Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: M. R. Akbari

58 Investigate and Solving Analytically at Vibrational structures (In Arched Beam to Bridges) by New Method “AGM”

Authors: M. R. Akbari, P. Soleimani, R. Khalili, Sara Akbari


Analyzing and modeling the vibrational behavior of arched bridges during the earthquake in order to decrease the exerted damages to the structure is a very hard task to do. This item has been done analytically in the present paper for the first time. Due to the importance of building arched bridges as a great structure in the human being civilization and its specifications such as transferring vertical loads to its arcs and the lack of bending moments and shearing forces, this case study is devoted to this special issue. Here, the nonlinear vibration of arched bridges has been modeled and simulated by an arched beam with harmonic vertical loads and its behavior has been investigated by analyzing a nonlinear partial differential equation governing the system. It is notable that the procedure has been done analytically by AGM (Akbari, Ganji Method). Furthermore, comparisons have been made between the obtained results by numerical Method (rkf-45) and AGM in order to assess the scientific validity.

Keywords: new method (AGM), arched beam bridges, angular frequency, harmonic loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
57 Comprehensive Investigation of Solving Analytical of Nonlinear Differential Equations at Chemical Reactions to Design of Reactors by New Method “AGM”

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza khalili, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji


In this symposium, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving of the complicate non-linear differential at the reaction chemical in the catalyst reactor (heterogeneous reaction). Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at chemical engineering and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach which entitled ‘’Akbari-Ganji's Method’’ or ‘’AGM’’. In this paper we solve many examples of nonlinear differential equations of chemical reactions and its investigate. The chemical reactor with the energy changing (non-isotherm) in two reactors of mixed and plug are separately studied and the nonlinear differential equations obtained from the reaction behavior in these systems are solved by a new method. Practically, the reactions with the energy changing (heat or cold) have an important effect on designing and function of the reactors. This means that possibility of reaching the optimal conditions of operation for the maximum conversion depending on nonlinear nature of the reaction velocity toward temperature, results in the complexity of the operation in the reactor. In this case, the differential equation set which governs the reactors can be obtained simultaneous solution of mass equilibrium and energy and temperature changing at concentration.

Keywords: new method (AGM), nonlinear differential equation, tubular and mixed reactors, catalyst bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
56 Scrutiny and Solving Analytically Nonlinear Differential at Engineering Field of Fluids, Heat, Mass and Wave by New Method AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


As all experts know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially heat, fluid and mass, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex and sometimes impossible like (fluids and gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure a innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and so compare to other methods such as HPM, ADM,… and exact solutions. Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations(ODE and PDE). In this paper, we investigate and solve 4 types of the nonlinear differential equation with AGM method : 1-Heat and fluid, 2-Unsteady state of nonlinear partial differential, 3-Coupled nonlinear partial differential in wave equation, and 4-Nonlinear integro-differential equation.

Keywords: new method AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear equations at engineering field, waves equations, integro-differential, fluid and thermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
55 Study and Solving High Complex Non-Linear Differential Equations Applied in the Engineering Field by Analytical New Approach AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


In this paper, three complicated nonlinear differential equations(PDE,ODE) in the field of engineering and non-vibration have been analyzed and solved completely by new method that we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method (AGM) . As regards the previous published papers, investigating this kind of equations is a very hard task to do and the obtained solution is not accurate and reliable. This issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical Method. Based on the comparisons which have been made between the gained solutions by AGM and Numerical Method (Runge-Kutta 4th), it is possible to indicate that AGM can be successfully applied for various differential equations particularly for difficult ones. Furthermore, It is necessary to mention that a summary of the excellence of this method in comparison with the other approaches can be considered as follows: It is noteworthy that these results have been indicated that this approach is very effective and easy therefore it can be applied for other kinds of nonlinear equations, And also the reasons of selecting the mentioned method for solving differential equations in a wide variety of fields not only in vibrations but also in different fields of sciences such as fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, chemical engineering, etc. Therefore, a solution with high precision will be acquired. With regard to the afore-mentioned explanations, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison with the other methods. And also one of the important position that is explored in this paper is: Trigonometric and exponential terms in the differential equation (the method AGM) , is no need to use Taylor series Expansion to enhance the precision of the result.

