Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1657

Search results for: fractal dimensions

1657 Feigenbaum Universality, Chaos and Fractal Dimensions in Discrete Dynamical Systems

Authors: T. K. Dutta, K. K. Das, N. Dutta

Abstract:

The salient feature of this paper is primarily concerned with Ricker’s population model: f(x)=x e^(r(1-x/k)), where r is the control parameter and k is the carrying capacity, and some fruitful results are obtained with the following objectives: 1) Determination of bifurcation values leading to a chaotic region, 2) Development of Statistical Methods and Analysis required for the measure of Fractal dimensions, 3) Calculation of various fractal dimensions. These results also help that the invariant probability distribution on the attractor, when it exists, provides detailed information about the long-term behavior of a dynamical system. At the end, some open problems are posed for further research.

Keywords: Feigenbaum universality, chaos, Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimensions

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1656 Fractal Behaviour of Earthquake Sequences in Himalaya

Authors: Kamal, Adil Ahmad

Abstract:

Earthquakes are among the most versatile natural and dynamic processes, and hence a fractal model is considered to be the best representative of the same. We present a novel method to process and analyse information hidden in earthquake sequences using Fractal Dimensions and Iterative Function Systems (IFS). Spatial and temporal variations in the fractal dimensions of seismicity observed around the Indian peninsula in last 30 years are studied. This was used as a possible precursor before large earthquakes in the region. IFS images for observed seismicity in the Himalayan belt were also obtained. We scan the whole data set and coarse grain of a selected window to reduce it to four bins. A critical analysis of four-cornered chaos-game clearly shows that the spatial variation in earthquake occurrences in Himalayan range is not random. Two subzones of Himalaya have a tendency to follow each other in time.

Keywords: earthquakes, fractals, Himalaya, iterated function systems

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1655 Fractal Analysis of Some Bifurcations of Discrete Dynamical Systems in Higher Dimensions

Authors: Lana Horvat Dmitrović

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to study the box dimension as fractal property of bifurcations of discrete dynamical systems in higher dimensions. The paper contains the fractal analysis of the orbits near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points in discrete dynamical systems. It is already known that in one-dimensional case the orbit near the hyperbolic fixed point has the box dimension equal to zero. On the other hand, the orbit near the non-hyperbolic fixed point has strictly positive box dimension which is connected to the non-degeneracy condition of certain bifurcation. One of the main results in this paper is the generalisation of results about box dimension near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points to higher dimensions. In the process of determining box dimension, the restriction of systems to stable, unstable and center manifolds, Lipschitz property of box dimension and the notion of projective box dimension are used. The analysis of the bifurcations in higher dimensions with one multiplier on the unit circle is done by using the normal forms on one-dimensional center manifolds. This specific change in box dimension of an orbit at the moment of bifurcation has already been explored for some bifurcations in one and two dimensions. It was shown that specific values of box dimension are connected to appropriate bifurcations such as fold, flip, cusp or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. This paper further explores this connection of box dimension as fractal property to some specific bifurcations in higher dimensions, such as fold-flip and flip-Neimark-Sacker. Furthermore, the application of the results to the unit time map of continuous dynamical system near hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic singularities is presented. In that way, box dimensions which are specific for certain bifurcations of continuous systems can be obtained. The approach to bifurcation analysis by using the box dimension as specific fractal property of orbits can lead to better understanding of bifurcation phenomenon. It could also be useful in detecting the existence or nonexistence of bifurcations of discrete and continuous dynamical systems.

Keywords: bifurcation, box dimension, invariant manifold, orbit near fixed point

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1654 FRATSAN: A New Software for Fractal Analysis of Signals

