Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2823

Search results for: sojourn times

2823 Prioritized Processor-Sharing with a Maximum Permissible Sojourn Time

Authors: Yoshiaki Shikata


A prioritized processor-sharing (PS) system with a maximum permissible sojourn time (MPST) is proposed. In this PS system, a higher-priority request is allocated a larger service ratio than a lower-priority request. Moreover, each request receiving service is guaranteed the maximum permissible sojourn time determined by each priority class, regardless of its service time. Arriving requests that cannot receive service due to this guarantee are rejected. We further propose a guarantee method for implementing such a system, and discuss performance evaluation procedures for the resulting system. Practical performance measures, such as the relationships between the loss probability or mean sojourn time of each class request and the maximum permissible sojourn time are evaluated via simulation. At the arrival of each class request, its acceptance or rejection is judged using extended sojourn times of all requests receiving service in the server. As the MPST increases, the mean sojourn time increases almost linearly. However, the logarithm of the loss probability decreases almost linearly. Moreover with an MPST, the difference in the mean sojourn time for different MPSTs increases with the traffic rate. Conversely, the difference in the loss probability for different MPSTs decreases as the traffic rate increases.

Keywords: prioritized processor sharing, priority ratio, permissible sojourn time, loss probability, mean sojourn time, simulation

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2822 The Sociocultural Adaptation, Openness, and Success of Sojourn of Foreign Students in Tarlac City, Philippines

Authors: Maria Sheila S. Garcia


A good number of researches indicate that living in another country may create different and unexpected adjustment problems, and foreign students are not exempted from this. To provide an understanding of this process, 30 foreign college students studying English in Tarlac City were asked to answer questionnaires. This is to determine their sociocultural adaptation, openness to the host culture and success of sojourn. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the students experience greater difficulty in the academic area. Moderate difficulty was attributed to everyday life and social interactions. Albeit difficult, what they like best is the school’s methods of teaching English while the areas that need improvement are the libraries and internet connection. The only significant relationship was found between sociocultural adaptation and success of sojourn. Negatively correlated, if students experience greater difficulties in their host country, they are likely to regret their stay and will not recommend it to anyone. Openness to the host culture did not have an effect on the adaptation and success of sojourn. The short period of time that the students have are spent in studying rather than making friends. Nonetheless, this indicates the need to look deeper into the academic, extra-curricular activities and facilities provided by learning institutions.

Keywords: foreign students, sociocultural adaptation, success of sojourn, Tarlac Philippines

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2821 A Semi-Markov Chain-Based Model for the Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges in Quebec

Authors: Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Mohamed Marzouk, Tarek Zayed


Infrastructure systems are crucial to every aspect of life on Earth. Existing Infrastructure is subjected to degradation while the demands are growing for a better infrastructure system in response to the high standards of safety, health, population growth, and environmental protection. Bridges play a crucial role in urban transportation networks. Moreover, they are subjected to high level of deterioration because of the variable traffic loading, extreme weather conditions, cycles of freeze and thaw, etc. The development of Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) has become a fundamental imperative nowadays especially in the large transportation networks due to the huge variance between the need for maintenance actions, and the available funds to perform such actions. Deterioration models represent a very important aspect for the effective use of BMSs. This paper presents a probabilistic time-based model that is capable of predicting the condition ratings of the concrete bridge decks along its service life. The deterioration process of the concrete bridge decks is modeled using semi-Markov process. One of the main challenges of the Markov Chain Decision Process (MCDP) is the construction of the transition probability matrix. Yet, the proposed model overcomes this issue by modeling the sojourn times based on some probability density functions. The sojourn times of each condition state are fitted to probability density functions based on some goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared test. The parameters of the probability density functions are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The condition ratings obtained from the Ministry of Transportation in Quebec (MTQ) are utilized as a database to construct the deterioration model. Finally, a comparison is conducted between the Markov Chain and semi-Markov chain to select the most feasible prediction model.