Keywords: new method (AGM), complex non-linear partial differential equations, damping ratio, energy lost per cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
54 A Study of Flow near the Leading Edge of a Flat Plate by New Idea in Analytical Methods

Authors: M. R. Akbari, S. Akbari, L. Abdollahpour


The present paper is concerned with calculating the 2-dimensional velocity profile of a viscous flow for an incompressible fluid along the leading edge of a flat plate by using the continuity and motion equations with a simple and innovative approach. A Comparison between Numerical method and AGM has been made and the results have been revealed that AGM is very accurate and easy and can be applied for a wide variety of nonlinear problems. It is notable that most of the differential equations can be solved in this approach which in the other approaches they do not have this capability. Moreover, there are some valuable benefits in this method of solving differential equations, for instance: Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve many differential equation(s), that is, differential equations are directly solvable by this method. In addition, it is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned expressions which will be proved in this literature, the process of solving nonlinear differential equation(s) will be very simple and convenient in contrast to the other approaches.

Keywords: leading edge, new idea, flat plate, incompressible fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
53 Investigate and Solving Analytic of Nonlinear Differential at Vibrations (Earthquake)and Beam-Column, by New Approach “AGM”

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza Khalili, Sara Akbari


In this study, we investigate building structures nonlinear behavior also solving analytic of nonlinear differential at vibrations. As we know most of engineering systems behavior in practical are non- linear process (especial at structural) and analytical solving (no numerical) these problems are complex, difficult and sometimes impossible (of course at form of analytical solving). In this symposium, we are going to exposure one method in engineering, that can solve sets of nonlinear differential equations with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will emerge after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical Method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and exact solutions. Finally, we can proof AGM method could be created huge evolution for researcher and student (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software, we can analytical solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations.

Keywords: new method AGM, vibrations, beam-column, angular frequency, energy dissipated, critical load

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
52 Evaluation of Dynamic and Vibrational Analysis of the Double Chambered Cylinder along Thermal Interactions

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Leila Abdollahpour, Sara Akbari, Pooya Soleimani


Transferring thermo at the field of solid materials for instance tube-shaped structures, causing dynamical vibration at them. Majority of thermal and fluid processes are done engineering science at solid materials, for example, thermo-transferred pipes, fluids, chemical and nuclear reactors, include thermal processes, so, they need to consider the moment solid-fundamental structural strength unto these thermal interactions. Fluid and thermo retentive materials in front of external force to it like thermodynamical force, hydrodynamical force and static force continuously according to a function of time vibrated, and this action causes relative displacement of the structural materials elements, as a result, the moment resistance analysis preservation materials in thermal processes, the most important parameters for design are discussed. Including structural substrate holder temperature and fluid of the administrative and industrial center, is a cylindrical tube that for vibration analysis of cylindrical cells with heat and fluid transfer requires the use of vibration differential equations governing the structure of a tubular and thermal differential equations as the vibrating motive force at double-glazed cylinders.

Keywords: heat transfer, elements in cylindrical coordinates, analytical solving the governing equations, structural vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
51 Diagnosis of Induction Machine Faults by DWT

Authors: Hamidreza Akbari


In this paper, for detection of inclined eccentricity in an induction motor, time–frequency analysis of the stator startup current is carried out. For this purpose, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Data are obtained from simulations, using winding function approach. The results show the validity of the approach for detecting the fault and discriminating with respect to other faults.

Keywords: induction machine, fault, DWT, electric

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
50 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari


Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: ethylene dichloride, purification, edc, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
49 Series Solutions to Boundary Value Differential Equations

Authors: Armin Ardekani, Mohammad Akbari


We present a method of generating series solutions to large classes of nonlinear differential equations. The method is well suited to be adapted in mathematical software and unlike the available commercial solvers, we are capable of generating solutions to boundary value ODEs and PDEs. Many of the generated solutions converge to closed form solutions. Our method can also be applied to systems of ODEs or PDEs, providing all the solutions efficiently. As examples, we present results to many difficult differential equations in engineering fields.

Keywords: computational mathematics, differential equations, engineering, series

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
48 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir


A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
47 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov


In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
46 Improvement a Lower Bound of Energy for Some Family of Graphs, Related to Determinant of Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Saieed Akbari, Yousef Bagheri, Amir Hossein Ghodrati, Sima Saadat Akhtar


Let G be a simple graph with the vertex set V (G) and with the adjacency matrix A (G). The energy E (G) of G is defined to be the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of A (G). Also let n and m be number of edges and vertices of the graph respectively. A regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbours. Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a common endpoint in G. In this paper we show that for every regular graphs and also for every line graphs such that (G) 3 we have, E(G) 2nm + n 1. Also at the other part of the paper we prove that 2 (G) E(G) for an arbitrary graph G.

