Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Prafulla Dutta

56 Feigenbaum Universality, Chaos and Fractal Dimensions in Discrete Dynamical Systems

Authors: T. K. Dutta, K. K. Das, N. Dutta

Abstract:

The salient feature of this paper is primarily concerned with Ricker’s population model: f(x)=x e^(r(1-x/k)), where r is the control parameter and k is the carrying capacity, and some fruitful results are obtained with the following objectives: 1) Determination of bifurcation values leading to a chaotic region, 2) Development of Statistical Methods and Analysis required for the measure of Fractal dimensions, 3) Calculation of various fractal dimensions. These results also help that the invariant probability distribution on the attractor, when it exists, provides detailed information about the long-term behavior of a dynamical system. At the end, some open problems are posed for further research.

Keywords: Feigenbaum universality, chaos, Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimensions

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55 Comparative Vector Susceptibility for Dengue Virus and Their Co-Infection in A. aegypti and A. albopictus

Authors: Monika Soni, Chandra Bhattacharya, Siraj Ahmed Ahmed, Prafulla Dutta

Abstract:

Dengue is now a globally important arboviral disease. Extensive vector surveillance has already established A.aegypti as a primary vector, but A.albopictus is now accelerating the situation through gradual adaptation to human surroundings. Global destabilization and gradual climatic shift with rising in temperature have significantly expanded the geographic range of these species These versatile vectors also host Chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever virus. Biggest challenge faced by endemic countries now is upsurge in co-infection reported with multiple serotypes and virus co-circulation. To foster vector control interventions and mitigate disease burden, there is surge for knowledge on vector susceptibility and viral tolerance in response to multiple infections. To address our understanding on transmission dynamics and reproductive fitness, both the vectors were exposed to single and dual combinations of all four dengue serotypes by artificial feeding and followed up to third generation. Artificial feeding observed significant difference in feeding rate for both the species where A.albopictus was poor artificial feeder (35-50%) compared to A.aegypti (95-97%) Robust sequential screening of viral antigen in mosquitoes was followed by Dengue NS1 ELISA, RT-PCR and Quantitative PCR. To observe viral dissemination in different mosquito tissues Indirect immunofluorescence assay was performed. Result showed that both the vectors were infected initially with all dengue(1-4)serotypes and its co-infection (D1 and D2, D1 and D3, D1 and D4, D2 and D4) combinations. In case of DENV-2 there was significant difference in the peak titer observed at 16th day post infection. But when exposed to dual infections A.aegypti supported all combinations of virus where A.albopictus only continued single infections in successive days. There was a significant negative effect on the fecundity and fertility of both the vectors compared to control (PANOVA < 0.001). In case of dengue 2 infected mosquito, fecundity in parent generation was significantly higher (PBonferroni < 0.001) for A.albopicus compare to A.aegypti but there was a complete loss of fecundity from second to third generation for A.albopictus. It was observed that A.aegypti becomes infected with multiple serotypes frequently even at low viral titres compared to A.albopictus. Possible reason for this could be the presence of wolbachia infection in A.albopictus or mosquito innate immune response, small RNA interference etc. Based on the observations it could be anticipated that transovarial transmission may not be an important phenomenon for clinical disease outcome, due to the absence of viral positivity by third generation. Also, Dengue NS1 ELISA can be used for preliminary viral detection in mosquitoes as more than 90% of the samples were found positive compared to RT-PCR and viral load estimation.

Keywords: co-infection, dengue, reproductive fitness, viral quantification

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54 Propellant Less Propulsion System Using Microwave Thrusters

Authors: D. Pradeep Mitra, Prafulla

Abstract:

Looking to the word propellant-less system it makes us to believe that it is an impossible one, but this paper demonstrates the use of microwaves to create a system which makes impossible to be possible, it means a propellant-less propulsion system using microwaves. In these thrusters, microwaves are radiated into a sealed parabolic cavity through a waveguide, which act on the surface of the cavity and follow the axis of the thrusters to produce thrust. The advantages of these thrusters are: (1) Producing thrust without propellant; without erosion, wear, and thermal stress from the hot exhaust gas; and at the same time increasing quality. (2) If the microwave output power is stable, the performance of thrusters is not affected by its working environment. This paper is demonstrated from general maxwell equations. These equations are used to create the mathematical model of the thrusters. These mathematical model helps us to calculate the Q factor and calculate the approximate thrust which would be generated in the system.