Keywords: bridge management system, bridge decks, deterioration model, Semi-Markov chain, sojourn times, maximum likelihood estimation

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2820 Performance Evaluation of a Prioritized, Limited Multi-Server Processor-Sharing System that Includes Servers with Various Capacities

Authors: Yoshiaki Shikata, Nobutane Hanayama


We present a prioritized, limited multi-server processor sharing (PS) system where each server has various capacities, and N (≥2) priority classes are allowed in each PS server. In each prioritized, limited server, different service ratio is assigned to each class request, and the number of requests to be processed is limited to less than a certain number. Routing strategies of such prioritized, limited multi-server PS systems that take into account the capacity of each server are also presented, and a performance evaluation procedure for these strategies is discussed. Practical performance measures of these strategies, such as loss probability, mean waiting time, and mean sojourn time, are evaluated via simulation. In the PS server, at the arrival (or departure) of a request, the extension (shortening) of the remaining sojourn time of each request receiving service can be calculated by using the number of requests of each class and the priority ratio. Utilising a simulation program which executes these events and calculations, the performance of the proposed prioritized, limited multi-server PS rule can be analyzed. From the evaluation results, most suitable routing strategy for the loss or waiting system is clarified.

Keywords: processor sharing, multi-server, various capacity, N-priority classes, routing strategy, loss probability, mean sojourn time, mean waiting time, simulation

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2819 Bottleneck Modeling in Information Technology Service Management

Authors: Abhinay Puvvala, Veerendra Kumar Rai


A bottleneck situation arises when the outflow is lesser than the inflow in a pipe-like setup. A more practical interpretation of bottlenecks emphasizes on the realization of Service Level Objectives (SLOs) at given workloads. Our approach detects two key aspects of bottlenecks – when and where. To identify ‘when’ we continuously poll on certain key metrics such as resource utilization, processing time, request backlog and throughput at a system level. Further, when the slope of the expected sojourn time at a workload is greater than ‘K’ times the slope of expected sojourn time at the previous step of the workload while the workload is being gradually increased in discrete steps, a bottleneck situation arises. ‘K’ defines the threshold condition and is computed based on the system’s service level objectives. The second aspect of our approach is to identify the location of the bottleneck. In multi-tier systems with a complex network of layers, it is a challenging problem to locate bottleneck that affects the overall system performance. We stage the system by varying workload incrementally to draw a correlation between load increase and system performance to the point where Service Level Objectives are violated. During the staging process, multiple metrics are monitored at hardware and application levels. The correlations are drawn between metrics and the overall system performance. These correlations along with the Service Level Objectives are used to arrive at the threshold conditions for each of these metrics. Subsequently, the same method used to identify when a bottleneck occurs is used on metrics data with threshold conditions to locate bottlenecks.

Keywords: bottleneck, workload, service level objectives (SLOs), throughput, system performance

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2818 A Two Server Poisson Queue Operating under FCFS Discipline with an ‘m’ Policy

Authors: R. Sivasamy, G. Paulraj, S. Kalaimani, N.Thillaigovindan


For profitable businesses, queues are double-edged swords and hence the pain of long wait times in a queue often frustrates customers. This paper suggests a technical way of reducing the pain of lines through a Poisson M/M1, M2/2 queueing system operated by two heterogeneous servers with an objective of minimising the mean sojourn time of customers served under the queue discipline ‘First Come First Served with an ‘m’ policy, i.e. FCFS-m policy’. Arrivals to the system form a Poisson process of rate λ and are served by two exponential servers. The service times of successive customers at server ‘j’ are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables and each of it is exponentially distributed with rate parameter μj (j=1, 2). The primary condition for implementing the queue discipline ‘FCFS-m policy’ on these service rates μj (j=1, 2) is that either (m+1) µ2 > µ1> m µ2 or (m+1) µ1 > µ2> m µ1 must be satisfied. Further waiting customers prefer the server-1 whenever it becomes available for service, and the server-2 should be installed if and only if the queue length exceeds the value ‘m’ as a threshold. Steady-state results on queue length and waiting time distributions have been obtained. A simple way of tracing the optimal service rate μ*2 of the server-2 is illustrated in a specific numerical exercise to equalize the average queue length cost with that of the service cost. Assuming that the server-1 has to dynamically adjust the service rates as μ1 during the system size is strictly less than T=(m+2) while μ2=0, and as μ1 +μ2 where μ2>0 if the system size is more than or equal to T, corresponding steady state results of M/M1+M2/1 queues have been deduced from those of M/M1,M2/2 queues. To conclude this investigation has a viable application, results of M/M1+M2/1 queues have been used in processing of those waiting messages into a single computer node and to measure the power consumption by the node.

