Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: brownfield

14 The Research about Environmental Assessment Index of Brownfield Redevelopment in Taiwan - A Case Study on Formosa Chemicals and Fibre Corporation, Changhua Branch

Authors: Yang, Min-chih, Shih-Jen Feng, Bo-Tsang Li

Abstract:

The concept of “Brownfield” has been developed for nearly 35 years since it was put forward in 《Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, CERCLA》of USA in 1980 for solving the problem of soil contamination of those old industrial lands, and later, many countries have put forward relevant policies and researches continuously. But the related concept in Taiwan, a country has developed its industry for 60 years, is still in its infancy. This leads to the slow development of Brownfield related research and policy in Taiwan. When it comes to build the foundation of Brownfield development, we have to depend on the related experience and research of other countries. They are four aspects about Brownfield: 1. Contaminated Land; 2. Derelict Land; 3. Vacant Land; 4. Previously Development Land. This study will focus on and deeply investigate the Vacant land and contaminated land.

Keywords: brownfield, industrial land, redevelopment, assessment index

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13 Assesment of the Economic Potential of Lead Contaminated Brownfield for Growth of Oil Producing Crop Like Helianthus annus (Sunflower)

Authors: Shahenaz Sidi, S. K. Tank

Abstract:

When sparsely used industrial and commercial facilities are retired or abandoned, one of the biggest issues that arise is what to do with the remaining land. This land, referred to as a ‘Brownfield site’ or simply ‘Brownfield’ is often contaminated with waste and pollutants left behind by the defunct industrial facilities and factories that stand on the land. Phytoremediation has been proved a promising greener and cleaner technology in remediating the land unlike other chemical excavation methods. Helianthus annus is a hyper accumulator of lead. Helianthus annus can be used for remediation procedures in metal contaminated soils. It is a fast-growing crop which would favour soil stabilization. Its tough leaves and stems are rarely eaten by animals. The seeds (actively eaten by birds) have very low concentrations of potentially toxic elements, and represent low risk for the food web. The study is conducted to determine the phytoextraction potentials of the plant and the eventual seed harvesting and commercial oil production on remediated soil.

Keywords: Brownfield, phytoextraction, helianthus, oil, commercial

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12 Research on the Environmental Assessment Index of Brownfield Redevelopment in Taiwan: A Case Study on Formosa Chemicals and Fibre Corporation, Changhua Branch

Authors: Min-Chih Yang, Shih-Jen Feng, Bo-Tsang Li

Abstract:

The concept of “Brownfield” has been developed for nearly 35 years since it was put forward in 《Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, CERCLA》of USA in 1980 for solving the problem of soil contamination of those old industrial lands, and later, many countries have put forward relevant policies and researches continuously. But the related concept in Taiwan, a country has developed its industry for 60 years, is still in its infancy. This leads to the slow development of Brownfield related research and policy in Taiwan. When it comes to build the foundation of Brownfield development, we have to depend on the related experience and research of other countries. They are four aspects about Brownfield: 1. Contaminated Land; 2. Derelict Land; 3. Vacant Land; 4. Previously Development Land. This study will focus on and deeply investigate the Vacant land and contaminated land. The subject of this study is Formosa Chemicals & Fibre Corporation, Changhua branch in Taiwan. It has been operating for nearly 50 years and contributing a lot to the local economy. But under the influence of the toxic waste and sewage which was drained regularly or occasionally out from the factory, the environment has been destroyed seriously. There are three factors of pollution: 1. environmental toxicants, carbon disulfide, released from producing processes and volatile gases which is hard to monitor; 2. Waste and exhaust gas leakage caused by outdated equipment; 3. the wastewater discharge has seriously damage the ecological environment of the Dadu river estuary. Because of all these bad influences, the factory has been closed nowadays and moved to other places to spare the opportunities for the contaminated lands to re-develop. So we collect information about related Brownfield management experience and policies in different countries as background information to investigate the current Taiwanese Brownfield redevelopment issues and built the environmental assessment framework for it. We hope that we can set the environmental assessment indexes for Formosa Chemicals & Fibre Corporation, Changhua branch according to the framework. By investigating the theory and environmental pollution factors, we will carry out deep analysis and expert questionnaire to set those indexes and prove a sample in Taiwan for Brownfield redevelopment and remediation in the future.