Keywords: eigenvalues, energy, line graphs, matching number

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
45 Investigation a New Approach "AGM" to Solve of Complicate Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations at All Engineering Field and Basic Science

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza Khalili, Davood Domiri Danji


In this conference, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving of the complicated non-linear partial differential. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at basic science and engineering field and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach. As we know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially basic science and engineering field, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex, and sometimes impossible like (Fluids and Gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure an innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will emerge after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear partial differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving all nonlinear differential equations. Advantages and ability of this method (AGM) as follow: (a) Non-linear Differential equations (ODE, PDE) are directly solvable by this method. (b) In this method (AGM), most of the time, without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s) by any boundary or initial condition number. (c) AGM method always is convergent in boundary or initial condition. (d) Parameters of exponential, Trigonometric and Logarithmic of the existent in the non-linear differential equation with AGM method no needs Taylor expand which are caused high solve precision. (e) AGM method is very flexible in the coding system, and can solve easily varieties of the non-linear differential equation at high acceptable accuracy. (f) One of the important advantages of this method is analytical solving with high accuracy such as partial differential equation in vibration in solids, waves in water and gas, with minimum initial and boundary condition capable to solve problem. (g) It is very important to present a general and simple approach for solving most problems of the differential equations with high non-linearity in engineering sciences especially at civil engineering, and compare output with numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th) and Exact solutions.

Keywords: new approach, AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear differential equation, exact solutions, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
44 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh


In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
43 An Agent-Service Oriented Framework for Online Contracts in Virtual Organizations

Authors: Zahra Raeisi, Reza Akbari


Contracting is known as one of the important tasks in virtual organization creation. Contracting is a costly process in terms of time and effort. One way to cut the time and effort is conducting contract electronically. The online contracting enable us to form virtual organization (VO) dynamically. This work presents an agent-service oriented framework for online contracting in virtual organizations. The proposed framework considers the main aspects and steps of traditional contracting process and uses the efficiency of service and agent based methodologies in order to provide a flexible and efficient way to establish contracts electronically in a VO.

Keywords: service oriented architecture, online contracts, agent-oriented architecture, virtual organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
42 Design and Optimization of Soil Nailing Construction

Authors: Fereshteh Akbari, Farrokh Jalali Mosalam, Ali Hedayatifar, Amirreza Aminjavaheri


The soil nailing is an effective method to stabilize slopes and retaining structures. Consequently, the lateral and vertical displacement of retaining walls are important criteria to evaluate the safety risks of adjacent structures. This paper is devoted to the optimization problems of retaining walls based on ABAQOUS Software. The various parameters such as nail length, orientation, arrangement, horizontal spacing, and bond skin friction, on lateral and vertical displacement of retaining walls are investigated. In order to ensure accuracy, the mobilized shear stress acting around the perimeter of the nail-soil interface is also modeled in ABAQOUS software. The observed trend of results is compared to the previous researches.

Keywords: retaining walls, soil nailing, ABAQOUS software, lateral displacement, vertical displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
41 An Approach to Analyze Testing of Nano On-Chip Networks

Authors: Farnaz Fotovvatikhah, Javad Akbari


Test time of a test architecture is an important factor which depends on the architecture's delay and test patterns. Here a new architecture to store the test results based on network on chip is presented. In addition, simple analytical model is proposed to calculate link test time for built in self-tester (BIST) and external tester (Ext) in multiprocessor systems. The results extracted from the model are verified using FPGA implementation and experimental measurements. Systems consisting 16, 25, and 36 processors are implemented and simulated and test time is calculated. In addition, BIST and Ext are compared in terms of test time at different conditions such as at different number of test patterns and nodes. Using the model the maximum frequency of testing could be calculated and the test structure could be optimized for high speed testing.

Keywords: test, nano on-chip network, JTAG, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
40 Using Cooperation Approaches at Different Levels of Artificial Bee Colony Method

Authors: Vahid Zeighami, Mohsen Ghsemi, Reza Akbari


In this work, a Multi-Level Artificial Bee Colony (called MLABC) is presented. In MLABC two species are used. The first species employs n colonies in which each of the them optimizes the complete solution vector. The cooperation between these colonies is carried out by exchanging information through a leader colony, which contains a set of elite bees. The second species uses a cooperative approach in which the complete solution vector is divided to k sub-vectors, and each of these sub-vectors is optimized by a a colony. The cooperation between these colonies is carried out by compiling sub-vectors into the complete solution vector. Finally, the cooperation between two species is obtained by exchanging information between them. The proposed algorithm is tested on a set of well known test functions. The results show that MLABC algorithms provide efficiency and robustness to solve numerical functions.