Keywords: two heterogeneous servers, M/M1, M2/2 queue, service cost and queue length cost, M/M1+M2/1 queue

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2817 The Parental Involvement as Predictor of Happiness in School-Aged Children

Authors: Giedre Sirvinskiene, Kastytis Smigelskas


Quality of family relations is an important factor of child development, however, the role of joint family activities on adolescent happiness still needs investigation. The aim of this study is to analyze associations between happiness of school-aged children and parental involvement. The analysis involves Lithuanian data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study. The sample comprised 5730 children aged 11–15 years. Results: The odds of happiness was 2.38 times higher if children were living together with mother (95% CI: 1.81–3.13) and 1.81 times – with father (95% CI: 1.53–2.15). However, the likelihood of happiness was 7.21 times lower if adolescent had difficulties to talk with mother (95% CI: 5.42–9.61) and 6.40 times – with father (95% CI: 4.80–8.56). The joint daily adolescents-parents activities also predict the odds for happiness: joint TV watching by 5.96 times (95% CI: 4.21–8.43), having meals together by 7.02 times (95% CI: 4.77–10.32), going for a walk together 4.30 times (95% CI: 2.96–6.26), visiting places by 6.85 times (95% CI: 4.74–9.90), visiting friends and relatives by 7.13 times (95% CI: 4.87–10.43), sporting by 2.76 (95% CI: 1.83–4.18) as well as discussing various things by 7.35 times (95% CI: 5.50–9.82). Conclusions: Joint parents-adolescents activities and communication are related with greater happiness of adolescent. Though adolescence is a period when the relationships with peers get more importance, the communication and joint activities with parents remain a significant factor of adolescent happiness.

Keywords: adolescent, family, happiness, school-age

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2816 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim


The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD

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2815 Air Pollution from Volatile Metals and Acid Gases

Authors: F. Ait Ahsene-Aissat, Y. Kerchiche, Y. Moussaoui, M. Hachemi


Environmental pollution is at the heart of the debate today, the pollutants released into the atmosphere must be measured and reduced to the norms of international releases. The industries pollution is caused by emissions of SO₂, CO and heavy metals in volatile form that must be quantified and monitored. This study presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis However, the collection of volatile heavy metals were performed by active sampling using an isokinetic. SO₂ gas for the maximum is reached for a value of 343 mg / m³, the SO₂ concentration far exceeds the standard releases SO₂ followed by incineration industries in Algeria. the concentration of Cr exceeds 8 times the standard, the Pb concentration in the excess of 6 times, the concentration of Fe has reached very high values exceeding the standard 30 times, the Zn concentration in the excess of 5 times, and the Ni the excess of 4 times and finally that of Cu is almost double of the standard.

Keywords: SO₂, CO, volatiles metals, active sampling isokinetic

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2814 General Network with Four Nodes and Four Activities with Triangular Fuzzy Number as Activity Times

Authors: Rashmi Tamhankar, Madhav Bapat


In many projects, we have to use human judgment for determining the duration of the activities which may vary from person to person. Hence, there is vagueness about the time duration for activities in network planning. Fuzzy sets can handle such vague or imprecise concepts and has an application to such network. The vague activity times can be represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. In this paper, a general network with fuzzy activity times is considered and conditions for the critical path are obtained also we compute total float time of each activity. Several numerical examples are discussed.

Keywords: PERT, CPM, triangular fuzzy numbers, fuzzy activity times

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2813 Minimizing Total Completion Time in No-Wait Flowshops with Setup Times

Authors: Ali Allahverdi


The m-machine no-wait flowshop scheduling problem is addressed in this paper. The objective is to minimize total completion time subject to the constraint that the makespan value is not greater than a certain value. Setup times are treated as separate from processing times. Several recent algorithms are adapted and proposed for the problem. An extensive computational analysis has been conducted for the evaluation of the proposed algorithms. The computational analysis indicates that the best proposed algorithm performs significantly better than the earlier existing best algorithm.