Keywords: brownfield, industrial land, redevelopment, assessment index

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11 Revitalization of Industrial Brownfields in Historical Districts

Authors: Adel Menchawy, Noha Labib

Abstract:

Many cities have quarters that confer on them sense of identity and place through its cultural history. They are often vital part of the cities charm and appeal, their functional and visual qualities are important to the city’s image and identity. Brownfield sites present an important part of our built landscape. They provide tangible and intangible links to our past and have great potential to play significant roles in the future of our cities, towns and rural environments. Brownfield sites are places that were previously industrial factories or areas that might have had waste kept at that location or been exposed to many types of hazards. Thus its redevelopment revitalizes and strengthens towns and communities as it helps in economic growth, builds community pride and protects public health and the environment Three case studies are discussed in this paper; the first one is the city of Sterling which was developed and revitalized entirely and became a city with identity after it was derelict, the Second is the city of Castlefield with was a place no one was eager to visit now it became a touristic area. And finally the city of Cleveland which adopted a strategy that transferred it from being a polluted, derelict place into a mixed use development city Brownfield revitalization offers a great opportunity to transfer the city from being derelict, useless and contaminated into a place where tourists would love to come. Also it will increase the economy of the place, increase the social level, it can improve energy efficiency, reduce natural consumption, clean air, water and land and take advantage of existing buildings and sites and transfers them into an adaptive reuse after being remediated

Keywords: Brownfield Revitalization, Sustainable Brownfield, Historical conservation, Adaptive reuse

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10 Planning for Brownfield Regeneration in Malaysia: An Integrated Approach in Creating Sustainable Ex-Landfill Redevelopment

Authors: Mazifah Simis, Azahan Awang, Kadir Arifin

Abstract:

The brownfield regeneration is being implemented in developped countries. However, as a group 1 developing country in the South East Asia, the rapid development and increasing number of urban population in Malaysia have urged the needs to incorporate the brownfield regeneration into its physical planning development. The increasing number of urban ex-landfills is seen as a new resource that could overcome the issues of inadequate urban green space provisions. With regards to the new development approach in urban planning, this perception study aims to identify the sustainable planning approach based on what the stakeholders have in mind. Respondents consist of 375 local communities within four urban ex-landfill areas and 61 landscape architect and town planner officers in the Malaysian Local Authorities. Three main objectives are set to be achieved, which are (i) to identify ex-landfill issues that need to be overcome prior to the ex-landfill redevelopment (ii) to identify the most suitable types of ex-landfill redevelopment, and (iii) to identify the priority function for ex-landfill redevelopment as the public parks. From the data gathered through the survey method, the order of priorities based on stakeholders' perception was produced. The results show different perception among the stakeholders, but they agreed to the development of the public park as the main development. Hence, this study attempts to produce an integrated approach as a model for sustainable ex-landfill redevelopment that could be accepted by the stakeholders as a beneficial future development that could change the image of 296 ex-landfills in Malaysia into the urban public parks by the year 2020.

Keywords: brownfield regeneration, ex-landfill redevelopment, integrated approach, stakeholders' perception

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9 A Study of Possible Approach to Facilitate Social Sustainability of Industrial Land Redevelopment-Led Urban Regeneration

Authors: Hung Hing Chan, Tai-Shan Hu

Abstract:

Kaohsiung has been an industrial city of Taiwan for over a hundred year. Consequently, there are several abandoned industrial lands left when the process of deindustrialization has started, resulting in the decay of the adjacent urban communities. These industrial lands, which are brownfields that are potentially or already contaminated by hazardous substances, have created social injustice to the surrounding communities. The redevelopments of industrial lands bring a sustainable development to the communities, while the redevelopments can be in different forms, depending on the natural conditions. This research studies the possible approaches to facilitate social sustainability of urban regeneration resulted from the industrial land redevelopment projects, which has always been ignored. The aim of the research is to find out the best western practices of brownfield redevelopment to facilitate social aspect of sustainable urban regeneration and make a contribution to the industrial land redevelopment of Taiwan. The research is conducted via literature review and case study. Industrial land redevelopment has been a social focus in the blighted communities to promote urban regeneration after the post-industrial age. The tendency of this kind of redevelopment is towards constructing the built environment, as a result the environmental and economic aspect of sustainability of the redeveloped industrial land will be boosted, while the social aspect will not be necessarily better since the local communities affected are rarely engaged in the decision-making process and inadequate resource allocation to the projects is not guaranteed. To ensure the improvement of social sustainability is reached, the recommendations of this research, such as civic engagement, a formation of dedicated brownfield regeneration agency and resource allocation to employ brownfield process manager and to strategic communication, should be incorporated into the real practices of industrial land-led urban regeneration. Besides, the case study also shows that the social sustainability of industrial land-led urban regeneration can be promoted by (1) upholding the local feature and public participation in the regeneration process, (2) allocating resources and enforcing responsibility system, and (3) assuring financial resource for the urban regeneration projects and residents. Subsequent research will involve in-depth interviews with the chiefs of the village of related communities in Kaohsiung and questionnaire with the community members to comprehend their opinions regarding social sustainability, aiming at evaluating the social sustainability and finding out which kind of redevelopment project tends to support the social dimension of sustainable development more.

Keywords: brownfield, industrial land, redevelopment, social sustainability, urban regeneration

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8 Analysis of Brownfield Soil Contamination Using Local Government Planning Data

Authors: Emma E. Hellawell, Susan J. Hughes

Abstract:

BBrownfield sites are currently being redeveloped for residential use. Information on soil contamination on these former industrial sites is collected as part of the planning process by the local government. This research project analyses this untapped resource of environmental data, using site investigation data submitted to a local Borough Council, in Surrey, UK. Over 150 site investigation reports were collected and interrogated to extract relevant information. This study involved three phases. Phase 1 was the development of a database for soil contamination information from local government reports. This database contained information on the source, history, and quality of the data together with the chemical information on the soil that was sampled. Phase 2 involved obtaining site investigation reports for development within the study area and extracting the required information for the database. Phase 3 was the data analysis and interpretation of key contaminants to evaluate typical levels of contaminants, their distribution within the study area, and relating these results to current guideline levels of risk for future site users. Preliminary results for a pilot study using a sample of the dataset have been obtained. This pilot study showed there is some inconsistency in the quality of the reports and measured data, and careful interpretation of the data is required. Analysis of the information has found high levels of lead in shallow soil samples, with mean and median levels exceeding the current guidance for residential use. The data also showed elevated (but below guidance) levels of potentially carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Of particular concern from the data was the high detection rate for asbestos fibers. These were found at low concentrations in 25% of the soil samples tested (however, the sample set was small). Contamination levels of the remaining chemicals tested were all below the guidance level for residential site use. These preliminary pilot study results will be expanded, and results for the whole local government area will be presented at the conference. The pilot study has demonstrated the potential for this extensive dataset to provide greater information on local contamination levels. This can help inform regulators and developers and lead to more targeted site investigations, improving risk assessments, and brownfield development.