Keywords: propellant less, microwaves, parabolic wave guide, propulsion system

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53 DNA Barcoding for Identification of Dengue Vectors from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: North-Eastern States in India

Authors: Monika Soni, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Chandra Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are considered as two major vectors to transmit dengue virus. In North-east India, two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are known to be high endemic zone for dengue and Chikungunya viral infection. The taxonomical classification of medically important vectors are important for mapping of actual evolutionary trends and epidemiological studies. However, misidentification of mosquito species in field-collected mosquito specimens could have a negative impact which may affect vector-borne disease control policy. DNA barcoding is a prominent method to record available species, differentiate from new addition and change of population structure. In this study, a combined approach of a morphological and molecular technique of DNA barcoding was adopted to explore sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within dengue vectors. The study has revealed the map distribution of the dengue vector from two states i.e. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Approximate five hundred mosquito specimens were collected from different parts of two states, and their morphological features were compared with the taxonomic keys. The analysis of detailed taxonomic study revealed identification of two species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The species aegypti comprised of 66.6% of the specimen and represented as dominant dengue vector species. The sequences obtained through standard DNA barcoding protocol were compared with public databases, viz. GenBank and BOLD. The sequences of all Aedes albopictus have shown 100% similarity whereas sequence of Aedes aegypti has shown 99.77 - 100% similarity of COI gene with that of different geographically located same species based on BOLD database search. From dengue prevalent different geographical regions fifty-nine sequences were retrieved from NCBI and BOLD databases of the same and related taxa to determine the evolutionary distance model based on the phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA6.06 software with 1000 bootstrap replicates using Kimura-2-Parameter model. Data were analyzed for sequence divergence and found that intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 2.0% and interspecific divergence ranged from 11.0 to 12.0%. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. The sequences were deposited in NCBI: GenBank database. This observation claimed the first DNA barcoding analysis of Aedes mosquitoes from North-eastern states in India and also confirmed the range expansion of two important mosquito species. Overall, this study insight into the molecular ecology of the dengue vectors from North-eastern India which will enhance the understanding to improve the existing entomological surveillance and vector incrimination program.

Keywords: COI, dengue vectors, DNA barcoding, molecular identification, North-east India, phylogenetics

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52 Android Graphics System: Study of Dual-Software VSync Synchronization Architecture and Optimization

Authors: Prafulla Kumar Choubey, Krishna Kishor Jha, S. B. Vaisakh Punnekkattu Chirayil

Abstract:

In Graphics-display subsystem, frame buffers are shared between producer i.e. content rendering and consumer i.e. display. If a common buffer is operated by both producer and consumer simultaneously, their processing rates mismatch can cause tearing effect in displayed content. Therefore, Android OS employs triple buffered system, taking in to account an additional composition stage. Three stages-rendering, composition and display refresh, operate synchronously on three different buffers, which is achieved by using vsync pulses. This synchronization, however, brings in to the pipeline an additional latency of up to 26ms. The present study details about the existing synchronization mechanism of android graphics-display pipeline and discusses a new adaptive architecture which reduces the wait time to 5ms-16ms in all the use-cases. The proposed method uses two adaptive software vsyncs (PLL) for achieving the same result.

Keywords: Android graphics system, vertical synchronization, atrace, adaptive system

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51 Application of Interval Valued Picture Fuzzy Set in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Palash Dutta

Abstract:

More frequently uncertainties are encountered in medical diagnosis and therefore it is the most important and interesting area of applications of fuzzy set theory. In this present study, an attempt has been made to extend Sanchez’s approach for medical diagnosis via interval valued picture fuzzy sets and exhibit the technique with suitable case studies. In this article, it is observed that a refusal can be expressed in the databases concerning the examined objects. The technique is performing diagnosis on the basis of distance measures and as a result, this approach makes it possible to introduce weights of all symptoms and consequently patient can be diagnosed directly.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, uncertainty, fuzzy set, picture fuzzy set, interval valued picture fuzzy set

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50 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig

Abstract:

Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence, efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA

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49 Sociophonetic Conditioning of F0 Range Compression in Diasporic Nepali Communities

Authors: Neelam Chhetry, Indranil Dutta

Abstract:

The present study accounts for the fundamental frequency (f0) perturbations of stop types in Nepali spoken in the Maram region of Manipur, India. Two different experiments were performed on the speech of the native speakers of Nepali in order to investigate if the f0 perturbation following the stop types would be affected due to contact with tonal language, Maram. We found that the Nepali speakers maintained four way stop contrast: voiceless stop (VS), voiceless aspirated stop (VLAS), voiced stop (VS) and voiced aspirated stop (VAS) despite being in contact with Maramfor a very long time. We also found that the F0 range was greater for VAS leading to F0 compression for speakers with high level of proficiency (LOP) in Maram due to extensive language contact.

Keywords: F0, sociophonetic, F0 range, sociophonetic

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48 The Hindu Temple: Architecture, Culture and Spirituality

Authors: Tanisha Dutta, Vinayak S. Adane

Abstract:

A Hindu temple has always been the centre of worldly knowledge, art, culture, and spiritual knowledge. The temple centers and the temple structures alike, teach the observer about all kinds of worldly systems, codes of conduct, performing and other arts etc. During the medieval period, these were the only centers of knowledge. Therefore, these spaces had the burden and responsibility of covering all the various facets of life. It is understandable therefore, that a Hindu temple is easily the confluence of intricate architecture, cultural blossoming and spiritual knowledge transmittance. The architecture of a Hindu temple supports all these in a way that they co-exist and develop a symbiotic relationship, each enhancing the manifested form of the other. This symbiosis is presented through the temples of Khajuraho, India. This paper, therefore, elaborates the finer aspects of the mentioned areas in a Hindu temple context, through the case study of the Khajuraho group of temples.

Keywords: Hindu temples' concept, symbolism, temple architecture

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47 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating fiber delay lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput

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46 Studies on Plasma Spray Deposited La2O3 - YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) Composite Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Prashant Sharma, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

The present study concerns development of a composite thermal barrier coating consisting of a mixture of La2O3 and YSZ (with 8 wt.%, 32 wt.% and 50 wt.% 50% La2O3) by plasma spray deposition technique on a CoNiCrAlY based bond coat deposited on Inconel 718 substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF) technique. The addition of La2O3 in YSZ causes the formation of pyrochlore (La2Zr2O7) phase in the inter splats boundary along with the presence of LaYO3 phase. The coefficient of thermal expansion is significantly reduced from due to the evolution of different phases and structural defects in the sprayed coating. The activation energy for TGO growth under isothermal and cyclic oxidation was increased in the composite coating as compared to YSZ coating.

Keywords: plasma spraying, oxidation resistance, thermal barrier coating, microstructure, X-ray method

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45 Trapped in Hegemonic Binaries: Performing the Body

Authors: Bitopi Dutta

Abstract:

This paper attempts to understand the constructs of binaries while taking into account the politics of the body. It delves into how these constructs get fashioned and recreated while performing the same across normative and non-normative discourses. While it may be almost mundane and commonplace to see the performance of body within binary constructs across the normative discourses, this is to a great extent also true for those queer discourses that have challenged the conventional/normative. With a queer feminist perspective, the paper challenges this performativity while simultaneously engaging with the subtle nuances of blurring the borders of gender markers. The problem with this polarization within binary constructs is that there remains a tendency to reinstate patriarchy within queerness. To substantiate this argument further, the paper will draw from narratives and accounts of identities with alternate sexualities and genders. The paper concludes with problematising this hegemony within queer discourses locating the question of acceptance and visibility of fluidities.

