Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Yasuyuki Takahashi

43 Reproducibility of Dopamine Transporter Density Measured with I-123-N-ω-Fluoropropyl-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-Iodophenyl)Nortropane SPECT in Phantom Studies and Parkinson’s Disease Patients

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Genta Hoshi, Kyoko Saito


Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of I-123-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4- iodophenyl) nortropane (I-123 FP-CIT) SPECT by using specific binding ratio (SBR) in phantom studies and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients. Methods: We made striatum phantom originally and confirmed reproducibility. The phantom studies changed head position and accumulation of FP-CIT, each. And image processing confirms influence on SBR by 30 cases. 30 PD received a SPECT for 3 hours post injection of I-123 FP-CIT 167MBq. Results: SBR decreased in rotatory direction by the patient position by the phantom studies. And, SBR improved the influence after the attenuation and the scatter correction in the cases (y=0.99x+0.57 r2=0.83). However, Stage II recognized dispersion in SBR by low accumulation. Conclusion: Than the phantom studies that assumed the normal cases, the SPECT image after the attenuation and scatter correction had better reproducibility.

Keywords: 123I-FP-CIT, specific binding ratio, Parkinson’s disease

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42 Increasing the Apparent Time Resolution of Tc-99m Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Dynamic SPECT by Use of an 180-Degree Interpolation Method

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Maya Yamashita, Kyoko Saito


In general, dynamic SPECT data acquisition needs a few minutes for one rotation. Thus, the time-activity curve (TAC) derived from the dynamic SPECT is relatively coarse. In order to effectively shorten the interval, between data points, we adopted a 180-degree interpolation method. This method is already used for reconstruction of the X-ray CT data. In this study, we applied this 180-degree interpolation method to SPECT and investigated its effectiveness.To briefly describe the 180-degree interpolation method: the 180-degree data in the second half of one rotation are combined with the 180-degree data in the first half of the next rotation to generate a 360-degree data set appropriate for the time halfway between the first and second rotations. In both a phantom and a patient study, the data points from the interpolated images fell in good agreement with the data points tracking the accumulation of 99mTc activity over time for appropriate region of interest. We conclude that data derived from interpolated images improves the apparent time resolution of dynamic SPECT.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, time resolution, 180-degree interpolation method, 99mTc-GSA.

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41 Study of a Few Additional Posterior Projection Data to 180° Acquisition for Myocardial SPECT

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Shimada, Takao Kanzaki


A Dual-detector SPECT system is widely by use of myocardial SPECT studies. With 180-degree (180°) acquisition, reconstructed images are distorted in the posterior wall of myocardium due to the lack of sufficient data of posterior projection. We hypothesized that quality of myocardial SPECT images can be improved by the addition of data acquisition of only a few posterior projections to ordinary 180° acquisition. The proposed acquisition method (180° plus acquisition methods) uses the dual-detector SPECT system with a pair of detector arranged in 90° perpendicular. Sampling angle was 5°, and the acquisition range was 180° from 45° right anterior oblique to 45° left posterior oblique. After the acquisition of 180°, the detector moved to additional acquisition position of reverse side once for 2 projections, twice for 4 projections, or 3 times for 6 projections. Since these acquisition methods cannot be done in the present system, actual data acquisition was done by 360° with a sampling angle of 5°, and projection data corresponding to above acquisition position were extracted for reconstruction. We underwent the phantom studies and a clinical study. SPECT images were compared by profile curve analysis and also quantitatively by contrast ratio. The distortion was improved by 180° plus method. Profile curve analysis showed increased of cardiac cavity. Analysis with contrast ratio revealed that SPECT images of the phantoms and the clinical study were improved from 180° acquisition by the present methods. The difference in the contrast was not clearly recognized between 180° plus 2 projections, 180° plus 4 projections, and 180° plus 6 projections. 180° plus 2 projections method may be feasible for myocardial SPECT because distortion of the image and the contrast were improved.

