Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3942

Search results for: nonparametric adherence tests

3942 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

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3941 Distribution-Free Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Charts for Monitoring Process Variability

Authors: Chen-Fang Tsai, Shin-Li Lu

Abstract:

Distribution-free control chart is an oncoming area from the statistical process control charts in recent years. Some researchers have developed various nonparametric control charts and investigated the detection capability of these charts. The major advantage of nonparametric control charts is that the underlying process is not specifically considered the assumption of normality or any parametric distribution. In this paper, two nonparametric exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts based on nonparametric tests, namely NE-S and NE-M control charts, are proposed for monitoring process variability. Generally, weighted moving average (GWMA) control charts are extended by utilizing design and adjustment parameters for monitoring the changes in the process variability, namely NG-S and NG-M control charts. Statistical performance is also investigated on NG-S and NG-M control charts with run rules. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is performed to show the effects of design parameters under the nonparametric NG-S and NG-M control charts.

Keywords: Distribution-free control chart, EWMA control charts, GWMA control charts

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3940 A Comparative Study of Additive and Nonparametric Regression Estimators and Variable Selection Procedures

Authors: Adriano Z. Zambom, Preethi Ravikumar

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges in nonparametric regression is the curse of dimensionality. Additive models are known to overcome this problem by estimating only the individual additive effects of each covariate. However, if the model is misspecified, the accuracy of the estimator compared to the fully nonparametric one is unknown. In this work the efficiency of completely nonparametric regression estimators such as the Loess is compared to the estimators that assume additivity in several situations, including additive and non-additive regression scenarios. The comparison is done by computing the oracle mean square error of the estimators with regards to the true nonparametric regression function. Then, a backward elimination selection procedure based on the Akaike Information Criteria is proposed, which is computed from either the additive or the nonparametric model. Simulations show that if the additive model is misspecified, the percentage of time it fails to select important variables can be higher than that of the fully nonparametric approach. A dimension reduction step is included when nonparametric estimator cannot be computed due to the curse of dimensionality. Finally, the Boston housing dataset is analyzed using the proposed backward elimination procedure and the selected variables are identified.

Keywords: additive model, nonparametric regression, variable selection, Akaike Information Criteria

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3939 A Comparison of Smoothing Spline Method and Penalized Spline Regression Method Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper presents a study about a nonparametric regression model consisting of a smoothing spline method and a penalized spline regression method. We also compare the techniques used for estimation and prediction of nonparametric regression model. We tried both methods with crude oil prices in dollars per barrel and the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index. According to the results, it is concluded that smoothing spline method performs better than that of penalized spline regression method.

Keywords: nonparametric regression model, penalized spline regression method, smoothing spline method, Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET)

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3938 Factors Associated with Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV Infected Patients in Ukraine

Authors: Larissa Burruano, Sergey Grabovyj, Irina Nguen

Abstract:

The study aimed to assess the level of adherence to anti retroviral therapy (ART) and to examine the relationship between adherence and risk behavior factor (drug use) among patients infected with HIV. The patients with newly diagnosed or established HIV infection under follow-up at the Sumskij Regional Centre for AIDS Prevention in Ukraine were eligible for this study. Medical records were used to measure the patient’s adherence to medication. Measurements were obtained at month 6 and at month 12 to calculate the number of medication omission during the past 30 days: (on a 2-point scale – once until three in a month – were considered adherent, three and more in a month – were considered non-adherent). Of the 50 study participants, 27 (54.0%) were men and 23 (46.0%) women. The mean age is 35.2 years (SD= 5.1). A majority of the patients (82.0%) is in the age group of 25-30 years. The main level of adherence was 74.0% and 66.0% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The main routes of HIV transmission were drug injection among men 12 (44.4%) and sexual contact among women 11 (47.8%). Univariate analyses indicated that patients who had lower level of education were more likely to have been non-adherent at month 6- (X2 =5.1, n=50, p < .05) and at month 12 (X2 = 4.34, n=50, p < .05). Multivariate tests showed that only age (OR= 1.163 [95% CI 0.98–1.370]) was significant independent predictor of treatment adherence, while gender, education, employment status were not predictive for the risk of developing non-compliance. There was not a significant interaction between non-adherence and intravenous drug use. Consistent with these findings, younger people were more likely to have missed a dose of their medication because they had a greater sense of invulnerability than older patients. The study indicates that the socio demographic characteristic should be taken into an account in the future research regarding adherence in the case of HIV infection. If the patient anti retroviral adherence can be improved by qualitatively better medical care in all regions of the Ukraine, behavioral changes in the population can to be expected in the long term.

Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, adherence, Ukraine, Eastern Europe

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3937 Adherence Induced Formwork Removal in Small-Scale Pull-Off Tensile Tests

Authors: Nicolas Spitz, Nicolas Coniglio, Mohamed El Mansori, Alex Montagne, Sabeur Mezghani

Abstract:

Nowadays buildings' construction is performed by pouring concrete into molds referred to as formworks that are usually prefabricated metallic modules. Defects such as stripping may possibly form during the removal of the formwork if the interfacial bonding between the concrete and the formwork is high. A new pull-off tensile test was developed in our laboratory to simulate small-scale formwork removals. The concrete-to-formwork adherence force was measured on bare and coated formworks with different surface signatures. The used concrete was a mixture largely used on building sites and contains CEM I Portland cement and calcareous filler. The concrete surface appearance and the type of failures at the concrete-formwork interface have been investigated. The originality of this near-to-surface test was to compare the laboratory-measured adherence forces to the on-site observations. Based upon the small-scale laboratory test results, functional formwork specifications with low adherence to concrete was proposed in terms of superficial signature characteristics.

Keywords: concrete-formwork adherence, interfacial bonding, skin formwork functionality, small-scale pull-off tensile test

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3936 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, cardiovascular disease, north of Iran

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3935 Social Support in Adherence to Therapy in Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon

Authors: Mariela González, Zoraide Lugli

Abstract:

Objective: to determine the relationship between perceived social support and adherence to therapy in patients who have been placed BioEnteric intragastric balloon (BIB). Material and method: 75 obese (56 women and 19 men) between 18 and 65 years (M = 39.29, SD = 11.82), who attended five centers in the city of Caracas, where he carried out this procedure. We used Social Support Scale and treatment adherence behavior respectively. The procedure was contacted the centers and the sample was selected. Subsequently, the inventories were applied before and the month after the before and three months after the balloon set. Results: Show that participants were characterized by moderate levels in the variables. On the other hand, those who perceive that they perceived support from friends are those who report adherence to therapy. Conclusions: From the results, it is suggested promote social support networks, which could be essential to achieve and maintain adherence to therapy in patients with BioEnterics intragastric balloon.

Keywords: BioEnteric intragastric balloon, perceived social support, adherence to therapy, patients

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3934 Factors Associated with Recruitment and Adherence for Virtual Mindfulness Interventions in Youths

Authors: Kimberly Belfry, Shavon Stafford, Fariha Chowdhury, Jennifer Crawford, Soyeon Kim

Abstract:

Intervention programs are mostly delivered online during the pandemic. Screen fatigue has become a significant deterrent for virtually-deliveredinterventions, and thus, we aimed to examine factors associated with recruitment and adherence toan online mindfulness program for youths. Our preliminary analysis indicated that 40% of interested youths enrolled in the program. No difference in gender and age was found for those enrolled in the program. Adherence rate was approximately 25%, which warrants further examination. Grounding on the preliminary findings, we will conduct a binary logistic regression analysis to identify elements associated with recruitment and adherence. The model will include predictors such as age, sex, recruiter, mental health status, time of the year. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be reported. Our preliminary analysis showed low recruitment and adherence rate. By identifying elements associated with recruitment and adherence, our study provides transferrable information that can improve recruitment and adherence of online-delivered interventions offered during the pandemic.

Keywords: virtual interventions, recruitment, youth, mindfulness

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3933 Prevalence of Non-Adherence among Psychiatric Patients in Jordan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Tareq L. Mukattash, Karem H. Alzoubi, Ejlal Abu El-Rub, Anan S. Jarab, Sayyer I. Al-Azzam, Maher Khdour, Mohammed Shara, Yazid N. Alhamarneh

Abstract:

Background: It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. Objective: To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. Results: A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Conclusions: Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence.