Keywords: Brownfield development, contaminated land, local government planning data, site investigation

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7 Conflict around the Brownfield Reconversion of the Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa: A Clash of Ambitions and Visions in Canadian Urban Sustainability

Authors: Kenza Benali

Abstract:

Over the past decade, a number of remarkable projects in urban brownfield reconversion emerged across Canada, including the reconversion of former military bases owned by the Canada Lands Company (CLC) into sustainable communities. However, unlike other developments, the regeneration project of the former Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa – which was announced as one of the most ambitious Smart growth projects in Canada – faced serious obstacles in terms of social acceptance by the local community, particularly urban minorities composed of Francophones, Indigenous and vulnerable groups who live near or on the Base. This turn of events led to the project being postponed and even reconsidered. Through an analysis of its press coverage, this research aims to understand the causes of this urban conflict which lasted for nearly ten years. The findings reveal that the conflict is not limited to the “standard” issues common to most conflicts related to urban mega-projects in the world – e.g., proximity issues (threads to the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods; noise, traffic, pollution, New-build gentrification) often associated with NIMBY phenomena. In this case, the local actors questioned the purpose of the project (for whom and for what types of uses is it conceived?), its local implementation (to what extent are the local history and existing environment taken into account?), and the degree of implication of the local population in the decision-making process (with whom is the project built?). Moreover, the interests of the local actors have “jumped scales” and transcend the micro-territorial level of their daily life to take on a national and even international dimension. They defined an alternative view of how this project, considered strategic by his location in the nation’s capital, should be a reference as well as an international showcase of Canadian ambition and achievement in terms of urban sustainability. This vision promoted, actually, a territorial and national identity approach - in which some cultural values are highly significant (respect of social justice, inclusivity, ethnical diversity, cultural heritage, etc.)- as a counterweight to planners’ vision which is criticized as a normative/ universalist logic that ignore the territorial peculiarities.

Keywords: smart growth, brownfield reconversion, sustainable neighborhoods, Canada Lands Company, Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe, urban conflicts

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6 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

Abstract:

In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: brownfield, Medicago sativa, phytoremediation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, root exudates, saponin, solubilization, Trifolium pratense

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5 Impact of Changes in Travel Behavior Triggered by the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tourist Ininfrastructure. Water Reservoirs of the Vltava Cascade (Czechia) Case Study

Authors: Jiří Vágner, Dana Fialová

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic and its effects have triggered significant changes in travel behavior. On the contrary to a deep decline in international tourism, domestic tourism has recovered. It has not fully replaced the total volume of national tourism so far. However, from a regional point of view, and especially according to the type of destinations, regional targeting has changed significantly compared to the previous period. Urban destinations, which used to be the domain of foreign tourists, have been relatively orphaned, in contrast to destinations tied to natural attractions, which have seen seasonal increases. Even here, at a lower hierarchical geographic level, we can observe the differentiation resulting from the existing localization and infrastructure. The case study is focused on the three largest water reservoirs of the Vltava Cascade in Czechia– Lipno, Orlík, and Slapy. Based on a detailed field survey, in the periods before and during the pandemic, as well as available statistical data (Tourdata; Czech Statistical Office, Czech Cadaster and Ordnance Survey), different trends in the exploitation of these destinations with regard to existing or planned infrastructure are documented, analyzed and explained. This gives us the opportunity to discuss on concrete examples of generally known phenomena that are usually neglected in tourism: slum, brownfield, greenfield. Changes in travel behavior – especially the focus on spending leisure time individually in naturally attractive destinations – can affect the use of sites, which can be defined as a tourist or recreational slum, brownfield, but also as a tourist greenfield development. Sociocultural changes and perception of destinations by tourists and other actors represent, besides environmental changes, major trends in current tourism.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, czechia, sociocultural and environmental impacts, tourist infrastructure, travel behavior, the Vltava Cascade water reservoirs

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4 Public Procurement and Innovation: A Municipal Approach

Authors: M. Moso-Diez, J. L. Moragues-Oregi, K. Simon-Elorz

Abstract:

Innovation procurement is designed to steer the development of solutions towards concrete public sector needs as a driver for innovation from the demand side (in public services as well as in market opportunities for companies), is horizontally emerging as a new policy instrument. In 2014 the new EU public procurement directives 2014/24/EC and 2014/25/EC reinforced the support for Public Procurement for Innovation, dedicating funding instruments that can be used across all areas supported by Horizon 2020, and targeting potential buyers of innovative solutions: groups of public procurers with similar needs. Under this programme, new policy adapters and networks emerge, aiming to embed innovation criteria into new procurement processes. As these initiatives are in process, research related to is scarce. We argue that Innovation Public Procurement can arise as an innovative policy instrument to public procurement in different policy domains, in spite of existing institutional and cultural barriers (legal guarantee versus innovation). The presentation combines insights from public procurement to supply management chain management in a sustainability and innovation policy arena, as a means of providing understanding of: (1) the circumstances that emerge; (2) the relationship between public and private actors; and (3) the emerging capacities in the definition of the agenda. The policy adopters are the contracting authorities that mainly are at municipal level where they interact with the supply management chain, interconnecting sustainability and climate measures with other policy priorities such as innovation and urban planning; and through the Competitive Dialogue procedure. We found that geography and territory affect both the level of municipal budget (due to municipal income per capita) and its institutional competencies (due to demographic reasons). In spite of the relevance of institutional determinants for public procurement, other factors play an important role such as human factors as well as both public policy and private intervention. The experience is a ‘city project’ (Bilbao) in the field of brownfield decontamination. Brownfield sites typically refer to abandoned or underused industrial and commercial properties—such as old process plants, mining sites, and landfills—that are available but contain low levels of environmental contaminants that may complicate reuse or redevelopment of the land. This article concludes that Innovation Public Procurement in sustainability and climate issues should be further developed both as a policy instrument and as a policy research line that could enable further relevant changes in public procurement as well as in climate innovation.

Keywords: innovation, city projects, public policy, public procurement

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3 A Case Study of Brownfield Revitalization in Taiwan

Authors: Jen Wang, Wei-Chia Hsu, Zih-Sin Wang, Ching-Ping Chu, Bo-Shiou Guo

Abstract:

In the late 19th century, the Jinguashi ore deposit in northern Taiwan was discovered, and accompanied with flourishing mining activities. However, tons of contaminants including heavy metals, sulfur dioxide, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were released to surroundings and caused environmental problems. Site T was one of copper smelter located on the coastal hill near Jinguashi ore deposit. In over ten years of operation, variety contaminants were emitted that it polluted the surrounding soil and groundwater quality. In order to exhaust fumes produced from smelting process, three stacks were built along the hill behind the factory. The sediment inside the stacks contains high concentration of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, copper, etc. Moreover, soil around the discarded stacks suffered a serious contamination when deposition leached from the ruptures of stacks. Consequently, Site T (including the factory and its surroundings) was declared as a pollution remediation site that visiting the site and land-use activities on it are forbidden. However, the natural landscape and cultural attractions of Site T are spectacular that it attracts a lot of visitors annually. Moreover, land resources are extremely precious in Taiwan. In addition, Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is actively promoting the contaminated land revitalization policy. Therefore, this study took Site T as case study for brownfield revitalization planning to the limits of activate and remediate the natural resources. Land-use suitability analysis and risk mapping were applied in this study to make appropriate risk management measures and redevelopment plan for the site. In land-use suitability analysis, surrounding factors into consideration such as environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land use, contamination, culture, and landscapes were collected to assess the development of each area; health risk mapping was introduced to show the image of risk assessments results based on the site contamination investigation. According to land-use suitability analysis, the site was divided into four zones: priority area (for high-efficiency development), secondary area (for co-development with priority area), conditional area (for reusing existing building) and limited area (for Eco-tourism and education). According to the investigation, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), heavy metals and TPH were considered as target contaminants while oral, inhalation and dermal would be the major exposure pathways in health risk assessment. In accordance with health risk map, the highest risk was found in the southwest and eastern side. Based on the results, the development plan focused on zoning and land use. Site T was recommended be divides to public facility zone, public architectonic art zone, viewing zone, existing building preservation zone, historic building zone, and cultural landscape zone for various purpose. In addition, risk management measures including sustained remediation, extinguish exposure and administration management are applied to ensure particular places are suitable for visiting and protect the visitors’ health. The consolidated results are corroborated available by analyzing aspects of law, land acquired method, maintenance and management and public participation. Therefore, this study has a certain reference value to promote the contaminated land revitalization policy in Taiwan.