Keywords: 180° plus acquisition method, a few posterior projections, dual-detector SPECT system, myocardial SPECT

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40 Quality Control of 99mTc-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals Using the Chromatography Strips

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Akemi Yoshida, Hirotaka Shimada


99mTc-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) and 99mTcmercaptoacetylgylcylglycyl-glycine (MAG3 ) are heat to 368-372K and are labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Quality control (QC) of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals is performed at hospitals, using liquid chromatography, which is difficult to perform in general hospitals. We used chromatography strips to simplify QC and investigated the effects of the test procedures on quality control. In this study is 99mTc- MAG3. Solvent using chloroform + acetone + tetrahydrofuran, and the gamma counter was ARC-380CL. The changed conditions are as follows; heating temperature, resting time after labeled, and expiration year for use: which were 293, 313, 333, 353 and 372K; 15 min (293K and 372K) and 1 hour (293K); and 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively were tested. Measurement time using the gamma counter was one minute. A nuclear medical clinician decided the quality of the preparation in judging the usability of the retest agent. Two people conducted the test procedure twice, in order to compare reproducibility. The percentage of radiochemical purity (% RCP) was approximately 50% under insufficient heat treatment, which improved as the temperature and heating time increased. Moreover, the % RCP improved with time even under low temperatures. Furthermore, there was no deterioration with time after the expiration date. The objective of these tests was to determine soluble 99mTc impurities, including 99mTc-pertechnetate and the hydrolyzed-reduced 99mTc. Therefore, we assumed that insufficient heating and heating to operational errors in the labeling. It is concluded that quality control is a necessary procedure in nuclear medicine to ensure safe scanning. It is suggested that labeling is necessary to identify specifications.

Keywords: quality control, tc-99m labeled radio-pharmaceutical, chromatography strip, nuclear medicine

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39 Improving 99mTc-tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Images by Time Subtraction Technique

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hayato Ishimura, Masao Miyagawa, Teruhito Mochizuki


Quantitative measurement of myocardium perfusion is possible with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a semiconductor detector. However, accumulation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the liver may make it difficult to assess that accurately in the inferior myocardium. Our idea is to reduce the high accumulation in the liver by using dynamic SPECT imaging and a technique called time subtraction. We evaluated the performance of a new SPECT system with a cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state semi- conductor detector (Discovery NM 530c; GE Healthcare). Our system acquired list-mode raw data over 10 minutes for a typical patient. From the data, ten SPECT images were reconstructed, one for every minute of acquired data. Reconstruction with the semiconductor detector was based on an implementation of a 3-D iterative Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. We studied 20 patients with coronary artery disease (mean age 75.4 ± 12.1 years; range 42-86; 16 males and 4 females). In each subject, 259 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously. We performed both a phantom and a clinical study using dynamic SPECT. An approximation to a liver-only image is obtained by reconstructing an image from the early projections during which time the liver accumulation dominates (0.5~2.5 minutes SPECT image-5~10 minutes SPECT image). The extracted liver-only image is then subtracted from a later SPECT image that shows both the liver and the myocardial uptake (5~10 minutes SPECT image-liver-only image). The time subtraction of liver was possible in both a phantom and the clinical study. The visualization of the inferior myocardium was improved. In past reports, higher accumulation in the myocardium due to the overlap of the liver is un-diagnosable. Using our time subtraction method, the image quality of the 99mTc-tetorofosmin myocardial SPECT image is considerably improved.

Keywords: 99mTc-tetrofosmin, dynamic SPECT, time subtraction, semiconductor detector

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38 Preliminary Evaluation of Maximum Intensity Projection SPECT Imaging for Whole Body Tc-99m Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate Bone Scanning