Authors: Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

Fractal analysis is assessing fractal characteristics of data. It consists of several methods to assign fractal characteristics to a dataset which may be a theoretical dataset or a pattern or signal extracted from phenomena including natural geometric objects, sound, market fluctuations, heart rates, digital images, molecular motion, networks, etc. Fractal analysis is now widely used in all areas of science. An important limitation of fractal analysis is that arriving at an empirically determined fractal dimension does not necessarily prove that a pattern is fractal; rather, other essential characteristics have to be considered. For this purpose a Visual C++ based software called FRATSAN (FRActal Time Series ANalyser) was developed which extract information from signals through three measures. These measures are Fractal Dimensions, Jeffrey’s Measure and Hurst Exponent. After computing these measures, the software plots the graphs for each measure. Besides computing three measures the software can classify whether the signal is fractal or no. In fact, the software uses a dynamic method of analysis for all the measures. A sliding window is selected with a value equal to 10% of the total number of data entries. This sliding window is moved one data entry at a time to obtain all the measures. This makes the computation very sensitive to slight changes in data, thereby giving the user an acute analysis of the data. In order to test the performance of this software a set of EEG signals was given as input and the results were computed and plotted. This software is useful not only for fundamental fractal analysis of signals but can be used for other purposes. For instance by analyzing the Hurst exponent plot of a given EEG signal in patients with epilepsy the onset of seizure can be predicted by noticing the sudden changes in the plot.

Keywords: EEG signals, fractal analysis, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

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1653 Single Feed Circularly Polarized Poly Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: V. V. Reddy, N. V. Sarma

Abstract:

A circularly polarized fractal boundary microstrip antenna is presented. The sides of a square patch along x-axis, y-axis are replaced with Minkowski and Koch curves correspondingly. By using the fractal curves as edges, asymmetry in the structure is created to excite two orthogonal modes for circular polarization (CP) operation. The indentation factors of the fractal curves are optimized for pure CP. The simulated results of the novel poly fractal antenna are demonstrated.

Keywords: fractal, circular polarization, Minkowski, Koch

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1652 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor

Abstract:

Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

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1651 Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha, R. Sridhar

Abstract:

Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.

Keywords: breast cancer, fractal dimension, image analysis, lacunarity, mammogram

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1650 Design of a Novel CPW Fed Fractal Antenna for UWB

Authors: A. El Hamdouni, J. Zbitou, A. Tajmouati, L. El Abdellaoui, A. Errkik, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel fractal antenna structure proposed for UWB (Ultra – Wideband) applications. The frequency band 3.1-10.6 GHz released by FCC (Federal Communication Commission) as the commercial operation of UWB has been chosen as frequency range for this antenna based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and circular shapes fulfilled according to fractal geometry. The proposed antenna is validated and designed by using an FR4 substrate with overall area of 34 x 43 mm2. The simulated results performed by CST-Microwave Studio and compared by ADS (Advanced Design System) show good matching input impedance with return loss less than -10 dB between 2.9 GHz and 11 GHz.

Keywords: Fractal antenna, Fractal Geometry, CPW Feed, UWB, FCC

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1649 Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment

Authors: Khaled Harrar, Rachid Jennane

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an age-matched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.

Keywords: osteoporosis, fractal dimension, fractal signature, bone mineral density

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1648 Use of Fractal Geometry in Machine Learning

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

The main component of a machine learning system is the classifier. Classifiers are mathematical models that can perform classification tasks for a specific application area. Additionally, many classifiers are combined using any of the available methods to reduce the classifier error rate. The benefits gained from the combination of multiple classifier designs has motivated the development of diverse approaches to multiple classifiers. We aim to investigate using fractal geometry to develop an improved classifier combiner. Initially we experiment with measuring the fractal dimension of data and use the results in the development of a combiner strategy.

Keywords: fractal geometry, machine learning, classifier, fractal dimension

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1647 GPU Accelerated Fractal Image Compression for Medical Imaging in Parallel Computing Platform

Authors: Md. Enamul Haque, Abdullah Al Kaisan, Mahmudur R. Saniat, Aminur Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we have implemented both sequential and parallel version of fractal image compression algorithms using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) programming model for parallelizing the program in Graphics Processing Unit for medical images, as they are highly similar within the image itself. There is several improvements in the implementation of the algorithm as well. Fractal image compression is based on the self similarity of an image, meaning an image having similarity in majority of the regions. We take this opportunity to implement the compression algorithm and monitor the effect of it using both parallel and sequential implementation. Fractal compression has the property of high compression rate and the dimensionless scheme. Compression scheme for fractal image is of two kinds, one is encoding and another is decoding. Encoding is very much computational expensive. On the other hand decoding is less computational. The application of fractal compression to medical images would allow obtaining much higher compression ratios. While the fractal magnification an inseparable feature of the fractal compression would be very useful in presenting the reconstructed image in a highly readable form. However, like all irreversible methods, the fractal compression is connected with the problem of information loss, which is especially troublesome in the medical imaging. A very time consuming encoding process, which can last even several hours, is another bothersome drawback of the fractal compression.