Keywords: medication adherence, psychiatric disorders, clinical pharmacy, polypharmacy

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3932 Non-Adherence to Antidepressant Treatment and Its Predictors among Outpatients with Depressive Disorders

Authors: Selam Mulugeta, Barkot Milkias, Mesfin Araya, Abel Worku, Eyasu Mulugeta

Abstract:

In Ethiopia, there is inadequate information on non-adherence to antidepressant treatment in patients with depressive disorders. Having awareness of the pattern of adherence is important in future prognosis, quality of life, and functionality in these patients. This hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was done on a sample of 216 consecutive outpatients with depressive disorders. Data were collected using questionnaires through in-person and phone call interviews. The 8-item Morisky scale was used to assess the pattern of medication adherence. Other specially developed tools were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information from electronic medical records and patient interviews. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version - 25. Univariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to assess factors associated with non-adherence. 90% of the participants had a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Based on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the prevalence of non-adherence was found to be 84.7%. Living distance between 11 to 50 km from the hospital (AOR= 11, 95% CI (29,46.6)), post-secondary level of education (AOR= 8.3, 95% CI (1, 64.4)) and taking multiple medications (AOR= 6.1, 95% CI (1, 34.9)) were found to have significantly increased odds of non-adherence. Non-adherence was significantly associated with factors such as increased living distance from the hospital, relatively higher educational level, and polypharmacy. Proper and patient-centered psychoeducation, addressing the communication gap between patients and doctors, adherence to prescribing guidelines, avoiding polypharmacy unless indicated & working on accessibility of treatment is essential to decrease non-adherence.

Keywords: depressive disorders, Ethiopia, medication adherence, Addis Ababa

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3931 Nonparametric Truncated Spline Regression Model on the Data of Human Development Index in Indonesia

Authors: Kornelius Ronald Demu, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

Abstract:

Human Development Index (HDI) is a standard measurement for a country's human development. Several factors may have influenced it, such as life expectancy, gross domestic product (GDP) based on the province's annual expenditure, the number of poor people, and the percentage of an illiterate people. The scatter plot between HDI and the influenced factors show that the plot does not follow a specific pattern or form. Therefore, the HDI's data in Indonesia can be applied with a nonparametric regression model. The estimation of the regression curve in the nonparametric regression model is flexible because it follows the shape of the data pattern. One of the nonparametric regression's method is a truncated spline. Truncated spline regression is one of the nonparametric approach, which is a modification of the segmented polynomial functions. The estimator of a truncated spline regression model was affected by the selection of the optimal knots point. Knot points is a focus point of spline truncated functions. The optimal knots point was determined by the minimum value of generalized cross validation (GCV). In this article were applied the data of Human Development Index with a truncated spline nonparametric regression model. The results of this research were obtained the best-truncated spline regression model to the HDI's data in Indonesia with the combination of optimal knots point 5-5-5-4. Life expectancy and the percentage of an illiterate people were the significant factors depend to the HDI in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination is 94.54%. This means the regression model is good enough to applied on the data of HDI in Indonesia.

Keywords: generalized cross validation (GCV), Human Development Index (HDI), knots point, nonparametric regression, truncated spline

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3930 The Role of Defense Mechanisms in Treatment Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Exploratory Study

Authors: F. Marchini, A. Caputo, J. Balonan, F. Fedele, A. Napoli, V. Langher

Abstract:

Aim: The present study aims to explore the specific role of defense mechanisms in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in treatment adherence. Materials and methods: A correlational study design was employed. Thirty-two persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and assessed with Defense Mechanism Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Self-Care Inventory-Revised. Bivariate correlation and two-step regression analyses were performed. Results: Treatment adherence negatively correlates with hetero-directed hostility (r= -.537; p < .01), whereas it is positively associated with principalization (r= .407; p < .05). These two defense mechanisms overall explain an incremental variance of 26.9% in treatment adherence (ΔF=4.189, df1=2, df2 =21, p < .05), over and above the control variables for depression and alexithymia. However, only higher hetero-directed hostility is found to be a solid predictor of a decreased treatment adherence (β=-.497, p < .05). Conclusions: Despite providing preliminary results, this pilot study highlights the original contribution of defense mechanisms in adherence to type 2 diabetes regimens. Specifically, hetero-directed hostility may relate to an unconscious process, according to which disease-related painful feelings are displaced onto care relationships with negative impacts on adherence.