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Shimada, Kyoko Saito


Bone scintigraphy is widely used as a screening tool for bone metastases. However, the 180 to 240 minutes (min) waiting time after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tracer is both long and tiresome. To solve this shortcoming, a bone scan with a shorter waiting time is needed. In this study, we applied the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) and triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction to a whole body bone SPECT (Merged SPECT) and investigated shortening the waiting time. Methods: In a preliminary phantom study, hot gels of 99mTc-HMDP were inserted into sets of rods with diameters ranging from 4 to 19 mm. Each rod set covered a sector of a cylindrical phantom. The activity concentration of all rods was 2.5 times that of the background in the cylindrical body of the phantom. In the human study, SPECT images were obtained from chest to abdomen at 30 to 180 min after 99mTc- hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) injection of healthy volunteers. For both studies, MIP images were reconstructed. Planar whole body images of the patients were also obtained. These were acquired at 200 min. The image quality of the SPECT and the planar images was compared. Additionally, 36 patients with breast cancer were scanned in the same way. The delectability of uptake regions (metastases) was compared visually. Results: In the phantom study, a 4 mm size hot gel was difficult to depict on the conventional SPECT, but MIP images could recognize it clearly. For both the healthy volunteers and the clinical patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-HMDP in the SPECT was good as early as 90 min. All findings of both image sets were in agreement. Conclusion: In phantoms, images from MIP with TEW scatter correction could detect all rods down to those with a diameter of 4 mm. In patients, MIP reconstruction with TEW scatter correction could improve the detectability of hot lesions. In addition, the time between injection and imaging could be shortened from that conventionally used for whole body scans.

Keywords: merged SPECT, MIP, TEW scatter correction, 99mTc-HMDP

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37 Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic

Authors: Yasuyuki Nabeshima


Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.

Keywords: tunnel, lining concrete, void, non-destructive inspection, ultrasonic

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36 Solving 94-Bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai


Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard's rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig (BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard's rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication

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35 Determination of Neighbor Node in Consideration of the Imaging Range of Cameras in Automatic Human Tracking System

Authors: Kozo Tanigawa, Tappei Yotsumoto, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara


An automatic human tracking system using mobile agent technology is realized because a mobile agent moves in accordance with a migration of a target person. In this paper, we propose a method for determining the neighbor node in consideration of the imaging range of cameras.

Keywords: human tracking, mobile agent, Pan/Tilt/Zoom, neighbor relation

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34 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based on Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara


In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring, heterogeneous systems

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33 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi


The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals, sugar

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32 Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kuninori Takahashi, Takashi Ono


The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.

Keywords: exponential smoothing method, open data, operation estimation, train schedule

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31 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa


Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

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30 Towards Developing a Self-Explanatory Scheduling System Based on a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Jian Zheng, Yoshiyasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiro Sato


In the study, we present a conceptual framework for developing a scheduling system that can generate self-explanatory and easy-understanding schedules. To this end, a user interface is conceived to help planners record factors that are considered crucial in scheduling, as well as internal and external sources relating to such factors. A hybrid approach combining machine learning and constraint programming is developed to generate schedules and the corresponding factors, and accordingly display them on the user interface. Effects of the proposed system on scheduling are discussed, and it is expected that scheduling efficiency and system understandability will be improved, compared with previous scheduling systems.

Keywords: constraint programming, factors considered in scheduling, machine learning, scheduling system

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29 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada


Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as building blocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5 µm and 200 nm, respectively. UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: zinc oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing

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28 LaPEA: Language for Preprocessing of Edge Applications in Smart Factory

Authors: Masaki Sakai, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Kazuya Takahashi


In order to improve the productivity of a factory, it is often the case to create an inference model by collecting and analyzing operational data off-line and then to develop an edge application (EAP) that evaluates the quality of the products or diagnoses machine faults in real-time. To accelerate this development cycle, an edge application framework for the smart factory is proposed, which enables to create and modify EAPs based on prepared inference models. In the framework, the preprocessing component is the key part to make it work. This paper proposes a language for preprocessing of edge applications, called LaPEA, which can flexibly process several sensor data from machines into explanatory variables for an inference model, and proves that it meets the requirements for the preprocessing.