Keywords: binary, body, gender, identity, performativity, queer

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44 Optimization of Process Parameters for Rotary Electro Discharge Machining Using EN31 Tool Steel: Present and Future Scope

Authors: Goutam Dubey, Varun Dutta

Abstract:

In the present study, rotary-electro discharge machining of EN31 tool steel has been carried out using a pure copper electrode. Various response variables such as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR), and Machining Rate (MR) have been studied against the selected process variables. The selected process variables were peak current (I), voltage (V), duty cycle, and electrode rotation (N). EN31 Tool Steel is hardened, high carbon steel which increases its hardness and reduces its machinability. Reduced machinability means it not economical to use conventional methods to machine EN31 Tool Steel. So, non-conventional methods play an important role in machining of such materials.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, EDM, tool steel, tool wear rate, optimization techniques

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43 Unveiling Bengali Women’s Appreciation of Modernizing Japan

Authors: Lopamudra Malek

Abstract:

It is known to all that Japan was closed till 1853 abruptly; Commodore Culbreath Matthew Perry has played a pivotal role in Japan’s exposure to modernization and facing the real world as an Asian entity. As Japan opened its door for the world, Indians, especially four women from Bengal, visited Japan. They were Hariprova Takeda, Sarojnalini Dutta, Santa Devi and Parul Devi. All of them were from different entities, but there were some bewildering similarities also in their depiction. How they penetrated their exposure to modernizing Japan is the motto of the research. It should be mentioned that two of them were directly influenced by Rabindranath Tagore. The methodology that has been followed while doing this research is depending on secondary source materials, like books, articles, etc. Japan was changing herself relentlessly towards modernization and westernization and these four women had witnessed the changing Japan and how the changing Japan has reflected in their write-ups and autobiography is the fundamental part of the research. As all of them were women, they had compared themselves with Japanese women. The finding of the research is, astonishingly, all of them found and comprehended Japan as a country where women were having more financial sovereignty and freedom of thought comparing to India in those days.

Keywords: empowerment, Japan, modernization, women

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42 On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans

Authors: Rita SahaRay, Ganesh Dutta

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In this article, experimental situations are considered where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks, for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs are presented.

Keywords: design matrix, Hadamard matrix, Kronecker product, type 1 criteria, type 2 criteria

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41 Sentence Structure for Free Word Order Languages in Context with Anaphora Resolution: A Case Study of Hindi

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Kamlesh Dutta

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Many languages have fixed sentence structure and others are free word order. The accuracy of anaphora resolution of syntax based algorithm depends on structure of the sentence. So, it is important to analyze the structure of any language before implementing these algorithms. In this study, we analyzed the sentence structure exploiting the case marker in Hindi as well as some special tag for subject and object. We also investigated the word order for Hindi. Word order typology refers to the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language. We analyzed 165 news items of Ranchi Express from EMILEE corpus of plain text. It consisted of 1745 sentences. Eight file of dialogue based from the same corpus has been analyzed which will have 1521 sentences. The percentages of subject object verb structure (SOV) and object subject verb (OSV) are 66.90 and 33.10, respectively.

Keywords: anaphora resolution, free word order languages, SOV, OSV

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40 An Analytical Study on the Politics of Defection in India

Authors: Diya Sarkar, Prafulla C. Mishra

Abstract:

In a parliamentary system, party discipline is the impulse; when it falls short, the government usually falls. Conceivably, the platform of Indian politics suffers with innumerous practical disorders. The politics of defection is one such specie entailing gross miscarriage of fair conduct turning politics into a game of thrones (powers). This practice of political nomaditude can trace its seed in the womb of British House of Commons. Therein, if a legislator was found to cross the floor, the party considered him disloyal. In other words, the legislator lost his allegiance to his former party by joining another party. This very phenomenon, in practice has a two way traffic i.e. ruling party to the opposition party or vice versa. The democracies like USA, Australia and Canada were also aware of this fashion of swapping loyalties. There have been several instances of great politicians changing party allegiance, for example Winston Churchill, Ramsay McDonald, William Gladstone etc. Nevertheless, it is interesting to cite that irrespective of such practice of changing party allegiance, none of the democracies in the west ever desired or felt the need to legislatively ban defections. But, exceptionally India can be traced to have passed anti-defection laws. The politics of defection had been a unique popular phenomenon on the floor of Indian Parliamentary system gradually gulping the democratic essence and synchronization of the Federation. This study is both analytical and doctrinal, which tries to examine whether representative democracy has lost its essence due to political nomadism. The present study also analyzes the classical as well as contemporary pulse of floor crossing amidst dynastic politics in a representative democracy. It will briefly discuss the panorama of defections under the Indian federal structure in the light of the anti-defection law and an attempt has been made to add valuable suggestions to streamline remedy for the still prevalent political defections.