Keywords: alexithymia, defense mechanisms, treatment adherence, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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3929 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

Abstract:

Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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3928 Epidemiological Correlates of Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Primary Health Care Setting of Ludhiana, Punjab

Authors: Sangeeta Girdhar, Amanat Grewal, Nahush Bansal

Abstract:

Introduction: There is an increasing burden of hypertension in India. The morbidity and mortality arising from complications are mainly due to non-adherence to medication, unhealthy dietary habits, and lack of physical activity. Non-adherence is a well-recognised factor contributing to inadequate control of high blood pressure. Adherence to pharmacotherapy for hypertension varies from 43% to 88%. Non-adherence is influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Understanding these factors is useful in managing non-adherence. Therefore, the study was planned to determine adherence among hypertensives and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Urban Health Training Centre of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana. Patients attending the OPD over a period of 3 months were included in the study. Prior ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was taken from subjects. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire was applied, which included socio-demographic profile, treatment-seeking behaviour, adherence to the antihypertensive medication, lifestyle factors (intake of alcohol, smoking, consumption of junk food, high salt intake) contributing to the development of the disease. Reasons for non-adherence to the therapy were also explored. Data was entered into excel, and SPSS 26 version was used for analysis. Results: A total of 186 individuals were interviewed. Out of these, 113 females (60.8%) and 73 males (39.2%) participated in the study. Mean age of participants was 60.9 ± 10.7 years. Adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment was found in 68.3% of the participants. It was observed that adherence was more in literate individuals as compared to illiterate (p value- 0.78). Adherence was lower among smokers (33.3%) and alcohol consumers (53.8%) as compared to non-users (69.4% and 70.6%, respectively). The predominant reasons for skipping medications were discontinuing medication when feeling well, forgetfulness and unawareness. Conclusion: There is a need to generate awareness regarding the importance of adherence to therapy among patients. Intensive health education and counselling of the patients is the need of the hour.

Keywords: hypertension, anti-hypertensive, adherence, counselling

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3927 Correlation between Adherence to Islamic Principles of Success and Academic Achievement

Authors: Zuwaira Abubakar

Abstract:

Islam is the Divine religion which guides Man ways of leading a prosperous life in this life and the hereafter. This study was conducted in order to investigate the possible relationship between adherence to Islamic principles of success and academic performance of university students. Accordingly, a questionnaire based on Islamized principles of success (referred to as 'Islamic character quotient inventory (ICQi)') was correlated with CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Averages) of 343 students of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. The empirical testing indicates that the total score on ICQi correlated positively and significantly with academic performance of the respondent. Students with either high or medium adherence have a significantly (P<0.01) higher CGPA than their counterparts with the low-adherence level. However, the result did not show a significant relationship between the CGPA of highly adherent individuals and that of those with medium adherence level. This may suggests that Islam is not for spiritual life only but also relevant and useful for our practical life.

Keywords: academic, Islam, principles, success

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3926 Effect of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders on Adherence to Routine Prenatal Iron/Folic Acid Supplement among Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

Authors: Nneka U. Igboeli, Maxwell O. Adibe

Abstract:

Iron and folate supplementation in pregnancy are important interventions that prevent maternal anaemia and fetal anomaly. Thus, daily oral doses of iron and folic acid are recommended throughout pregnancy as part of antenatal care. However, low adherence has been a major drawback leading to low effectiveness of these programs. The effect of mobile text message reminders to pregnant women to take their routine medications on adherence was evaluated in this study. The first 100 women who consented to the study were recruited and randomized to either receive a text message reminder on adherence to routine medications or not. Adherence was assessed using the 8-item Modified Morisky Adherence Scale (8-MMAS). The folders of successfully recruited women were tagged with the a study number assigned to each of them. The womens’ phone numbers were collected and these were used to send text messages reminders on adhering to routine drugs only to women in the intervention group. The text messages were sent three times per week for a period of four weeks with an adherence reassessment at the one month follow-up antenatal visit for recruited women. At one month follow-up, the lost to follow-up were 6 (16%) women for the intervention group and 17 (34%) for the control group. The across group mean difference in adherence score was 0.07 (-0.96 – 1.10) at baseline and 0.3 (-0.31 – 0.92) after intervention, both insignificant at p > 0.05. The within group change were increases of 0.58 (0.00 – 1.16) (p = 0.05) from baseline for the intervention group and a 0.35 (-0.51 – 1.20) (p = 0.395) for the control group. Non-significant increase in adherence scores were recorded for both groups. However, the increase in adherence scores of women in the intervention group was greater and may be potentially transformed into more positive results if the study period is increased with possibly reduced study drop-outs shows great promise for more positive results.