Keywords: edge application framework, edgecross, preprocessing language, smart factory

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27 A Business-to-Business Collaboration System That Promotes Data Utilization While Encrypting Information on the Blockchain

Authors: Hiroaki Nasu, Ryota Miyamoto, Yuta Kodera, Yasuyuki Nogami


To promote Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 and so on, it is important to connect and share data so that every member can trust it. Blockchain (BC) technology is currently attracting attention as the most advanced tool and has been used in the financial field and so on. However, the data collaboration using BC has not progressed sufficiently among companies on the supply chain of manufacturing industry that handle sensitive data such as product quality, manufacturing conditions, etc. There are two main reasons why data utilization is not sufficiently advanced in the industrial supply chain. The first reason is that manufacturing information is top secret and a source for companies to generate profits. It is difficult to disclose data even between companies with transactions in the supply chain. In the blockchain mechanism such as Bitcoin using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), in order to confirm the identity of the company that has sent the data, the plaintext must be shared between the companies. Another reason is that the merits (scenarios) of collaboration data between companies are not specifically specified in the industrial supply chain. For these problems this paper proposes a Business to Business (B2B) collaboration system using homomorphic encryption and BC technique. Using the proposed system, each company on the supply chain can exchange confidential information on encrypted data and utilize the data for their own business. In addition, this paper considers a scenario focusing on quality data, which was difficult to collaborate because it is a top secret. In this scenario, we show a implementation scheme and a benefit of concrete data collaboration by proposing a comparison protocol that can grasp the change in quality while hiding the numerical value of quality data.

Keywords: business to business data collaboration, industrial supply chain, blockchain, homomorphic encryption

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26 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language

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25 Widely Diversified Macroeconomies in the Super-Long Run Casts a Doubt on Path-Independent Equilibrium Growth Model

Authors: Ichiro Takahashi


One of the major assumptions of mainstream macroeconomics is the path independence of capital stock. This paper challenges this assumption by employing an agent-based approach. The simulation results showed the existence of multiple "quasi-steady state" equilibria of the capital stock, which may cast serious doubt on the validity of the assumption. The finding would give a better understanding of many phenomena that involve hysteresis, including the causes of poverty. The "market-clearing view" has been widely shared among major schools of macroeconomics. They understand that the capital stock, the labor force, and technology, determine the "full-employment" equilibrium growth path and demand/supply shocks can move the economy away from the path only temporarily: the dichotomy between the short-run business cycles and the long-run equilibrium path. The view then implicitly assumes the long-run capital stock to be independent of how the economy has evolved. In contrast, "Old Keynesians" have recognized fluctuations in output as arising largely from fluctuations in real aggregate demand. It will then be an interesting question to ask if an agent-based macroeconomic model, which is known to have path dependence, can generate multiple full-employment equilibrium trajectories of the capital stock in the super-long run. If the answer is yes, the equilibrium level of capital stock, an important supply-side factor, would no longer be independent of the business cycle phenomenon. This paper attempts to answer the above question by using the agent-based macroeconomic model developed by Takahashi and Okada (2010). The model would serve this purpose well because it has neither population growth nor technology progress. The objective of the paper is twofold: (1) to explore the causes of long-term business cycle, and (2) to examine the super-long behaviors of the capital stock of full-employment economies. (1) The simulated behaviors of the key macroeconomic variables such as output, employment, real wages showed widely diversified macro-economies. They were often remarkably stable but exhibited both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The long-term fluctuations occur through the following two adjustments: the quantity and relative cost adjustments of capital stock. The first one is obvious and assumed by many business cycle theorists. The reduced aggregate demand lowers prices, which raises real wages, thereby decreasing the relative cost of capital stock with respect to labor. (2) The long-term business cycles/fluctuations were synthesized with the hysteresis of real wages, interest rates, and investments. In particular, a sequence of the simulation runs with a super-long simulation period generated a wide range of perfectly stable paths, many of which achieved full employment: all the macroeconomic trajectories, including capital stock, output, and employment, were perfectly horizontal over 100,000 periods. Moreover, the full-employment level of capital stock was influenced by the history of unemployment, which was itself path-dependent. Thus, an experience of severe unemployment in the past kept the real wage low, which discouraged a relatively costly investment in capital stock. Meanwhile, a history of good performance sometimes brought about a low capital stock due to a high-interest rate that was consistent with a strong investment.

