Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Shovonlal Bhowmick

10 DNA Barcoding for Identification of Dengue Vectors from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: North-Eastern States in India

Authors: Monika Soni, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Chandra Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta


Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are considered as two major vectors to transmit dengue virus. In North-east India, two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are known to be high endemic zone for dengue and Chikungunya viral infection. The taxonomical classification of medically important vectors are important for mapping of actual evolutionary trends and epidemiological studies. However, misidentification of mosquito species in field-collected mosquito specimens could have a negative impact which may affect vector-borne disease control policy. DNA barcoding is a prominent method to record available species, differentiate from new addition and change of population structure. In this study, a combined approach of a morphological and molecular technique of DNA barcoding was adopted to explore sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within dengue vectors. The study has revealed the map distribution of the dengue vector from two states i.e. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Approximate five hundred mosquito specimens were collected from different parts of two states, and their morphological features were compared with the taxonomic keys. The analysis of detailed taxonomic study revealed identification of two species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The species aegypti comprised of 66.6% of the specimen and represented as dominant dengue vector species. The sequences obtained through standard DNA barcoding protocol were compared with public databases, viz. GenBank and BOLD. The sequences of all Aedes albopictus have shown 100% similarity whereas sequence of Aedes aegypti has shown 99.77 - 100% similarity of COI gene with that of different geographically located same species based on BOLD database search. From dengue prevalent different geographical regions fifty-nine sequences were retrieved from NCBI and BOLD databases of the same and related taxa to determine the evolutionary distance model based on the phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA6.06 software with 1000 bootstrap replicates using Kimura-2-Parameter model. Data were analyzed for sequence divergence and found that intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 2.0% and interspecific divergence ranged from 11.0 to 12.0%. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. The sequences were deposited in NCBI: GenBank database. This observation claimed the first DNA barcoding analysis of Aedes mosquitoes from North-eastern states in India and also confirmed the range expansion of two important mosquito species. Overall, this study insight into the molecular ecology of the dengue vectors from North-eastern India which will enhance the understanding to improve the existing entomological surveillance and vector incrimination program.

Keywords: COI, dengue vectors, DNA barcoding, molecular identification, North-east India, phylogenetics

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9 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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8 Solution of S3 Problem of Deformation Mechanics for a Definite Condition and Resulting Modifications of Important Failure Theories

Authors: Ranajay Bhowmick


Analysis of stresses for an infinitesimal tetrahedron leads to a situation where we obtain a cubic equation consisting of three stress invariants. This cubic equation, when solved for a definite condition, gives the principal stresses directly without requiring any cumbersome and time-consuming trial and error methods or iterative numerical procedures. Since the failure criterion of different materials are generally expressed as functions of principal stresses, an attempt has been made in this study to incorporate the solutions of the cubic equation in the form of principal stresses, obtained for a definite condition, into some of the established failure theories to determine their modified descriptions. It has been observed that the failure theories can be represented using the quadratic stress invariant and the orientation of the principal plane.

Keywords: cubic equation, stress invariant, trigonometric, explicit solution, principal stress, failure criterion

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7 Role of Support, Experience and Education in Livelihood Resilience

Authors: Madhuri, H. R. Tewari, P. K. Bhowmick


The study attempts to find out the role of the community and the government support, flood experience, flood education, and education of the male-headed households in their livelihood resilience. The study is based on a randomly drawn sample of 472 households from the river basins of Ganga and Kosi in the district of Bhagalpur, Bihar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods are used to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that the role(s) of the community support though is found to be more significant in comparison to the government supports for its stand by position in rescue and livelihood resilience of the affected households whereas the government support arrives late and in far less quantity than what is required. However, the government's support is equally vital due its control over resources, which essentially needed in rescue and rehabilitation of the affected households. The study unravels the strategic value of households' indigenous knowledge and their flood experience in livelihood resilience.