Keywords: accelerated GPU, CUDA, parallel computing, fractal image compression

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1646 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux

Abstract:

Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: simulation, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, fractal dimension, extraction, recovering

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1645 Design of a Novel Fractal Multiband Planar Antenna with a CPW-Feed

Authors: T. Benyetho, L. El Abdellaoui, J. Terhzaz, H. Bennis, N. Ababssi, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This work presents a new planar multiband antenna based on fractal geometry. This structure is optimized and validated into simulation by using CST-MW Studio. To feed this antenna we have used a CPW line which makes it easy to be incorporated with integrated circuits. The simulation results presents a good matching input impedance and radiation pattern in the GSM band at 900 MHz and ISM band at 2.4 GHz. The final structure is a dual band fractal antenna with 70 x 70 mm² as a total area by using an FR4 substrate.

Keywords: Antenna, CPW, fractal, GSM, multiband

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1644 New Hybrid Method to Model Extreme Rainfalls

Authors: Youness Laaroussi, Zine Elabidine Guennoun, Amine Amar

Abstract:

Modeling and forecasting dynamics of rainfall occurrences constitute one of the major topics, which have been largely treated by statisticians, hydrologists, climatologists and many other groups of scientists. In the same issue, we propose in the present paper a new hybrid method, which combines Extreme Values and fractal theories. We illustrate the use of our methodology for transformed Emberger Index series, constructed basing on data recorded in Oujda (Morocco). The index is treated at first by Peaks Over Threshold (POT) approach, to identify excess observations over an optimal threshold u. In the second step, we consider the resulting excess as a fractal object included in one dimensional space of time. We identify fractal dimension by the box counting. We discuss the prospect descriptions of rainfall data sets under Generalized Pareto Distribution, assured by Extreme Values Theory (EVT). We show that, despite of the appropriateness of return periods given by POT approach, the introduction of fractal dimension provides accurate interpretation results, which can ameliorate apprehension of rainfall occurrences.

Keywords: extreme values theory, fractals dimensions, peaks Over threshold, rainfall occurrences

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1643 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

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1642 Fractal Nature of Granular Mixtures of Different Concretes Formulated with Different Methods of Formulation

Authors: Fatima Achouri, Kaddour Chouicha, Abdelwahab Khatir

Abstract:

It is clear that concrete of quality must be made with selected materials chosen in optimum proportions that remain after implementation, a minimum of voids in the material produced. The different methods of formulations what we use, are based for the most part on a granular curve which describes an ‘optimal granularity’. Many authors have engaged in fundamental research on granular arrangements. A comparison of mathematical models reproducing these granular arrangements with experimental measurements of compactness have to verify that the minimum porosity P according to the following extent granular exactly a power law. So the best compactness in the finite medium are obtained with power laws, such as Furnas, Fuller or Talbot, each preferring a particular setting between 0.20 and 0.50. These considerations converge on the assumption that the optimal granularity Caquot approximates by a power law. By analogy, it can then be analyzed as a granular structure of fractal-type since the properties that characterize the internal similarity fractal objects are reflected also by a power law. Optimized mixtures may be described as a series of installments falling granular stuff to better the tank on a regular hierarchical distribution which would give at different scales, by cascading effects, the same structure to the mix. Likely this model may be appropriate for the entire extent of the size distribution of the components, since the cement particles (and silica fume) correctly deflocculated, micrometric dimensions, to chippings sometimes several tens of millimeters. As part of this research, the aim is to give an illustration of the application of fractal analysis to characterize the granular concrete mixtures optimized for a so-called fractal dimension where different concretes were studying that we proved a fractal structure of their granular mixtures regardless of the method of formulation or the type of concrete.