Keywords: agent-based macroeconomic model, business cycle, hysteresis, stability

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24 Rice Bran Material Enrichment of Granulated Cane Brown Sugar to Increase Policosanol Contents

Authors: Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Hajime Tamaki, Yonathan Asikin, Koji Wada, Makoto Takahashi, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan


Rice bran and sugarcane are significant sources of wax containing policosanol (PC), the cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical available in the market. The processing of rice bran oil causes the loss of PC content into various waste products. Therefore, we hypothesise that defatted rice bran (DRB) as agricultural waste product and rice bran oil (RBO) retain a varying but significant amount of PC wax. Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) or cane brown sugar has been consumed worldwide and possesses various health benefits. Since PC wax is mainly in the outer layer rinds of cane, PC contents of the granulated sugar are reduced due to the peeling step. The study aimed to increase PC contents of the granular brown sugar by adding wax extracted from DRB and RBO and to investigate the toxicity of the developed products. The results showed that the total PC contents including long chain aldehyde of products were increased to the maximum level of 147.97 mg/100 g and 40.14 mg/100 g for extracted wax and rice bran oil addition, respectively. PC content of RBO was found to be 96.93 mg/100 g. DRB is promising source of policosanol (6,044.7 mg/100 g). The 28-day toxicity evaluations of the developed sugar revealed no adverse effects on the liver, spleen or kidney.

Keywords: enrichment, sugarcane, policosanol, defatted rice bran, wax

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23 Optimal Design of RC Pier Accompanied with Multi Sliding Friction Damping Mechanism Using Combination of SNOPT and ANN Method

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, Y. Takahashi, J. Kiyono, S. Sawada


The structural system concept of RC pier accompanied with multi sliding friction damping mechanism was developed based on numerical analysis approach. However in the implementation, to make design for such kind of this structural system consumes a lot of effort in case high of complexity. During making design, the special behaviors of this structural system should be considered including flexible small deformation, sufficient elastic deformation capacity, sufficient lateral force resistance, and sufficient energy dissipation. The confinement distribution of friction devices has significant influence to its. Optimization and prediction with multi function regression of this structural system expected capable of providing easier and simpler design method. The confinement distribution of friction devices is optimized with SNOPT in Opensees, while some design variables of the structure are predicted using multi function regression of ANN. Based on the optimization and prediction this structural system is able to be designed easily and simply.

Keywords: RC Pier, multi sliding friction device, optimal design, flexible small deformation

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22 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi


In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer

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21 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bioactive Compounds Derived from Thunbergia laurifolia Aqueous Leave Extract

Authors: Marasri Junsi, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Chutha Takahashi Yupanqui, Worrapong Usawakesmanee


Thunbergia laurifolia has been used for folklore medicine purposes and consumed in the form of herbal tea in Thailand since ancient times. To evaluate the bioactive compounds of aqueous leave extract possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activities were examined by total extractable phenolic content (TPC), total extractable flavonoid content (TFC), ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP reducing antioxidant power expressed as mg of gallic acid trolox and caffeic acid for the equivalents. Results indicated that the extract had high TPC and antioxidant activities. In addition, the HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of caffeic acid and rutin as bioactive compounds. Exposure of cells with the extract using nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly reduced NO production and increased cell proliferation. The obtained results demonstrated that the extract contains a high potential to be used as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities, RAW264.7

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20 Analysis of Genomics Big Data in Cloud Computing Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mohammad Vahed, Ana Sadeghitohidi, Majid Vahed, Hiroki Takahashi


In the genomics field, the huge amounts of data have produced by the next-generation sequencers (NGS). Data volumes are very rapidly growing, as it is postulated that more than one billion bases will be produced per year in 2020. The growth rate of produced data is much faster than Moore's law in computer technology. This makes it more difficult to deal with genomics data, such as storing data, searching information, and finding the hidden information. It is required to develop the analysis platform for genomics big data. Cloud computing newly developed enables us to deal with big data more efficiently. Hadoop is one of the frameworks distributed computing and relies upon the core of a Big Data as a Service (BDaaS). Although many services have adopted this technology, e.g. amazon, there are a few applications in the biology field. Here, we propose a new algorithm to more efficiently deal with the genomics big data, e.g. sequencing data. Our algorithm consists of two parts: First is that BDaaS is applied for handling the data more efficiently. Second is that the hybrid method of MapReduce and Fuzzy logic is applied for data processing. This step can be parallelized in implementation. Our algorithm has great potential in computational analysis of genomics big data, e.g. de novo genome assembly and sequence similarity search. We will discuss our algorithm and its feasibility.