Keywords: adherence, mobile phone, pregnant women, reminders

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3925 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

Authors: Eduardo C. Guardia, Jose W. M. Lima, Afonso H. M. Santos

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This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Keywords: bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution

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3924 Real-World Comparison of Adherence to and Persistence with Dulaglutide and Liraglutide in UAE e-Claims Database

Authors: Ibrahim Turfanda, Soniya Rai, Karan Vadher

Abstract:

Objectives— The study aims to compare real-world adherence to and persistence with dulaglutide and liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initiating treatment in UAE. Methods— This was a retrospective, non-interventional study (observation period: 01 March 2017–31 August 2019) using the UAE Dubai e-Claims database. Included: adult patients initiating dulaglutide/liraglutide 01 September 2017–31 August 2018 (index period) with: ≥1 claim for T2D in the 6 months before index date (ID); ≥1 claim for dulaglutide/liraglutide during index period; and continuous medical enrolment for ≥6 months before and ≥12 months after ID. Key endpoints, assessed 3/6/12 months after ID: adherence to treatment (proportion of days covered [PDC; PDC ≥80% considered ‘adherent’], per-group mean±standard deviation [SD] PDC); and persistence (number of continuous therapy days from ID until discontinuation [i.e., >45 days gap] or end of observation period). Patients initiating dulaglutide/liraglutide were propensity score matched (1:1) based on baseline characteristics. Between-group comparison of adherence was analysed using the McNemar test (α=0.025). Persistence was analysed using Kaplan–Meier estimates with log-rank tests (α=0.025) for between-group comparisons. This study presents 12-month outcomes. Results— Following propensity score matching, 263 patients were included in each group. Mean±SD PDC for all patients at 12 months was significantly higher in the dulaglutide versus the liraglutide group (dulaglutide=0.48±0.30, liraglutide=0.39±0.28, p=0.0002). The proportion of adherent patients favored dulaglutide (dulaglutide=20.2%, liraglutide=12.9%, p=0.0302), as did the probability of being adherent to treatment (odds ratio [97.5% CI]: 1.70 [0.99, 2.91]; p=0.03). Proportion of persistent patients also favoured dulaglutide (dulaglutide=15.2%, liraglutide=9.1%, p=0.0528), as did the probability of discontinuing treatment 12 months after ID (p=0.027). Conclusions— Based on the UAE Dubai e-Claims database data, dulaglutide initiators exhibited significantly greater adherence in terms of mean PDC versus liraglutide initiators. The proportion of adherent patients and the probability of being adherent favored the dulaglutide group, as did treatment persistence.

Keywords: adherence, dulaglutide, effectiveness, liraglutide, persistence

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3923 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu

Abstract:

Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

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3922 Effect of Family-Based DOTS Support Program on Adherence to Health Behaviors among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bandung, Indonesia

Authors: D. I. Yani, S. Isaramalai, C. Kritpracha

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Adherence to health behaviors is essential to achieve successful TB treatment. This study aimed to examine the effect of a family-based DOTS support program on adherence to health behaviors in patients with pulmonary TB. Sixty TB patients and their families were selected using cluster randomization of community health centers. The subjects were assigned into a control group, who received the routine care, and an experimental group, who received both routine care and care from the family-based DOTS support program. Paired t-test and the independent t-test were applied. The total score of adherence to health behaviors in the experimental group was significantly higher after receiving care from the family-based DOTS support program than the pretest score (t = -10.34, p < .001). Suggestions were made to expand the application of this program in various contexts and to extend knowledge for nursing practices and research.