Keywords: concrete formulation, fractal character, granular packing, method of formulation

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1641 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

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1640 Fractal Analysis of Polyacrylamide-Graphene Oxide Composite Gels

Authors: Gülşen Akın Evingür, Önder Pekcan

Abstract:

The fractal analysis is a bridge between the microstructure and macroscopic properties of gels. Fractal structure is usually provided to define the complexity of crosslinked molecules. The complexity in gel systems is described by the fractal dimension (Df). In this study, polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were prepared by free radical crosslinking copolymerization. The fractal analysis of polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were analyzed in various GO contents during gelation and were investigated by using Fluorescence Technique. The analysis was applied to estimate Df s of the composite gels. Fractal dimension of the polymer composite gels were estimated based on the power law exponent values using scaling models. In addition, here we aimed to present the geometrical distribution of GO during gelation. And we observed that as gelation proceeded GO plates first organized themselves into 3D percolation cluster with Df=2.52, then goes to diffusion limited clusters with Df =1.4 and then lines up to Von Koch curve with random interval with Df=1.14. Here, our goal is to try to interpret the low conductivity and/or broad forbidden gap of GO doped PAAm gels, by the distribution of GO in the final form of the produced gel.

Keywords: composite gels, fluorescence, fractal, scaling

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1639 Function of Fractals: Application of Non-Linear Geometry in Continental Architecture

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar

Abstract:

Since the introduction of fractal geometry in 1970, numerous efforts have been made by architects and researchers to transfer this area of mathematical knowledge in the discipline of architecture and postmodernist discourse. The discourse of complexity and architecture is one of the most significant ongoing discourses in the discipline of architecture from the '70s until today and has generated significant styles such as deconstructivism and parametrism in architecture. During these years, several projects were designed and presented by designers and architects using fractal geometry, but due to the lack of sufficient knowledge and appropriate comprehension of the features and characteristics of this nonlinear geometry, none of the fractal-based designs have been successful and satisfying. Fractal geometry as a geometric technology has a long presence in the history of architecture. The current research attempts to identify and discover the characteristics, features, potentials, and functionality of fractals despite their aesthetic aspect by examining case studies of pre-modern architecture in Asia and investigating the function of fractals.

Keywords: Asian architecture, fractal geometry, fractal technique, geometric properties

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1638 Using of the Fractal Dimensions for the Analysis of Hyperkinetic Movements in the Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Sadegh Marzban, Mohamad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi, Farnaz Ghassemi, Farzad Towhidkhah

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by the tremor at rest, rigidity, akinesia or bradykinesia and postural instability, affects the quality of life of involved individuals. The concept of a fractal is most often associated with irregular geometric objects that display self-similarity. Fractal dimension (FD) can be used to quantify the complexity and the self-similarity of an object such as tremor. In this work, we are aimed to propose a new method for evaluating hyperkinetic movements such as tremor, by using the FD and other correlated parameters in patients who are suffered from PD. In this study, we used 'the tremor data of Physionet'. The database consists of fourteen participants, diagnosed with PD including six patients with high amplitude tremor and eight patients with low amplitude. We tried to extract features from data, which can distinguish between patients before and after medication. We have selected fractal dimensions, including correlation dimension, box dimension, and information dimension. Lilliefors test has been used for normality test. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were also done to find differences between patients before and after medication, depending on whether the normality is detected or not. In addition, two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the possible association between the therapeutic effects and features extracted from the tremor. Just one of the extracted features showed significant differences between patients before and after medication. According to the results, correlation dimension was significantly different before and after the patient's medication (p=0.009). Also, two-way ANOVA demonstrates significant differences just in medication effect (p=0.033), and no significant differences were found between subject's differences (p=0.34) and interaction (p=0.97). The most striking result emerged from the data is that correlation dimension could quantify medication treatment based on tremor. This study has provided a technique to evaluate a non-linear measure for quantifying medication, nominally the correlation dimension. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that fractal dimension analysis yields additional information compared with conventional spectral measures in the detection of poor prognosis patients.

Keywords: correlation dimension, non-linear measure, Parkinson’s disease, tremor

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1637 Geomorphology Evidence of Climate Change in Gavkhouni Lagoon, South East Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Manijeh Ghahroudi Tali, Ladan Khedri Gharibvand

Abstract:

Gavkhouni lagoon, in the South East of Isfahan (Iran), is one of the pluvial lakes and legacy of Quaternary era which has emerged during periods with more precipitation and less evaporation. Climate change, lack of water resources and dried freshwater of Zayandehrood resulted in increased entropy and activated a dynamic which in turn is converted to Playa. The morphometry of 61 polygonal clay microforms in wet zone soil, 52 polygonal clay microforms in pediplain zone soil and 63 microforms in sulfate soil, is evaluated by fractal model. After calculating the microforms’ area–perimeter fractal dimension, their turbulence level was analyzed. Fractal dimensions (DAP) obtained from the microforms’ analysis of pediplain zone, wet zone, and sulfate soils are 1/21-1/39, 1/27-1/44 and 1/29-1/41, respectively, which is indicative of turbulence in these zones. Logarithmic graph drawn for each region also shows that there is a linear relationship between logarithm of the microforms’ area and perimeter so that correlation coefficient (R2) obtained for wet zone is larger than 0.96, for pediplain zone is larger than 0.99 and for sulfated zone is 0.9. Increased turbulence in this region suggests morphological transformation of the system and lagoon’s conversion to a new ecosystem which can be accompanied with serious risks.