Keywords: big data, fuzzy logic, MapReduce, Hadoop, cloud computing

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19 Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sappakittipakorn, M. Mizukoshi, O. Takahashi


Ceramic waste aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level.

Keywords: ceramic waste aggregate, chloride diffusion, GGBS, pore size distribution

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18 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki


Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: child development, interpersonal coordination, prosociality, synchrony, wavelet transform

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17 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma


The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements

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16 The Structural System Concept of Reinforced Concrete Pier Accompanied with Friction Device plus Gap in Numerical Analysis

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, Y. Takahashi, J. Kiyono, S. Sawada


The problem of medium span bridge bearing support in the extreme temperatures fluctuation region is deterioration in case the suppression of superstructure that sustains temperature expansion. The other hand, the behavior and the parameter of RC column accompanied with friction damping mechanism were determined successfully based on the experiment and numerical analysis. This study proposes the structural system of RC pier accompanied with multi sliding friction damping mechanism to substitute the conventional system of pier together with bearing support. In this system, the pier has monolith behavior to the superstructure with flexible small deformation to accommodate thermal expansion of the superstructure. The flexible small deformation behavior is realized by adding the gap mechanism in the multi sliding friction devices form. The important performances of this system are sufficient lateral flexibility in small deformation, sufficient elastic deformation capacity, sufficient lateral force resistance, and sufficient energy dissipation. Numerical analysis performed for this system with fiber element model. It shows that the structural system has good performance not only under small deformation due to thermal expansion of the superstructure but also under seismic load.

Keywords: RC Pier, thermal expansion, multi sliding friction device, flexible small deformation

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15 Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

Authors: I-Huan Chiu, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Meito Kajino, Miho Katsuragawa, Shunsaku Nagasawa, Atsushi Shinohara, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryota Tomaru, Shin Watanabe, Goro Yabu


In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical observation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the non-destructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

Keywords: DSSD, muon, muonic X-ray, imaging, non-destructive analysis

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14 Use of Social Support for Fathers with Developmental Disabilities in Japan

Authors: Shiori Ishida, Hiromi Okuno, Hisato Igarashi, Akemi Yamazaki, Hiroko Takahashi


The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences and similarities regarding the social support of fathers and mothers towards considering increased assistance for the paternity of children with developmental disabilities. Written questionnaires were completed by fathers (n=85) and mothers (n=101) of children using rehabilitation facilities between infancy and 5 years of age. The survey contained multiple-choice questions on four categories: information support (6 items), emotional support (7 items), evaluation support (3 items), and daily living support (3 items). Regarding information support, fathers answered ‘spouse’ as the provider in over 50% of cases for all 6 items, which was significantly different compared with mothers (all p < 0.001). For emotional support, fathers were significantly more likely to get support from the workplace (p < 0.001) and from spouse (p < 0.001). The ‘evaluation support’ did not have significant differences for fathers in all the items, but the most frequent support providers were ‘spouses’. ‘Daily living support’ was significantly different from fathers in the workplace (p < 0.000) in terms of make allowances for work and duties. Thus, it appeared that fathers had fewer social support sources as compared with mothers and limited non-spouse support. The understanding of developmental disabilities, acquisition of methods of rehabilitation, and sources of support might have been inadequately addressed among fathers, which could be a hindrance to the involvement of fathers in the rearing of children with developmental disabilities. On the other hand, we also observed that some fathers were involved in the care of developmentally troubled children while providing mental support for their spouse, cooperating with housework, and adjusting their work life. However, the results on the external and social backgrounds of fathers indicated a necessity for greater empowerment and peer support to improve the paternal care of children with developmental disabilities in the family survey.

Keywords: children with developmental disabilities, family support, father, social support

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