Keywords: self-care deficit nursing theory, family-based DOTS program, pulmonary tuberculosis, adherence, health behaviors

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3921 Improving Depression Symptoms and Antidepressant Medication Adherence Using Encrypted Short Message Service Text Message Reminders

Authors: Ogbonna Olelewe

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This quality improvement project seeks to address the background and significance of promoting antidepressant (AD) medication adherence to reduce depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depression. This project aims to substantiate using daily encrypted short message service (SMS) text reminders to take prescribed antidepressant medications with the goal of increasing medication adherence to reduce depression scores in patients diagnosed with major depression, thereby preventing relapses and increasing remission rates. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. The PHQ-9 provides a total score of depression symptoms from mild to severe, ranging from 0 to 27. A -pretest/post-test design was used, with a convenience sample size of 35 adult patients aged 18 years old to 45 years old, diagnosed with MDD, and prescribed at least one antidepressant for one year or more. Pre- and post-test PHQ-9 scores were conducted to compare depression scores before and after the four-week intervention period. The results indicated improved post-intervention PHQ-9 scores, improved AD medication adherence, and a significant reduction in depression symptoms.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, antidepressants, short message services, text reminders, Medication adherence/non-adherence, Patient Health Questionnaire 9

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3920 Method for Improving Antidepressants Adherence in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Kanokporn Meelap, Kwanchanok Kruthakool

Abstract:

Depression is a common mental health disorder. Antidepressants are effective pharmacological treatments, but most patients have low medication adherence. This study aims to systematic review and meta-analysis what method increase the antidepressants adherence efficiently and improve clinical outcome. Systematic review of articles of randomized controlled trials obtained by a computerized literature search of The Cochrane, Library, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Education search, Web of Science and ThaiLIS (28 December 2017). Twenty-three studies were included and assessed the quality of research by ROB 2.0. The results reported that printing media improved in number of people who had medication adherence statistical significantly (p= 0.018), but education, phone call, and program utilization were no different (p=0.172, p=0.127, p=0.659). There was no significant difference in pharmacist’s group, health care team’s group and physician’s group (p=0.329, p=0.070, p=0.040). Times of intervention at 1 month and 6 months improved medication adherence significantly (p= 0.0001, p=0.013). There was significantly improved adherence in single intervention (p=0.027) but no different in multiple interventions (p=0.154). When we analyzed medication adherence with the mean score, no improved adherence was found, not relevant with who gives the intervention and times to intervention. However, the multiple interventions group was statistically significant improved medication adherence (p=0.040). Phone call and the physician’s group were statistically significant improved clinical outcomes in number of improved patients (0.025 and 0.020, respectively). But in the pharmacist’s group and physician’s group were not found difference in the mean score of clinical outcomes (p=0.993, p=0.120, respectively). Times to intervention and number of intervention were not significant difference than usual care. The overall intervention can increase antidepressant adherence, especially the printing media, and the appropriate timing of the intervention is at least 6 months. For effective treatment, the provider should have experience and expert in caring for patients with depressive disorders, such as a psychiatrist. Medical personnel should have knowledge in caring for these patients also.

Keywords: depression, medication adherence, clinical outcomes, systematic review, meta-analysis

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3919 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen

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Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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3918 Cancer Survivor’s Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours; Meeting the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research Recommendations, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Erica James, Alexis Hurre, Meredith Tavener