Keywords: scheduling, no-wait flowshop, algorithm, setup times, total completion time, makespan

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2812 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong


In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, cross-correlation, avalanches, prediction method

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2811 Analysis of Temporal Factors Influencing Minimum Dwell Time Distributions

Authors: T. Pedersen, A. Lindfeldt


The minimum dwell time is an important part of railway timetable planning. Due to its stochastic behaviour, the minimum dwell time should be considered to create resilient timetables. While there has been significant focus on how to determine and estimate dwell times, to our knowledge, little research has been carried out regarding temporal and running direction variations of these. In this paper, we examine how the minimum dwell time varies depending on temporal factors such as the time of day, day of the week and time of the year. We also examine how it is affected by running direction and station type. The minimum dwell time is estimated by means of track occupation data. A method is proposed to ensure that only minimum dwell times and not planned dwell times are acquired from the track occupation data. The results show that on an aggregated level, the average minimum dwell times in both running directions at a station are similar. However, when temporal factors are considered, there are significant variations. The minimum dwell time varies throughout the day with peak hours having the longest dwell times. It is also found that the minimum dwell times are influenced by weekday, and in particular, weekends are found to have lower minimum dwell times than most other days. The findings show that there is a potential to significantly improve timetable planning by taking minimum dwell time variations into account.

Keywords: minimum dwell time, operations quality, timetable planning, track occupation data

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2810 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli


Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: supply chain, lead time, normalization, modular

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2809 Information System for Early Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnostics Based on Multiscale Texture Gradient Method

Authors: L. S. Godlevsky, N. V. Kresyun, V. P. Martsenyuk, K. S. Shakun, T. V. Tatarchuk, K. O. Prybolovets, L. F. Kalinichenko, M. Karpinski, T. Gancarczyk


Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, multiscale texture gradient, color spectrum analysis, medical diagnostics

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2808 Investigation of the Drying Times of Blood under Different Environmental Conditions and on Different Fabrics and the Transfer of Blood at Different Times of the Drying Process

Authors: Peter Parkinson


The research investigates the effects of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric composition on the drying times of blood and assesses the degree of blood transfer that can occur during the drying process. An assortment of fabrics, of different composition and thicknesses, were collected and stained using two blood volumes and exposed to varying environmental conditions. The conclusion reached was that temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric thickness do have an effect on drying times. An increase in temperature and wind speed results in a decrease in drying times while an increase in fabric thickness and humidity extended the drying times of blood under similar conditions. Transfer experimentation utilized three donor fabrics, 100% white cotton, 100% acrylic, and 100% cotton denim, which were bloodstained using two blood volumes. The fabrics were subjected to both full and low/light force contact from the donor fabrics onto the recipient fabric, under different environmental conditions. Transfer times onto the 100% white cotton (recipient fabric) from all donor fabrics were shorter than the drying times observed. The intensities of the bloodstains decreased from high to low with time during the drying process. The degree of transfer at high, medium, and low intensities varied significantly between different materials and is dependent on the environmental conditions, fabric compositions, blood volumes, the type of contact (full or light force), and the drying times observed for the respective donor fabrics. These factors should be considered collectively and conservatively when assessing the time frame of secondary transfer in casework.

Keywords: blood, drying time, blood stain transfer, different environmental conditions, fabrics

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2807 A Two Stage Stochastic Mathematical Model for the Tramp Ship Routing with Time Windows Problem

Authors: Amin Jamili


Nowadays, the majority of international trade in goods is carried by sea, and especially by ships deployed in the industrial and tramp segments. This paper addresses routing the tramp ships and determining the schedules including the arrival times to the ports, berthing times at the ports, and the departure times in an operational planning level. In the operational planning level, the weather can be almost exactly forecasted, however in some routes some uncertainties may remain. In this paper, the voyaging times between some of the ports are considered to be uncertain. To that end, a two-stage stochastic mathematical model is proposed. Moreover, a case study is tested with the presented model. The computational results show that this mathematical model is promising and can represent acceptable solutions.