Keywords: artificial bee colony, cooperative, multilevel cooperation, vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
39 An Empirical Approach to NO2 Gas Sensing Properties of Carbon Films Fabricated by Arc Discharge Methane Decomposition Technique

Authors: Elnaz Akbari, Zolkafle Buntat


Today, the use of carbon-based materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, etc. in various applications is being extensively studied by researchers in the field. One of such applications is using them in gas sensors. While analytical investigations on the physical and chemical properties of carbon nanomaterials are the focal points in the studies, the need for experimental measurements on various physical characteristics of these materials is deeply felt. In this work, a set of experiments has been conducted using arc discharge Methane decomposition attempting to obtain carbonaceous materials (C-strands) formed between graphite electrodes. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated C-strands have been investigated in the presence and absence of two different gases, NO2 and CO2. The results reveal that the current passing through the carbon films increases when the concentrations of gases are increased from 200 to 800 ppm. This phenomenon is a result of conductance changes and can be employed in sensing applications such as gas sensors.

Keywords: carbonaceous materials, gas sensing, methane arc discharge decomposition, I-V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
38 Presenting a Job Scheduling Algorithm Based on Learning Automata in Computational Grid

Authors: Roshanak Khodabakhsh Jolfaei, Javad Akbari Torkestani


As a cooperative environment for problem-solving, it is necessary that grids develop efficient job scheduling patterns with regard to their goals, domains and structure. Since the Grid environments facilitate distributed calculations, job scheduling appears in the form of a critical problem for the management of Grid sources that influences severely on the efficiency for the whole Grid environment. Due to the existence of some specifications such as sources dynamicity and conditions of the network in Grid, some algorithm should be presented to be adjustable and scalable with increasing the network growth. For this purpose, in this paper a job scheduling algorithm has been presented on the basis of learning automata in computational Grid which the performance of its results were compared with FPSO algorithm (Fuzzy Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm) and GJS algorithm (Grid Job Scheduling algorithm). The obtained numerical results indicated the superiority of suggested algorithm in comparison with FPSO and GJS. In addition, the obtained results classified FPSO and GJS in the second and third position respectively after the mentioned algorithm.

Keywords: computational grid, job scheduling, learning automata, dynamic scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
37 The Influence of Brazing Method on Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Aluminum Joints

Authors: F. Ghasim-akbari, A. M. Hadian, A. M. Aminazad


Fluid transmission pipes made of aluminum are widely use in petrochemical industries. For many applications they have to be brazed to each other. The brazed joints, in many cases, are encountered with corrosive medias. This paper reports a part of a work to investigate the corrosion behavior of brazed Al6061 using Al4047 as filler metal with and without the use of flux to discover the effect of different brazing atmospheres. The samples brazed under air, vacuum, argon, and hydrogen atmospheres. The interfacial area of the joints was examined to ensure being free of any defects. The sides of each test piece were covered with insulator and the surface of the joint was encountered to polarization test. The results revealed a significant difference of corrosion resistance. The samples that brazed under argon and hydrogen atmospheres had better corrosion resistance than other samples. Microstructure of the corroded joints revealed that the amount of the filler metal is a critical parameter on corrosion resistance of the joints.

Keywords: brazing, corrosion behavior, Al6061, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
36 Combining Work and Study: A Solution for Stronger University-Industry Linkage

Authors: Payam Najafi, Behnam Ebrahimi, Hamid Montazerolghaem, Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Rasoul Tarkesh Esfahani


The combination of work and study has been recently gained lots of attention due to the crucial demand of industries to skillfully trained youth. Nevertheless, the distance between university and industry makes this combination challenging. According to the OECD (2012), in most countries, there is a limited link between students’ field of study and their area of work while studying. On the other hand, high unemployment rates among the specialized workforce, which is common in developing countries, highlights the need to strengthen this relationship. Innovative Center of Isfahan Chamber of Commerce has defined a project called 'POUYESH', which helps students to find related work opportunities to their field of study as well as supporting industries to supply their needed workforce. The present research is sought to explore the effect of the running project as a model of combining work and study on the university-industry linkage.