Keywords: fractal, Gavkhouni, microform, Iran

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1636 Design and Evaluation on Sierpinski-Triangle Acoustic Diffusers Based on Fractal Theory

Authors: Lingge Tan, Hongpeng Xu, Jieun Yang, Maarten Hornikx

Abstract:

Acoustic diffusers are important components in enhancing the quality of room acoustics. This paper provides a type of modular diffuser based on the Sierpinski Triangle of the plane and combines it with fractal theory to expand the effective frequency range. In numerical calculations and full-scale model experiments, the effect of fractal design elements on normal-incidence diffusion coefficients is examined. It is demonstrated the reasonable times of iteration of modules is three, and the coverage density is 58.4% in the design frequency from 125Hz to 4kHz.

Keywords: acoustic diffuser, fractal, Sierpinski-triangle, diffusion coefficient

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1635 Integrating System-Level Infrastructure Resilience and Sustainability Based on Fractal: Perspectives and Review

Authors: Qiyao Han, Xianhai Meng

Abstract:

Urban infrastructures refer to the fundamental facilities and systems that serve cities. Due to the global climate change and human activities in recent years, many urban areas around the world are facing enormous challenges from natural and man-made disasters, like flood, earthquake and terrorist attack. For this reason, urban resilience to disasters has attracted increasing attention from researchers and practitioners. Given the complexity of infrastructure systems and the uncertainty of disasters, this paper suggests that studies of resilience could focus on urban functional sustainability (in social, economic and environmental dimensions) supported by infrastructure systems under disturbance. It is supposed that urban infrastructure systems with high resilience should be able to reconfigure themselves without significant declines in critical functions (services), such as primary productivity, hydrological cycles, social relations and economic prosperity. Despite that some methods have been developed to integrate the resilience and sustainability of individual infrastructure components, more work is needed to enable system-level integration. This research presents a conceptual analysis framework for integrating resilience and sustainability based on fractal theory. It is believed that the ability of an ecological system to maintain structure and function in face of disturbance and to reorganize following disturbance-driven change is largely dependent on its self-similar and hierarchical fractal structure, in which cross-scale resilience is produced by the replication of ecosystem processes dominating at different levels. Urban infrastructure systems are analogous to ecological systems because they are interconnected, complex and adaptive, are comprised of interconnected components, and exhibit characteristic scaling properties. Therefore, analyzing resilience of ecological system provides a better understanding about the dynamics and interactions of infrastructure systems. This paper discusses fractal characteristics of ecosystem resilience, reviews literature related to system-level infrastructure resilience, identifies resilience criteria associated with sustainability dimensions, and develops a conceptual analysis framework. Exploration of the relevance of identified criteria to fractal characteristics reveals that there is a great potential to analyze infrastructure systems based on fractal. In the conceptual analysis framework, it is proposed that in order to be resilient, urban infrastructure system needs to be capable of “maintaining” and “reorganizing” multi-scale critical functions under disasters. Finally, the paper identifies areas where further research efforts are needed.

Keywords: fractal, urban infrastructure, sustainability, system-level resilience

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1634 Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna

Authors: I. Zahraoui, J. Terhzaz, A. Errkik, El. H. Abdelmounim, A. Tajmouati, L. Abdellaoui, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and matching input impedance.