Keywords: routing, scheduling, tram ships, two stage stochastic model, uncertainty

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2806 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy


This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: healthcare, hospital, Kuwait, waiting times, emergency department

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2805 Healthcare Utilization and Costs of Specific Obesity Related Health Conditions in Alberta, Canada

Authors: Sonia Butalia, Huong Luu, Alexis Guigue, Karen J. B. Martins, Khanh Vu, Scott W. Klarenbach


Obesity-related health conditions impose a substantial economic burden on payers due to increased healthcare use. Estimates of healthcare resource use and costs associated with obesity-related comorbidities are needed to inform policies and interventions targeting these conditions. Methods: Adults living with obesity were identified (a procedure-related body mass index code for class 2/3 obesity between 2012 and 2019 in Alberta, Canada; excluding those with bariatric surgery), and outcomes were compared over 1-year (2019/2020) between those who had and did not have specific obesity-related comorbidities. The probability of using a healthcare service (based on the odds ratio of a zero [OR-zero] cost) was compared; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Logistic regression and a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution were used for total healthcare cost comparisons ($CDN); cost ratios and estimated cost differences (95% CI) were reported. Potential socio-demographic and clinical confounders were adjusted for, and incremental cost differences were representative of a referent case. Results: A total of 220,190 adults living with obesity were included; 44% had hypertension, 25% had osteoarthritis, 24% had type-2 diabetes, 17% had cardiovascular disease, 12% had insulin resistance, 9% had chronic back pain, and 4% of females had polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The probability of hospitalization, ED visit, and ambulatory care was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (hospitalization: 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.57 [0.55/0.59]] / ED visit: 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.53/0.56]] / ambulatory care visit: 2.4-times [OR-zero: 0.41 [0.40/0.43]]), cardiovascular disease (2.7-times [OR-zero: 0.37 [0.36/0.38]] / 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.52 [0.51/0.53]] / 2.8-times [OR-zero: 0.36 [0.35/0.36]]), osteoarthritis (2.0-times [OR-zero: 0.51 [0.50/0.53]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.74 [0.73/0.76]] / 2.5-times [OR-zero: 0.40 [0.40/0.41]]), type-2 diabetes (1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.52/0.55]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.72 [0.70/0.73]] / 2.1-times [OR-zero: 0.47 [0.46/0.47]]), hypertension (1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]] / 1.3-times [OR-zero: 0.79 [0.77/0.80]] / 2.2-times [OR-zero: 0.46 [0.45/0.47]]), PCOS (not significant / 1.2-times [OR-zero: 0.83 [0.79/0.88]] / not significant), and insulin resistance (1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.88 [0.84/0.91]] / 1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.92 [0.89/0.94]] / 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]]). After fully adjusting for potential confounders, the total healthcare cost ratio was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (1.54-times [1.51/1.56]), cardiovascular disease (1.45-times [1.43/1.47]), osteoarthritis (1.36-times [1.35/1.38]), type-2 diabetes (1.30-times [1.28/1.31]), hypertension (1.27-times [1.26/1.28]), PCOS (1.08-times [1.05/1.11]), and insulin resistance (1.03-times [1.01/1.04]). Conclusions: Adults with obesity who have specific disease-related health conditions have a higher probability of healthcare use and incur greater costs than those without specific comorbidities; incremental costs are larger when other obesity-related health conditions are not adjusted for. In a specific referent case, hypertension was costliest (44% had this condition with an additional annual cost of $715 [$678/$753]). If these findings hold for the Canadian population, hypertension in persons with obesity represents an estimated additional annual healthcare cost of $2.5 billion among adults living with obesity (based on an adult obesity rate of 26%). Results of this study can inform decision making on investment in interventions that are effective in treating obesity and its complications.

Keywords: administrative data, healthcare cost, obesity-related comorbidities, real world evidence

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2804 Study of Parameters Influencing Dwell Times for Trains

Authors: Guillaume Craveur


The work presented here shows a study on several parameters identified as influencing dwell times for trains. Three kinds of rolling stocks are studied for this project and the parameters presented are the number of passengers, the allocation of passengers, their priorities, the platform station height, the door width and the train design. In order to make this study, a lot of records have been done in several stations in Paris (France). Then, in order to study these parameters, numerical simulations are completed. The goal is to quantify the impact of each parameter on the dwelling times. For example, this study highlights the impact of platform height and the presence of steps between the platform and the train. Three types of station platforms are concerned by this study : ‘optimum’ station platform which is 920 mm high, standard station platform which is 550 mm high, and high station platform which is 1150 mm high and different kinds of steps exist in order to fill these gaps. To conclude, this study shows the impact of these parameters on dwell times and their impact in function of the size of population.