Keywords: flood education, flood experience, livelihood resilience, community support, government support

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6 Empirical Study on Grassroots Innovation for Entrepreneurship Development with Microfinance Provision as Moderator

Authors: Sonal H. Singh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The research hypothesis formulated in this paper examines the importance of microfinance provision for entrepreneurship development by engendering a high level of entrepreneurial orientation among the grassroots entrepreneurs. A theoretically well supported empirical framework is proposed to identify the influence of financial services and non-financial services provided by microfinance institutes in strengthening the impact of grassroots innovation on entrepreneurial orientation under resource constraints. In this paper, Grassroots innovation is perceived in three dimensions: new learning practice, localized solution, and network development. The study analyzes the moderating effect of microfinance provision on the relationship between grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial orientation. The paper employed structural equation modelling on 400 data entries from the grassroots entrepreneurs in India. The research intends to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and microfinance providers to promote the innovative design of microfinance services for the well-being of grassroots entrepreneurs and to foster sustainable entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, grassroots innovation, India, structural equation model

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5 Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability

Authors: Jayshree Patnaik, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The economic growth of any nation is steered and dependent on innovation in technology. It can be preferably argued that technology has enhanced the quality of life. Technology is linked both with an economic and a social structure. But there are some parts of the world or communities which are yet to reap the benefits of technological innovation. Business and organizations are now well equipped with cutting-edge innovations that improve the firm performance and provide them with a competitive edge, but rarely does it have a positive impact on any community which is weak and marginalized. In recent times, it is observed that communities are actively handling social or ecological issues with the help of indigenous technologies. Thus, "Appropriate Technology" comes into the discussion, which is quite prevalent in the rural third world. Appropriate technology grew as a movement in the mid-1970s during the energy crisis, but it lost its stance in the following years when people started it to describe it as an inferior technology or dead technology. Basically, there is no such technology which is inferior or sophisticated for a particular region. The relevance of appropriate technology lies in penetrating technology into a larger and weaker section of community where the “Bottom of the pyramid” can pay for technology if they find the price is affordable. This is a theoretical paper which primarily revolves around how appropriate technology has faded and again evolved in both developed and developing countries. The paper will try to focus on the various concepts, history and challenges faced by the appropriate technology over the years. Appropriate technology follows a documented approach but lags in overall design and diffusion. Diffusion of technology into the poorer sections of community remains unanswered until the present time. Appropriate technology is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, this openness allows having a varied working model for different problems. Appropriate technology is a friendly technology that seeks to improve the lives of people in a constraint environment by providing an affordable and sustainable solution. Appropriate technology needs to be defined in the era of modern technological advancement for sustainability.

Keywords: appropriate technology, community, developing country, sustainability

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4 A Comparative Study on the Thermophysical and Lubricity Characteristics of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Oil and Nanoclay/Oil Nanofluids

Authors: H. Singh, H. Bhowmick


Now-a-days, particle based lubricants have been widely used to enhance the lubrication performance. Use of tailor made micro/nanofluids can reduce the friction losses and dissipate heat in a better way. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has gained interests because of its structure that can endure much better in a system mechanically or thermally in comparison to any other additive in oil. On the other hand, nanoclays have been characterized mechanically and tribologically for the use of clay/polymer composite, and they have been gaining huge interest. Hence it is interesting to be investigated the effect of nanoclays as additive in oil. Thermophysical characteristics of lubricant play a predominant role in defining the friction and wear characteristics of lubricated contacts. However, very limited studies have been carried out to correlate the thermophysical properties of nanolubricants with their lubricity characteristics. Besides, most of the lubricant formulations till dates are found to be optimized for steel/steel contacts. In the present study, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoclay are used as particle additives in mineral oil to develop nanofluids of various concentrations. The prepared lubricants are tested for their rheological, thermal and lubricity characteristics under aluminium-steel contacts. From the thermophysical investigation, it is observed that nanoclay particles significantly improve the viscosity of lubricant with an insignificant improvement in thermal conductivity. On the other hand, MWCNT particles moderately increase the viscosity but significantly increase the thermal conductivity of the base oil. Frictional responses of the nanofluids are characterized using a Pin-on-Disc tribometer which reveal some interesting facts. The findings from this study will greatly aid in formulating the particle based lubricants for cutting fluid in metal forming industries as well as fully developed nanolubricants for aluminium and Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AMMC) tribocontact for the use in the automotive and their allied industries.