Keywords: constitutional law, defection, democracy, polarization, political anti-trust

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39 Count Data Regression Modeling: An Application to Spontaneous Abortion in India

Authors: Prashant Verma, Prafulla K. Swain, K. K. Singh, Mukti Khetan

Abstract:

Objective: In India, around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion-related complications. In the modelling of count variables, there is sometimes a preponderance of zero counts. This article concerns the estimation of various count regression models to predict the average number of spontaneous abortion among women in the Punjab state of India. It also assesses the factors associated with the number of spontaneous abortions. Materials and methods: The study included 27,173 married women of Punjab obtained from the DLHS-4 survey (2012-13). Poisson regression (PR), Negative binomial (NB) regression, zero hurdle negative binomial (ZHNB), and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models were employed to predict the average number of spontaneous abortions and to identify the determinants affecting the number of spontaneous abortions. Results: Statistical comparisons among four estimation methods revealed that the ZINB model provides the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions. Antenatal care (ANC) place, place of residence, total children born to a woman, woman's education and economic status were found to be the most significant factors affecting the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Conclusions: The study offers a practical demonstration of techniques designed to handle count variables. Statistical comparisons among four estimation models revealed that the ZINB model provided the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions and is recommended to be used to predict the number of spontaneous abortions. The study suggests that women receive institutional Antenatal care to attain limited parity. It also advocates promoting higher education among women in Punjab, India.

Keywords: count data, spontaneous abortion, Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero hurdle negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial, regression

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38 Generalized Dirac oscillators Associated to Non-Hermitian Quantum Mechanical Systems

Authors: Debjit Dutta, P. Roy, O. Panella

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In recent years, non Hermitian interaction in non relativistic as well as relativistic quantum mechanics have been examined from various aspect. We can observe interesting fact that for such systems a class of potentials, namely the PT symmetric and η-pseudo Hermitian admit real eigenvalues despite being non Hermitian and analogues of those system have been experimentally verified. Point to be noted that relativistic non Hermitian (PT symmetric) interactions can be realized in optical structures and also there exists photonic realization of the (1 + 1) dimensional Dirac oscillator. We have thoroughly studied generalized Dirac oscillators with non Hermitian interactions in (1 + 1) dimensions. To be more specific, we have examined η pseudo Hermitian interactions within the framework of generalized Dirac oscillator in (1 + 1) dimensions. In particular, we have obtained a class of interactions which are η-pseudo Hermitian and the metric operator η could have been also found explicitly. It is possible to have exact solutions of the generalized Dirac oscillator for some choices of the interactions. Subsequently we have employed the mapping between the generalized Dirac oscillator and the Jaynes Cummings (JC) model by spin flip to obtain a class of exactly solvable non Hermitian JC as well as anti Jaynes Cummings (AJC) type models.

Keywords: Dirac oscillator, non-Hermitian quantum system, Hermitian, relativistic

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37 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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36 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: titanium, plasma spraying, microstructure, bio-activity, TiO2, hydroxyapatite

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35 Status of Popularity of Ayurveda Products in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Upasana Sharma, Jayanti Dutta, Amarjeet Singh

Abstract:

Background: Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system. It is widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide. Objectives: 1) To assess the extent and pattern of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products by the people of Chandigarh. 2) To assess the perceived impact of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products among the users. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in a city of North India. Overall 371 households were covered from rural, urban and slum areas from December 2010 to April 2011. Respondents were interviewed regarding practices about Ayurveda products. Results: Around 160 (43%; 95% CI= 38.15, 47.85) of the respondents were using Ayurvedic products in one form or the other. Out of them, 91 (57%) had used Ayurvedic medicines in combination with some other system of medicine rather than as a standalone therapy. Most of them (81%) preferred Ayurveda products for chronic digestive system related problems. Conclusion: The present study revealed that respondents had keen interest in Ayurveda. A section of population was taking Ayurvedic treatment for their health ailments. There was a great level of satisfaction among the users but high cost bothered them at times.