Keywords: dwell times, numerical tools, rolling stock, platforms

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2803 The Popularity and the Fantasy in Tiny Times

Authors: Shu Hui


From 2013 to 2015, Tiny Times series gained huge commercial success. However, compared with the successful box office, these films received severe public criticism. Some scholars refer to these films as trash (lan pian) because of the fragment narrative, the non-professional photographing, and advocating money warship. Differing from other popular films, the popularity of Tiny Times series is actually generated from the fantasy that presented on screen instead of good stories or photographs. The fantasy is desired by the public and then formulates its popularity. Based on Jacques Lacan’s fantasy theory, the paper aims to explain what kind of fantast the films present. Then, according to hegemony theory, the paper will illustrate why the public desires such a fantasy and how the fantasy causes the criticism as well. The dominant ideology (patriarchy) conspires with or manipulates consumerism, which brings about the female's fantasy in Tiny Times. Because consumerism interrogates Confucianism, the film received public criticism for highlighting the former.

Keywords: fantasy, desire, ideology, popularity

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2802 Issues on Determination of Accurate Fajr and Dhuha Prayer Times According to Fiqh and Astronomical Perspectives in Malaysia: A Bibliography Study

Authors: Raihana Abdul Wahab, Norihan Kadir, Muhamad Hazwan Mustafa


The determination of accurate times for Fajr and Dhuha prayers in Malaysia is faced with issues of differing views in the fixation of the parameters of the sun’s altitude used in the calculation of astronomy, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to identify issues and problems in the methods used in determining the accurate times for both these prayers through a literature review of previous research studies. The results show the need to review the parameters of sun altitude used in calculating prayer times for both these prayers through observations in changes in the brightness of the early morning light for distinguish of true dawn and false dawn for the Fajr prayers and the length of the shadow for Dhuha payer by collecting data from all the states throughout Malaysia.

Keywords: fajr, Dhuha, sky brightness, length of shadows, astronomy, Islamic jurisprudence

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2801 M-Machine Assembly Scheduling Problem to Minimize Total Tardiness with Non-Zero Setup Times

Authors: Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek, Ali Allahverdi


Our objective is to minimize the total tardiness in an m-machine two-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem. The objective is an important performance measure because of the fact that the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. In the literature, the problem is considered with zero setup times which may not be realistic and appropriate for some scheduling environments. Considering separate setup times from processing times increases machine utilization by decreasing the idle time and reduces total tardiness. We propose two new algorithms and adapt four existing algorithms in the literature which are different versions of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Moreover, a dominance relation is developed based on the mathematical formulation of the problem. The developed dominance relation is incorporated in our proposed algorithms. Computational experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the newly proposed algorithms. We find that one of the proposed algorithms performs significantly better than the others, i.e., the error of the best algorithm is less than those of the other algorithms by minimum 50%. The newly proposed algorithm is also efficient for the case of zero setup times and performs better than the best existing algorithm in the literature.

Keywords: algorithm, assembly flowshop, scheduling, simulation, total tardiness

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2800 Solution Approaches for Some Scheduling Problems with Learning Effect and Job Dependent Delivery Times

Authors: M. Duran Toksari, Berrin Ucarkus


In this paper, we propose two algorithms to optimally solve makespan and total completion time scheduling problems with learning effect and job dependent delivery times in a single machine environment. The delivery time is the extra time to eliminate adverse effect between the main processing and delivery to the customer. In this paper, we introduce the job dependent delivery times for some single machine scheduling problems with position dependent learning effect, which are makespan are total completion. The results with respect to two algorithms proposed for solving of the each problem are compared with LINGO solutions for 50-jobs, 100-jobs and 150-jobs problems. The proposed algorithms can find the same results in shorter time.

Keywords: delivery Times, learning effect, makespan, scheduling, total completion time

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2799 Two Stage Assembly Flowshop Scheduling Problem Minimizing Total Tardiness

Authors: Ali Allahverdi, Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek


The two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem has lots of application in real life. To the best of our knowledge, the two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem with total tardiness performance measure and separate setup times has not been addressed so far, and hence, it is addressed in this paper. Different dominance relations are developed and several algorithms are proposed. Extensive computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithms. The computational experiments have shown that one of the algorithms performs much better than the others. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the best performing algorithm performs much better than the best existing algorithm for the case of zero setup times in the literature. Therefore, the proposed best performing algorithm not only can be used for problems with separate setup times but also for the case of zero setup times.

