage of social infrastructure. Although there are many problems in Kabul city, but still the development of 22 townships are in progress which caused the great attraction of population. The research is completed with a detailed analysis on four main issues such as elimination of duplicated administrations, Development of regions, Rehabilitation and improvement of infrastructure, and prevention of new townships establishment in Kabul Central Core in order to mitigate the problems and constraints which are the foundation and principal to find the point of departure for an objective based future development of Kabul city. The closure has been defined to reflect the stage-wise development in light of prepared policy and strategies, development of a procedure for the improvement of infrastructure, conducting a preliminary EIA, defining scope of stakeholder’s contribution and preparation of project list for initial development. In conclusion this paper will help the transformation of Kabul city.

Keywords: development of regions, illegal construction, population density, urbanization pattern

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