Keywords: ayurveda, alternative medicine, chronic diseases, complimentary medicine

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34 Theory of Constraints: Approach for Performance Enhancement and Boosting Overhaul Activities

Authors: Sunil Dutta

Abstract:

Synchronization is defined as ‘the sequencing and re-sequencing of all relative and absolute activities in time and space and continuous alignment of those actions with purposeful objective in a complex and dynamic atmosphere. In a complex and dynamic production / maintenance setup, no single group can work in isolation for long. In addition, many activities in projects take place simultaneously at the same time. Work of every section / group is interwoven with work of others. The various activities / interactions which take place in production / overhaul workshops are interlinked because of physical requirements (information, material, workforces, equipment, and space) and dependencies. The activity sequencing is determined by physical dependencies of various department / sections / units (e.g., inventory availability must be ensured before stripping and disassembling of equipment), whereas resource dependencies do not. Theory of constraint facilitates identification, analyses and exploitation of the constraint in methodical manner. These constraints (equipment, manpower, policies etc.) prevent the department / sections / units from getting optimum exploitation of available resources. The significance of theory of constraints for achieving synchronization at overhaul workshop is illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: synchronization, overhaul, throughput, obsolescence, uncertainty

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33 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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32 Multi-Spectral Deep Learning Models for Forest Fire Detection

Authors: Smitha Haridasan, Zelalem Demissie, Atri Dutta, Ajita Rattani

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Aided by the wind, all it takes is one ember and a few minutes to create a wildfire. Wildfires are growing in frequency and size due to climate change. Wildfires and its consequences are one of the major environmental concerns. Every year, millions of hectares of forests are destroyed over the world, causing mass destruction and human casualties. Thus early detection of wildfire becomes a critical component to mitigate this threat. Many computer vision-based techniques have been proposed for the early detection of forest fire using video surveillance. Several computer vision-based methods have been proposed to predict and detect forest fires at various spectrums, namely, RGB, HSV, and YCbCr. The aim of this paper is to propose a multi-spectral deep learning model that combines information from different spectrums at intermediate layers for accurate fire detection. A heterogeneous dataset assembled from publicly available datasets is used for model training and evaluation in this study. The experimental results show that multi-spectral deep learning models could obtain an improvement of about 4.68 % over those based on a single spectrum for fire detection.

Keywords: deep learning, forest fire detection, multi-spectral learning, natural hazard detection

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31 Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Deformation Behaviour of Single Crystal Copper

Authors: Suman Paik, P. V. Durgaprasad, Bijan K. Dutta

Abstract:

A study combining experimental and numerical investigation on the deformation behaviour of single crystals of copper is presented in this paper. Cylindrical samples were cut in specific orientations from high purity copper single crystal and subjected to uniaxial compression loading at quasi-static strain rate. The stress-strain curves along two different crystallographic orientations were then extracted. In order to study and compare the deformation responses, a single crystal plasticity model incorporating non-Schmid effects was developed assuming cross-slip plays an important role in orientation of the material. By making use of crystal plasticity finite element method, the model was applied to investigate the orientation dependence of the stress-strain behaviour of two crystallographic orientations. Finally, details of slip activities of deformed crystals were investigated by linking the orientation of slip lines with the theoretical traces of possible crystallographic planes. The experimentally determined active slip modes were matched with those determined by simulations.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, modelling, non-Schmid effects, finite elements, finite strain

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30 Plot Scale Estimation of Crop Biophysical Parameters from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

Authors: Shreedevi Moharana, Subashisa Dutta

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the estimation of crop biophysical parameters like crop chlorophyll, nitrogen and water stress at plot scale in the crop fields. To achieve these, we have used high-resolution satellite LISS IV imagery. A new methodology has proposed in this research work, the spectral shape function of paddy crop is employed to get the significant wavelengths sensitive to paddy crop parameters. From the shape functions, regression index models were established for the critical wavelength with minimum and maximum wavelengths of multi-spectrum high-resolution LISS IV data. Moreover, the functional relationships were utilized to develop the index models. From these index models crop, biophysical parameters were estimated and mapped from LISS IV imagery at plot scale in crop field level. The result showed that the nitrogen content of the paddy crop varied from 2-8%, chlorophyll from 1.5-9% and water content variation observed from 40-90% respectively. It was observed that the variability in rice agriculture system in India was purely a function of field topography.