Keywords: MWCNT, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube, nanoclay, nanolubricant, rheology, thermal conductivity

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3 Thermal Analysis of Adsorption Refrigeration System Using Silicagel–Methanol Pair

Authors: Palash Soni, Vivek Kumar Gaba, Shubhankar Bhowmick, Bidyut Mazumdar


Refrigeration technology is a fast developing field at the present era since it has very wide application in both domestic and industrial areas. It started from the usage of simple ice coolers to store food stuffs to the present sophisticated cold storages along with other air conditioning system. A variety of techniques are used to bring down the temperature below the ambient. Adsorption refrigeration technology is a novel, advanced and promising technique developed in the past few decades. It gained attention due to its attractive property of exploiting unlimited natural sources like solar energy, geothermal energy or even waste heat recovery from plants or from the exhaust of locomotives to fulfill its energy need. This will reduce the exploitation of non-renewable resources and hence reduce pollution too. This work is aimed to develop a model for a solar adsorption refrigeration system and to simulate the same for different operating conditions. In this system, the mechanical compressor is replaced by a thermal compressor. The thermal compressor uses renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy which makes it useful for those areas where electricity is not available. Refrigerants normally in use like chlorofluorocarbon/perfluorocarbon have harmful effects like ozone depletion and greenhouse warming. It is another advantage of adsorption systems that it can replace these refrigerants with less harmful natural refrigerants like water, methanol, ammonia, etc. Thus the double benefit of reduction in energy consumption and pollution can be achieved. A thermodynamic model was developed for the proposed adsorber, and a universal MATLAB code was used to simulate the model. Simulations were carried out for a different operating condition for the silicagel-methanol working pair. Various graphs are plotted between regeneration temperature, adsorption capacities, the coefficient of performance, desorption rate, specific cooling power, adsorption/desorption times and mass. The results proved that adsorption system could be installed successfully for refrigeration purpose as it has saving in terms of power and reduction in carbon emission even though the efficiency is comparatively less as compared to conventional systems. The model was tested for its compliance in a cold storage refrigeration with a cooling load of 12 TR.

Keywords: adsorption, refrigeration, renewable energy, silicagel-methanol

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2 CD97 and Its Role in Glioblastoma Stem Cell Self-Renewal

Authors: Niklas Ravn-Boess, Nainita Bhowmick, Takamitsu Hattori, Shohei Koide, Christopher Park, Dimitris Placantonakis


Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy in adults. Tumor propagation, brain invasion, and resistance to therapy critically depend on GBM stem-like cells (GSCs); however, the mechanisms that regulate GSC self-renewal are incompletely understood. Given the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of GBM, it is imperative to find biomarkers that could also translate into novel drug targets. Along these lines, we have identified a cell surface antigen, CD97 (ADGRE5), an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), that is expressed on GBM cells but is absent from non-neoplastic brain tissue. CD97 has been shown to promote invasiveness, angiogenesis, and migration in several human cancers, but its frequency of expression and functional role in regulating GBM growth and survival, and its potential as a therapeutic target has not been investigated. Design: We assessed CD97 mRNA and protein expression in patient derived GBM samples and cell lines using publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets and flow cytometry, respectively. To assess CD97 function, we generated shRNA lentiviral constructs that target a sequence in the CD97 extracellular domain (ECD). A scrambled shRNA (scr) with no predicted targets in the genome was used as a control. We evaluated CD97 shRNA lentivirally transduced GBM cells for Ki67, Annexin V, and DAPI. We also tested CD97 KD cells for their ability to self-renew using clonogenic tumorsphere formation assays. Further, we utilized synthetic Abs (sAbs) generated against the ECD of CD97 to test for potential antitumor effects using patient-derived GBM cell lines. Results: CD97 mRNA expression was expressed at high levels in all GBM samples available in the TCGA cohort. We found high levels of surface CD97 protein expression in 6/6 patient-derived GBM cell cultures, but not human neural stem cells. Flow cytometry confirmed downregulation of CD97 in CD97 shRNA lentivirally transduced cells. CD97 KD induced a significant reduction in cell growth in 3 independent GBM cell lines representing mesenchymal and proneural subtypes, which was accompanied by reduced (~20%) Ki67 staining and increased (~30%) apoptosis. Incubation of GBM cells with sAbs (20 ug/ ml) against the ECD of CD97 for 3 days induced GSC differentiation, as determined by the expression of GFAP and Tubulin. Using three unique GBM patient derived cultures, we found that CD97 KD attenuated the ability of GBM cells to initiate sphere formation by over 300 fold, consistent with an impairment in GSC self-renewal. Conclusion: Loss of CD97 expression in patient-derived GBM cells markedly decreases proliferation, induces cell death, and reduces tumorsphere formation. sAbs against the ECD of CD97 reduce tumorsphere formation, recapitulating the phenotype of CD97 KD, suggesting that sAbs that inhibit CD97 function exhibit anti-tumor activity. Collectively, these findings indicate that CD97 is necessary for the proliferation and survival of human GBM cells and identify CD97 as a promising therapeutically targetable vulnerability in GBM.