Keywords: brownfield revitalization, land-use suitability analysis, health risk map, risk management

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2 Analysis of Tools for Revitalization and Rehabilitation of Brownfields

Authors: Jiří Kugl

Abstract:

Typology and specific opportunities of brownfield revitalization are already largely described. Challenges and opportunities that brownfields represent have been adequately studied and presented, as well as specific ways in which these areas can be used or how they are used abroad. In other words, the questions why (revitalize brownfields) and what (we should do with them) are satisfactorily answered, but the question how (we can work with them) is not. This work will focus on answering this question, which will deal with tools that enable the revitalization and rehabilitation projects in the area. Tools can be divided, for example in terms of spatial planning and urban design, from an environmental perspective, from the perspective of cultural heritage protection and from the perspective of investment opportunities. The result is that the issue of brownfields is handled by numerous institutions and instruments. The aim of this paper is to identify, classify and analyze these instruments. Paper will study instruments from other countries with long-term experience with this issue (eg. France, Great Britain, USA, Germany, Denmark, Czech Republic) and analyse their contribution and the feasibility of their implementation in other countries.

Keywords: brownfields, revitalization, rehabilitation, tools, urban planning

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1 Culvert Blockage Evaluation Using Australian Rainfall And Runoff 2019

Authors: Rob Leslie, Taher Karimian

Abstract:

The blockage of cross drainage structures is a risk that needs to be understood and managed or lessened through the design. A blockage is a random event, influenced by site-specific factors, which needs to be quantified for design. Under and overestimation of blockage can have major impacts on flood risk and cost associated with drainage structures. The importance of this matter is heightened for those projects located within sensitive lands. It is a particularly complex problem for large linear infrastructure projects (e.g., rail corridors) located within floodplains where blockage factors can influence flooding upstream and downstream of the infrastructure. The selection of the appropriate blockage factors for hydraulic modeling has been subject to extensive research by hydraulic engineers. This paper has been prepared to review the current Australian Rainfall and Runoff 2019 (ARR 2019) methodology for blockage assessment by applying this method to a transport corridor brownfield upgrade case study in New South Wales. The results of applying the method are also validated against asset data and maintenance records. ARR 2019 – Book 6, Chapter 6 includes advice and an approach for estimating the blockage of bridges and culverts. This paper concentrates specifically on the blockage of cross drainage structures. The method has been developed to estimate the blockage level for culverts affected by sediment or debris due to flooding. The objective of the approach is to evaluate a numerical blockage factor that can be utilized in a hydraulic assessment of cross drainage structures. The project included an assessment of over 200 cross drainage structures. In order to estimate a blockage factor for use in the hydraulic model, a process has been advanced that considers the qualitative factors (e.g., Debris type, debris availability) and site-specific hydraulic factors that influence blockage. A site rating associated with the debris potential (i.e., availability, transportability, mobility) at each crossing was completed using the method outlined in ARR 2019 guidelines. The hydraulic results inputs (i.e., flow velocity, flow depth) and qualitative factors at each crossing were developed into an advanced spreadsheet where the design blockage level for cross drainage structures were determined based on the condition relating Inlet Clear Width and L10 (average length of the longest 10% of the debris reaching the site) and the Adjusted Debris Potential. Asset data, including site photos and maintenance records, were then reviewed and compared with the blockage assessment to check the validity of the results. The results of this assessment demonstrate that the estimated blockage factors at each crossing location using ARR 2019 guidelines are well-validated with the asset data. The primary finding of the study is that the ARR 2019 methodology is a suitable approach for culvert blockage assessment that has been validated against a case study spanning a large geographical area and multiple sub-catchments. The study also found that the methodology can be effectively coded within a spreadsheet or similar analytical tool to automate its application.

Keywords: ARR 2019, blockage, culverts, methodology

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