Keywords: crop parameters, index model, LISS IV imagery, plot scale, shape function

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29 Quantification of Lustre in Textile Fibers by Image Analysis

Authors: Neelesh Bharti Shukla, Suvankar Dutta, Esha Sharma, Shrikant Ralebhat, Gurudatt Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

A key component of the physical attribute of textile fibers is lustre. It is a complex phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with fibers, yarn and fabrics. It is perceived as the contrast difference between the bright areas (specular reflection) and duller backgrounds (diffused reflection). Lustre of fibers is affected by their surface structure, morphology, cross-section profile as well as the presence of any additives/registrants. Due to complexities in measurements, objective measurements such as gloss meter do not give reproducible quantification of lustre. Other instruments such as SAMBA hair systems are expensive. In light of this, lustre quantification has largely remained subjective, judged visually by experts, but prone to errors. In this development, a physics-based approach was conceptualized and demonstrated. We have developed an image analysis based technique to quantify visually observed differences in lustre of fibers. Cellulosic fibers, produced with different approaches, with visually different levels of lustre were photographed under controlled optics. These images were subsequently analyzed using a configured software system. The ratio of Intensity of light from bright (specular reflection) and dull (diffused reflection) areas was used to numerically represent lustre. In the next step, the set of samples that were not visually distinguishable easily were also evaluated by the technique and it was established that quantification of lustre is feasible.

Keywords: lustre, fibre, image analysis, measurement

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28 An Attempt to Explore Occupational Stressors among West Bengal Police Officials

Authors: Malini Nandi Majumdar, Avijan Dutta

Abstract:

The West Police (WBP) is restructured under provisions of the Police Act 1861 during the period of British domination. It is one of the two police forces of the Indian state of west Bengal and is headed by an officer designated as Director General of Police (DG) who directly reports to the State Government. It covers a jurisdiction with eighteen revenue districts of the state and a District Superintendent of Police (SP) controls each district. The purpose of this empirical study is to explore the causes and factors of occupational stress in West Bengal Police officers so that the incumbents can perform their assigned tasks more diligently and the society could be free from evils and devils at a large. Using a self-developed close ended questionnaire that covers 20 critical job-related stressors, the study captures 310 respondents across the organizational hierarchy ranging from Sub Inspectors to the Superintendant of police and covers 5 districts and one commision rate under the jurisdiction of West Bengal Police. The present research has successfully indicated four major occupational stressors such as Organizational Stressors, Hierarchical Stressors, Situational Stressors and Environmental Stressors with 64% of the variance. Further we have employed CFA to determine the goodness of fit indices in terms of i) Absolute Fit Measures like CMIN, FMIN, RMSEA, ECVI ii) Incremental Fit Measures like TLI, NFI, AGFI, CFI(Byne, 2010) demonstrate that value of the measure has passed the requirement criteria and thus fit the model. The major stressors of West Bengal Police have been explored and the ways to deal with these inevitable stressors have been suggested.

Keywords: organizational stressors, hierarchical stressors, situational stressors, environmental stressors

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27 An Extensible Software Infrastructure for Computer Aided Custom Monitoring of Patients in Smart Homes

Authors: Ritwik Dutta, Marylin Wolf

Abstract:

This paper describes the trade-offs and the design from scratch of a self-contained, easy-to-use health dashboard software system that provides customizable data tracking for patients in smart homes. The system is made up of different software modules and comprises a front-end and a back-end component. Built with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, the front-end allows adding users, logging into the system, selecting metrics, and specifying health goals. The back-end consists of a NoSQL Mongo database, a Python script, and a SimpleHTTPServer written in Python. The database stores user profiles and health data in JSON format. The Python script makes use of the PyMongo driver library to query the database and displays formatted data as a daily snapshot of user health metrics against target goals. Any number of standard and custom metrics can be added to the system, and corresponding health data can be fed automatically, via sensor APIs or manually, as text or picture data files. A real-time METAR request API permits correlating weather data with patient health, and an advanced query system is implemented to allow trend analysis of selected health metrics over custom time intervals. Available on the GitHub repository system, the project is free to use for academic purposes of learning and experimenting, or practical purposes by building on it.

Keywords: flask, Java, JavaScript, health monitoring, long-term care, Mongo, Python, smart home, software engineering, webserver

Procedia PDF Downloads 312