Keywords: scheduling, assembly flowshop, total tardiness, algorithm

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2798 Transparency Phenomenon in Kuew Teow

Authors: Muhammad Heikal Ismail, Law Chung Lim, Hii Ching Lik


In maintaining food quality and shelf life, drying is employed in food industry as the most reliable perseverance technique. In this way, heat pump drying and hot air drying of fresh rice noodles was deduced to freeze drying in achieving quality attributes of oil content Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, texture, and colour. Soxthlet analysis shows freeze dried noodles contain more than 10 times oil content, distinct pores of SEM images, higher hardness by more than three times, and wider colour changes by average more than two times to both methods to explain the less transparency physical outlook of freeze dried samples.

Keywords: freeze drying, heat pump drying, noodles, Soxthlet

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2797 Feasibilities for Recovering of Precious Metals from Printed Circuit Board Waste

Authors: Simona Ziukaite, Remigijus Ivanauskas, Gintaras Denafas


Market development of electrical and electronic equipment and a short life cycle is driven by the increasing waste streams. Gold Au, copper Cu, silver Ag and palladium Pd can be found on printed circuit board. These metals make up the largest value of printed circuit board. Therefore, the printed circuit boards scrap is valuable as potential raw material for precious metals recovery. A comparison of Cu, Au, Ag, Pd recovery from waste printed circuit techniques was selected metals leaching of chemical reagents. The study was conducted using the selected multistage technique for Au, Cu, Ag, Pd recovery of printed circuit board. In the first and second metals leaching stages, as the elution reagent, 2M H2SO4 and H2O2 (35%) was used. In the third stage, leaching of precious metals used solution of 20 g/l of thiourea and 6 g/l of Fe2 (SO4)3. Verify the efficiency of the method was carried out the metals leaching test with aqua regia. Based on the experimental study, the leaching efficiency, using the preferred methodology, 60 % of Au and 85,5 % of Cu dissolution was achieved. Metals leaching efficiency after waste mechanical crushing and thermal treatment have been increased by 1,7 times (40 %) for copper, 1,6 times (37 %) for gold and 1,8 times (44 %) for silver. It was noticed that, the Au amount in old (> 20 years) waste is 17 times more, Cu amount - 4 times more, and Ag - 2 times more than in the new (< 1 years) waste. Palladium in the new printed circuit board waste has not been found, however, it was established that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Pd (leaching with aqua regia). It was found that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Ag. Precious metals recovery in Lithuania was estimated in this study. Given the amounts of generated printed circuit board waste, the limits for recovery of precious metals were identified.

Keywords: leaching efficiency, limits for recovery, precious metals recovery, printed circuit board waste

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2796 Dynamic Ambulance Deployment to Reduce Ambulance Response Times Using Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Masoud Swalehe, Semra Günay


Developed countries are losing many lives to non-communicable diseases as compared to their developing counterparts. The effects of these diseases are mostly sudden and manifest at a very short time prior to death or a dangerous attack and this has consolidated the significance of emergency medical system (EMS) as one of the vital areas of healthcare service delivery. The primary objective of this research is to reduce ambulance response times (RT) of Eskişehir province EMS since a number of studies have established a relationship between ambulance response times and survival chances of patients especially out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. It has been found out that patients who receive out of hospital medical attention in few (4) minutes after cardiac arrest because of low ambulance response times stand higher chances of survival than their counterparts who take longer times (more than 12 minutes) to receive out of hospital medical care because of higher ambulance response times. The study will make use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to dynamically reallocate ambulance resources according to demand and time so as to reduce ambulance response times. Geospatial-time distribution of ambulance calls (demand) will be used as a basis for optimal ambulance deployment using system status management (SSM) strategy to achieve much demand coverage with the same number of ambulance resources to cause response time reduction. Drive-time polygons will be used to come up with time specific facility coverage areas and suggesting additional facility candidate sites where ambulance resources can be moved to serve higher demands making use of network analysis techniques. Emergency Ambulance calls’ data from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 obtained from Eskişehir province health directorate will be used in this study. This study will focus on the reduction of ambulance response times which is a key Emergency Medical Services performance indicator.