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Introduction: Lifestyle behaviours such as healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight are essential for cancer survivors to improve the quality of life and longevity. However, there is no study that synthesis cancer survivor’s adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations. The purpose of this review was to collate existing data on the prevalence of adherence to healthy behaviours and produce the pooled estimate among adult cancer survivors. Method: Multiple databases (Embase, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles published since 2007, reporting cancer survivors adherence to more than two lifestyle behaviours based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations. The pooled prevalence of adherence to single and multiple behaviours (operationalized as adherence to more than 75% (3/4) of health behaviours included in a particular study) was calculated using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis adherence to multiple behaviours was undertaken corresponding to the mean survival years and year of publication. Results: A total of 3322 articles were generated through our search strategies. Of these, 51 studies matched our inclusion criteria, which presenting data from 2,620,586 adult cancer survivors. The highest prevalence of adherence was observed for smoking (pooled estimate: 87%, 95% CI: 85%, 88%) and alcohol intake (pooled estimate 83%, 95% CI: 81%, 86%), and the lowest was for fiber intake (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 21%, 40%). Thirteen studies were reported the proportion of cancer survivors (all used a simple summative index method) to multiple healthy behaviours, whereby the prevalence of adherence was ranged from 7% to 40% (pooled estimate 23%, 95% CI: 17% to 30%). Subgroup analysis suggest that short-term survivors ( < 5 years survival time) had relatively a better adherence to multiple behaviours (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 27%, 35%) than long-term ( > 5 years survival time) cancer survivors (pooled estimate: 25%, 95% CI: 14%, 36%). Pooling of estimates according to the year of publication (since 2007) also suggests an increasing trend of adherence to multiple behaviours over time. Conclusion: Overall, the adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was poor (not satisfactory), and relatively, it is a major concern for long-term than the short-term cancer survivor. Cancer survivors need to obey with healthy lifestyle recommendations related to physical activity, fruit and vegetable, fiber, red/processed meat and sodium intake.

Keywords: adherence, lifestyle behaviours, cancer survivors, WCRF/AICR

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3917 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

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Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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3916 The Relationship between Depression, HIV Stigma and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among Adult Patients Living with HIV at a Tertiary Hospital in Durban, South Africa: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Social Support

Authors: Muziwandile Luthuli

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Although numerous factors predicting adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have been broadly studied on both regional and global level, up-to-date adherence of patients to ART remains an overarching, dynamic and multifaceted problem that needs to be investigated over time and across various contexts. There is a rarity of empirical data in the literature on interactive mechanisms by which psychosocial factors influence adherence to ART among PLWHA within the South African context. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between depression, HIV stigma, and adherence to ART among adult patients living with HIV at a tertiary hospital in Durban, South Africa, and the mediating roles of self-efficacy and social support. The health locus of control theory and the social support theory were the underlying theoretical frameworks for this study. Using a cross-sectional research design, a total of 201 male and female adult patients aged between 18-75 years receiving ART at a tertiary hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal were sampled, using time location sampling (TLS). A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data in this study. Data were analysed through SPSS version 27. Several statistical analyses were conducted in this study, namely univariate statistical analysis, correlational analysis, Pearson’s chi-square analysis, cross-tabulation analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, and mediational analysis. Univariate analysis indicated that the sample mean age was 39.28 years (SD=12.115), while most participants were females 71.0% (n=142), never married 74.2% (n=147), and most were also secondary school educated 48.3% (n=97), as well as unemployed 65.7% (n=132). The prevalence rate of participants who had high adherence to ART was 53.7% (n=108), and 46.3% (n=93) of participants had low adherence to ART. Chi-square analysis revealed that employment status was the only statistically significant socio-demographic influence of adherence to ART in this study (χ2 (3) = 8.745; p < .033). Chi-square analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference found between depression and adherence to ART (χ2 (4) = 16.140; p < .003), while between HIV stigma and adherence to ART, no statistically significant difference was found (χ2 (1) = .323; p >.570). Binary logistic regression indicated that depression was statistically associated with adherence to ART (OR= .853; 95% CI, .789–.922, P < 001), while the association between self-efficacy and adherence to ART was statistically significant (OR= 1.04; 95% CI, 1.001– 1.078, P < .045) after controlling for the effect of depression. However, the findings showed that the effect of depression on adherence to ART was not significantly mediated by self-efficacy (Sobel test for indirect effect, Z= 1.01, P > 0.31). Binary logistic regression showed that the effect of HIV stigma on adherence to ART was not statistically significant (OR= .980; 95% CI, .937– 1.025, P > .374), but the effect of social support on adherence to ART was statistically significant, only after the effect of HIV stigma was controlled for (OR= 1.017; 95% CI, 1.000– 1.035, P < .046). This study promotes behavioral and social change effected through evidence-based interventions by emphasizing the need for additional research that investigates the interactive mechanisms by which psychosocial factors influence adherence to ART. Depression is a significant predictor of adherence to ART. Thus, to alleviate the psychosocial impact of depression on adherence to ART, effective interventions must be devised, along with special consideration of self-efficacy and social support. Therefore, this study is helpful in informing and effecting change in health policy and healthcare services through its findings