Keywords: dual-band antenna, fractal antenna, GPS band, modified ground structure, sierpinski triangle, WiMAX band

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1633 Using Fractal Architectures for Enhancing the Thermal-Fluid Transport

Authors: Surupa Shaw, Debjyoti Banerjee

Abstract:

Enhancing heat transfer in compact volumes is a challenge when constrained by cost issues, especially those associated with requirements for minimizing pumping power consumption. This is particularly acute for electronic chip cooling applications. Technological advancements in microelectronics have led to development of chip architectures that involve increased power consumption. As a consequence packaging, technologies are saddled with needs for higher rates of power dissipation in smaller form factors. The increasing circuit density, higher heat flux values for dissipation and the significant decrease in the size of the electronic devices are posing thermal management challenges that need to be addressed with a better design of the cooling system. Maximizing surface area for heat exchanging surfaces (e.g., extended surfaces or “fins”) can enable dissipation of higher levels of heat flux. Fractal structures have been shown to maximize surface area in compact volumes. Self-replicating structures at multiple length scales are called “Fractals” (i.e., objects with fractional dimensions; unlike regular geometric objects, such as spheres or cubes whose volumes and surface area values scale as integer values of the length scale dimensions). Fractal structures are expected to provide an appropriate technology solution to meet these challenges for enhanced heat transfer in the microelectronic devices by maximizing surface area available for heat exchanging fluids within compact volumes. In this study, the effect of different fractal micro-channel architectures and flow structures on the enhancement of transport phenomena in heat exchangers is explored by parametric variation of fractal dimension. This study proposes a model that would enable cost-effective solutions for thermal-fluid transport for energy applications. The objective of this study is to ascertain the sensitivity of various parameters (such as heat flux and pressure gradient as well as pumping power) to variation in fractal dimension. The role of the fractal parameters will be instrumental in establishing the most effective design for the optimum cooling of microelectronic devices. This can help establish the requirement of minimal pumping power for enhancement of heat transfer during cooling. Results obtained in this study show that the proposed models for fractal architectures of microchannels significantly enhanced heat transfer due to augmentation of surface area in the branching networks of varying length-scales.

Keywords: fractals, microelectronics, constructal theory, heat transfer enhancement, pumping power enhancement

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1632 Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier

Authors: I. Slim, H. Akkari, A. Ben Abdallah, I. Bhouri, M. Hedi Bedoui

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.

Keywords: fractal, micro-architecture analysis, multifractal, osteoporosis, SVM

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1631 Isolated Iterating Fractal Independently Corresponds with Light and Foundational Quantum Problems

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald

Abstract:

After nearly one hundred years of its origin, foundational quantum mechanics remains one of the greatest unexplained mysteries in physicists today. Within this time, chaos theory and its geometry, the fractal, has developed. In this paper, the propagation behaviour with an iteration of a simple fractal, the Koch Snowflake, was described and analysed. From an arbitrary observation point within the fractal set, the fractal propagates forward by oscillation—the focus of this study and retrospectively behind by exponential growth from a point beginning. It propagates a potentially infinite exponential oscillating sinusoidal wave of discrete triangle bits sharing many characteristics of light and quantum entities. The model's wave speed is potentially constant, offering insights into the perception and a direction of time where, to an observer, when travelling at the frontier of propagation, time may slow to a stop. In isolation, the fractal is a superposition of component bits where position and scale present a problem of location. In reality, this problem is experienced within fractal landscapes or fields where 'position' is only 'known' by the addition of information or markers. The quantum' measurement problem', 'uncertainty principle,' 'entanglement,' and the classical-quantum interface are addressed; these are a problem of scale invariance associated with isolated fractality. Dual forward and retrospective perspectives of the fractal model offer the opportunity for unification between quantum mechanics and cosmological mathematics, observations, and conjectures. Quantum and cosmological problems may be different aspects of the one fractal geometry.

Keywords: measurement problem, observer, entanglement, unification

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1630 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore

Abstract:

In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

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1629 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software

Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany

Abstract:

Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.

Keywords: Matlab software, fractal dimension, cancer, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new method

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1628 Fractal-Wavelet Based Techniques for Improving the Artificial Neural Network Models

Authors: Reza Bazargan lari, Mohammad H. Fattahi

Abstract:

Natural resources management including water resources requires reliable estimations of time variant environmental parameters. Small improvements in the estimation of environmental parameters would result in grate effects on managing decisions. Noise reduction using wavelet techniques is an effective approach for pre-processing of practical data sets. Predictability enhancement of the river flow time series are assessed using fractal approaches before and after applying wavelet based pre-processing. Time series correlation and persistency, the minimum sufficient length for training the predicting model and the maximum valid length of predictions were also investigated through a fractal assessment.

Keywords: wavelet, de-noising, predictability, time series fractal analysis, valid length, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 295