Keywords: work and study, university-industry linkage, POUYESH project, field of study

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
35 Protein and Mineral Removal from Dairy Waste-Water Using Precipitation Process

Authors: Zahra Akbari, Farzin Zokaee, Talat Ghomashchi


Whey is a by-product of the dairy industry whose major components are lactose (44–52 g/L), proteins (6–8 g/L) and mineral salts (4–9 g/L). Approximately 50% of 121 million tons of whey produced in the world in 1993 were disposed into rivers, lakes or other water bodies, treated in wastewater treatment plants or loaded onto land. This represents a significant loss of resources and causes serious pollution problems since whey is a heavy organic pollutant with high COD and BOD values, 40–60 g/L and 50–80 g/L, respectively. The removal of cheese whey proteins and minerals represent an important task both in environmental and in food sciences. The most important treatments which are considered in this study, have been done by using lime, Al2O3, FeCl3 and AlCl3 along with heating and also acidic-alkaline method. Results show that the best way for removal of protein is accomplished with adding HCl to decrease pH from 6 to 4, boiling for 20 min, and filtering protein aggregates. Also partial demineralization in whey solution for reducing ash is accomplished by adding NaOH to increase pH to 7.2 and heating solution for 20 min.

Keywords: whey treatment, dairy industry, precipitation, protein, mineral

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
34 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater

Authors: Talat Ghomashchi, Zahra Akbari, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee


Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.

Keywords: dissolved air flotation, oil industry, waste water, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
33 Oil Reservoir Asphalting Precipitation Estimating during CO2 Injection

Authors: I. Alhajri, G. Zahedi, R. Alazmi, A. Akbari


In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to predict Asphaltene Precipitation (AP) during the injection of carbon dioxide into crude oil reservoirs. In this study, the experimental data from six different oil fields were collected. Seventy percent of the data was used to develop the ANN model, and different ANN architectures were examined. A network with the Trainlm training algorithm was found to be the best network to estimate the AP. To check the validity of the proposed model, the model was used to predict the AP for the thirty percent of the data that was unevaluated. The Mean Square Error (MSE) of the prediction was 0.0018, which confirms the excellent prediction capability of the proposed model. In the second part of this study, the ANN model predictions were compared with modified Hirschberg model predictions. The ANN was found to provide more accurate estimates compared to the modified Hirschberg model. Finally, the proposed model was employed to examine the effect of different operating parameters during gas injection on the AP. It was found that the AP is mostly sensitive to the reservoir temperature. Furthermore, the carbon dioxide concentration in liquid phase increases the AP.

Keywords: artificial neural network, asphaltene, CO2 injection, Hirschberg model, oil reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
32 Comparing Abused and Normal Male Students in Tehran Guidance Schools: Emphasizing the Co-Dependency of Their Mothers

Authors: Mohamad Saleh Sangin Ostadi, Esmail Safari, Somayeh Akbari, Kaveh Qaderi Bagajan


The aim of this study is to compare abused and normal male students in Tehran guidance schools with emphasis on the co-dependency of their mothers. The method of this study is based on survey method and comparison (Ex-Post Facto). The method of sampling is also multi-stage cluster. Accordingly, we did sampling from secondary schools of education and training in Tehran, including 12 schools with levels of first, second and third. Each of the schools represents the three – high, medium and low- economic and social conditions. In the following, three classes from every school and 20 students from each class were randomly selected. By (CTQ) abused and normal students were separated that 670 children were recognized as normal and 50 children as abused. Then, 50 children were randomly selected from normal group and compared with abused group. Using Spanned-Fischer Co-dependency Scale, we compared mothers of abused and normal students. The results showed that mothers of the abused children have higher co- dependency average comparing to the mothers of the normal children.

Keywords: co-dependency, child abuse, abused children, parental psychological health

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
31 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri, M. Najafi


In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
30 Derivation of Runoff Susceptibility Map Using Slope-Adjusted SCS-CN in a Tropical River Basin

Authors: Abolghasem Akbari


The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and land use information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and much more. Despite all benefits and advantages of this well documented and easy-to-use method, it does not take into account the effect of terrain slope and drainage area. This study aimed to first investigate the effect of slope on CN and then slope-adjusted runoff potential map is generated for Kuantan River Basin, Malaysia. The Hanng method was used to adjust CN values provided in National Handbook of Engineering and The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 is used to derive slope map with the spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The study significantly enhanced the application of GIS tools and recent advances in earth observation technology to analyze the hydrological process.

Keywords: Kuantan, ASTER-GDEM, SCS-CN, runoff

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29 Fiber-Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali


This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensor, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue

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