Keywords: ART adherence, depression, HIV/AIDS, PLWHA

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3915 Application of Nonparametric Geographically Weighted Regression to Evaluate the Unemployment Rate in East Java

Authors: Sifriyani Sifriyani, I Nyoman Budiantara, Sri Haryatmi, Gunardi Gunardi

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East Java Province has a first rank as a province that has the most counties and cities in Indonesia and has the largest population. In 2015, the population reached 38.847.561 million, this figure showed a very high population growth. High population growth is feared to lead to increase the levels of unemployment. In this study, the researchers mapped and modeled the unemployment rate with 6 variables that were supposed to influence. Modeling was done by nonparametric geographically weighted regression methods with truncated spline approach. This method was chosen because spline method is a flexible method, these models tend to look for its own estimation. In this modeling, there were point knots, the point that showed the changes of data. The selection of the optimum point knots was done by selecting the most minimun value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV). Based on the research, 6 variables were declared to affect the level of unemployment in eastern Java. They were the percentage of population that is educated above high school, the rate of economic growth, the population density, the investment ratio of total labor force, the regional minimum wage and the ratio of the number of big industry and medium scale industry from the work force. The nonparametric geographically weighted regression models with truncated spline approach had a coefficient of determination 98.95% and the value of MSE equal to 0.0047.

Keywords: East Java, nonparametric geographically weighted regression, spatial, spline approach, unemployed rate

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3914 Median-Based Nonparametric Estimation of Returns in Mean-Downside Risk Portfolio Frontier

Authors: H. Ben Salah, A. Gannoun, C. de Peretti, A. Trabelsi

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The Downside Risk (DSR) model for portfolio optimisation allows to overcome the drawbacks of the classical mean-variance model concerning the asymetry of returns and the risk perception of investors. This model optimization deals with a positive definite matrix that is endogenous with respect to portfolio weights. This aspect makes the problem far more difficult to handle. For this purpose, Athayde (2001) developped a new recurcive minimization procedure that ensures the convergence to the solution. However, when a finite number of observations is available, the portfolio frontier presents an appearance which is not very smooth. In order to overcome that, Athayde (2003) proposed a mean kernel estimation of the returns, so as to create a smoother portfolio frontier. This technique provides an effect similar to the case in which we had continuous observations. In this paper, taking advantage on the the robustness of the median, we replace the mean estimator in Athayde's model by a nonparametric median estimator of the returns. Then, we give a new version of the former algorithm (of Athayde (2001, 2003)). We eventually analyse the properties of this improved portfolio frontier and apply this new method on real examples.

Keywords: Downside Risk, Kernel Method, Median, Nonparametric Estimation, Semivariance

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3913 Prospective Study to Determine the Efficacy of Day Hospital Care to Improve Treatment Adherence for Hospitalized Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Jin Hun Choi, So Hyun Ahn, Seong Keun Wang, Ik-Seung Chee, Jung Lan Kim, Sun Woo Lee

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Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of day hospital care in hospitalized schizophrenic patients in terms of treatment adherence and treatment outcomes. Methods: Among schizophrenic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2012, 23 day hospital care patient and 40 control subjects were included in the study. All candidates underwent Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Drug Attitude Inventory, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment and Psychological Well-Being Scale when their symptoms were stabilized during hospitalization, and after being discharged, 23 patients received day hospital care for two months and then changed to out-patient care while 40 patients received out-patient care immediately after discharge. At the point of two months of out-patient care, the treatment adherence of the two groups was evaluated; tracking observation was performed until February, 2013, and survival rates were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment adherence was higher in the day hospital care group than in the control group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a higher survival rate for the day hospital care group compared to the control group. Levels of cognitive insight and quality of life were higher after day hospital care than before day hospital care in the day hospital care group. Conclusions: Through the study, it was confirmed that when hospitalized schizophrenic patients received continuous day hospital care after being discharged, they received further out-patient care more faithfully. The study is considered to aid in the understanding regarding schizophrenic patients’ treatment adherence issues and improvement of treatment outcomes.

Keywords: schizophrenia, day hospital care, adherence, outcomes

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