Keywords: adhesion GPCR, CD97, GBM stem cell, glioblastoma

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1 Farm-Women in Technology Transfer to Foster the Capacity Building of Agriculture: A Forecast from a Draught-Prone Rural Setting in India

Authors: Pradipta Chandra, Titas Bhattacharjee, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The foundation of economy in India is primarily based on agriculture while this is the most neglected in the rural setting. More significantly, household women take part in agriculture with higher involvement. However, because of lower education of women they have limited access towards financial decisions, land ownership and technology but they have vital role towards the individual family level. There are limited studies on the institution-wise training barriers with the focus of gender disparity. The main purpose of this paper is to find out the factors of institution-wise training (non-formal education) barriers in technology transfer with the focus of participation of rural women in agriculture. For this study primary and secondary data were collected in the line of qualitative and quantitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by several field visits in the adjacent areas of Seva-Bharati, Seva Bharati Krishi Vigyan Kendra through semi-structured questionnaires. In the next level detailed field surveys were conducted with close-ended questionnaires scored on the seven-point Likert scale. Sample size was considered as 162. During the data collection the focus was to include women although some biasness from the end of respondents and interviewer might exist due to dissimilarity in observation, views etc. In addition to that the heterogeneity of sample is not very high although female participation is more than fifty percent. Data were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique with the outcome of three significant factors of training barriers in technology adoption by farmers: (a) Failure of technology transfer training (TTT) comprehension interprets that the technology takers, i.e., farmers can’t understand the technology either language barrier or way of demonstration exhibited by the experts/ trainers. (b) Failure of TTT customization, articulates that the training for individual farmer, gender crop or season-wise is not tailored. (c) Failure of TTT generalization conveys that absence of common training methods for individual trainers for specific crops is more prominent at the community level. The central finding is that the technology transfer training method can’t fulfill the need of the farmers under an economically challenged area. The impact of such study is very high in the area of dry lateritic and resource crunch area of Jangalmahal under Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal and areas with similar socio-economy. Towards the policy level decision this research may help in framing digital agriculture for implementation of the appropriate information technology for the farming community, effective and timely investment by the government with the selection of beneficiary, formation of farmers club/ farm science club etc. The most important research implication of this study lies upon the contribution towards the knowledge diffusion mechanism of the agricultural sector in India. Farmers may overcome the barriers to achieve higher productivity through adoption of modern farm practices. Corporates will be interested in agro-sector through investment under corporate social responsibility (CSR). The research will help in framing public or industry policy and land use pattern. Consequently, a huge mass of rural farm-women will be empowered and farmer community will be benefitted.

Keywords: dry lateritic zone, institutional barriers, technology transfer in India, farm-women participation

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