Keywords: emergency medical services, system status management, ambulance response times, geographic information system, geospatial-time distribution, out of hospital cardiac arrest

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2795 Correlation between Fetal Umbilical Cord pH and the Day, the Time and the Team Hand over Times: An Analysis of 6929 Deliveries of the Ulm University Hospital

Authors: Sabine Pau, Sophia Volz, Emanuel Bauer, Amelie De Gregorio, Frank Reister, Wolfgang Janni, Florian Ebner


Purpose: The umbilical cord pH is a well evaluated contributor for prediction of neonatal outcome. This study correlates nenonatal umbilical cord pH with the weekday of delivery, the time of birth as well as the staff hand over times (midwifes and doctors). Material and Methods: This retrospective study included all deliveries of a 20 year period (1994-2014) at our primary obstetric center. All deliveries with a newborn cord pH under 7,20 were included in this analysis (6929 of 48974 deliveries (14,4%)). Further subgroups were formed according to the pH (< 7,05; 7,05 – 7,09; 7,10 – 7,14; 7,15 – 7,19). The data were then separated in day- and night time (8am-8pm/8pm-8am) for a first analysis. Finally, handover times were defined at 6 am – 6.30 am, 2 pm -2.30 pm, 10 pm- 10.30 pm (midwives) and for the doctors 8-8.30 am, 4 – 4.30 pm (Monday- Thursday); 2 pm -2.30 pm (Friday) and 9 am – 9.30 am (weekend). Routinely a shift consists of at least three doctors as well as three midwives. Results: During the last 20 years, 6929 neonates were born with an umbilical cord ph < 7,20 ( < 7,05 : 7,1%; 7,05 – 7,09 : 10,9%; 7,10 – 7,14 : 30,2%; 7,15 – 7,19:51,8%). There was no significant difference between either night/day delivery (p = 0.408), delivery on different weekdays (p = 0.253), delivery between Monday to Thursday, Friday and the weekend (p = 0.496 ) or delivery during the handover times of the doctors as well as the midwives (p = 0.221). Even the standard deviation showed no differences between the groups. Conclusion: Despite an increased workload over the last 20 years, the standard of care remains high even during the handover times and night shifts. This applies for midwives and doctors. As the neonatal outcome depends on various factors, further studies are necessary to take more factors influencing the fetal outcome into consideration. In order to maintain this high standard of care, an adaption of work-load and changing conditions is necessary.

Keywords: delivery, fetal umbilical cord pH, day time, hand over times

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2794 Scheduling Jobs with Stochastic Processing Times or Due Dates on a Server to Minimize the Number of Tardy Jobs

Authors: H. M. Soroush


The problem of scheduling products and services for on-time deliveries is of paramount importance in today’s competitive environments. It arises in many manufacturing and service organizations where it is desirable to complete jobs (products or services) with different weights (penalties) on or before their due dates. In such environments, schedules should frequently decide whether to schedule a job based on its processing time, due-date, and the penalty for tardy delivery to improve the system performance. For example, it is common to measure the weighted number of late jobs or the percentage of on-time shipments to evaluate the performance of a semiconductor production facility or an automobile assembly line. In this paper, we address the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a server where processing times or due-dates of jobs are random variables and fixed weights (penalties) are imposed on the jobs’ late deliveries. The goal is to find the schedule that minimizes the expected weighted number of tardy jobs. The problem is NP-hard to solve; however, we explore three scenarios of the problem wherein: (i) both processing times and due-dates are stochastic; (ii) processing times are stochastic and due-dates are deterministic; and (iii) processing times are deterministic and due-dates are stochastic. We prove that special cases of these scenarios are solvable optimally in polynomial time, and introduce efficient heuristic methods for the general cases. Our computational results show that the heuristics perform well in yielding either optimal or near optimal sequences. The results also demonstrate that the stochasticity of processing times or due-dates can affect scheduling decisions. Moreover, the proposed problem is general in the sense that its special cases reduce to some new and some classical stochastic single machine models.

Keywords: number of late jobs, scheduling, single server, stochastic

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