Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 140

Search results for: Natalia Espinosa

140 Feedforward Neural Network with Backpropagation for Epilepsy Seizure Detection

Authors: Natalia Espinosa, Arthur Amorim, Rudolf Huebner

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a chronic neural disease and around 50 million people in the world suffer from this disease, however, in many cases, the individual acquires resistance to the medication, which is known as drug-resistant epilepsy, where a detection system is necessary. This paper showed the development of an automatic system for seizure detection based on artificial neural networks (ANN), which are common techniques of machine learning. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for decomposing electroencephalogram (EEG) signal into main brain waves, with these frequency bands is extracted features for training a feedforward neural network with backpropagation, finally made a pattern classification, seizure or non-seizure. Obtaining 95% accuracy in epileptic EEG and 100% in normal EEG.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Epilepsy Detection , Seizure.

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139 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas

Abstract:

The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: dietary supplements, food, health, functional food, Colombia

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138 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

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The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
137 Investigating Students’ Cognitive Processes in Solving Stoichiometric Problems and its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Larkins A. Trinidad

Abstract:

The present study investigated collegiate students’ problem solving strategies and misconceptions in solving stoichiometric problems and later on formulate a teaching framework from the result of the study. The study found out that the most prominent strategies among students are the mole method and the proportionality method, which are both algorithmic by nature. Misconception was also noted as some students rely on Avogadro’s number in converting between moles. It is suggested therefore that the teaching of stoichiometry should not be confined to demonstration. Students should be involved in the process of thinking of ways to solve the problem.

Keywords: stoichiometry, Svogadro’s number, mole method, proportionality method

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
136 Senior Management in Innovative Companies: An Approach from Creativity and Innovation Management

Authors: Juan Carlos Montalvo-Rodriguez, Juan Felipe Espinosa-Cristia, Pablo Islas Madariaga, Jorge Cifuentes Valenzuela

Abstract:

This article presents different relationships between top management and innovative companies, based on the developments of creativity and innovation management. First of all, it contextualizes the innovative company in relation to management, creativity, and innovation. Secondly, it delves into the vision of top management of innovative companies, from the perspectives of the management of creativity and innovation. Thirdly, their commonalities are highlighted, bearing in mind the importance that both approaches attribute to aspects such as leadership, networks, strategy, culture, technology, environment, and complexity in the top management of innovative companies. Based on the above, an integration of both fields of study is proposed, as an alternative to deepen the relationship between senior management and the innovative company.

Keywords: top management, creativity, innovation, innovative firm, leadership, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
135 On a Theoretical Framework for Language Learning Apps Evaluation

Authors: Juan Manuel Real-Espinosa

Abstract:

This paper addresses the first step to evaluate language learning apps: what theoretical framework to adopt when designing the app evaluation framework. The answer is not just one since there are several options that could be proposed. However, the question to be clarified is to what extent the learning design of apps is based on a specific learning approach, or on the contrary, on a fusion of elements from several theoretical proposals and paradigms, such as m-learning, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, and a number of theories about language acquisition. The present study suggests that the reality is closer to the second assumption. This implies that the theoretical framework against which the learning design of the apps should be evaluated must also be a hybrid theoretical framework, which integrates evaluation criteria from the different theories involved in language learning through mobile applications.

Keywords: mobile-assisted language learning, second language acquisition, materials' evaluation, m-learning, action-oriented approach

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134 Functions and Pragmatic Aspects of English Nonsense

Authors: Natalia V. Ursul

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In linguistic studies, the question of nonsense is attracting increasing interest. Nonsense is usually defined as spoken or written words that have no meaning. However, this definition is likely to be outdated as any speech act is generated due to the speaker’s pragmatic reasons, thus it cannot be purely illogical or meaningless. In the current paper a new working definition of nonsense as a linguistic medium will be formulated; moreover, the pragmatic peculiarities of newly coined linguistic patterns and possible ways of their interpretation will be discussed.

Keywords: nonsense, nonse verse, pragmatics, speech act

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133 Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming

Authors: Francisco Espinosa, Juan Chavarría

Abstract:

Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.

Keywords: aqueous-phase reforming, glycerol, hydrogen production, iridium

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132 Street Art Lenses: A Glimpse into the Street Artists’ Identity and Socio-Political Perspective in Brussels

Authors: José Francisco Urrutia Reyes, Judith Espinosa Real

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This paper is meant to re-examine the role of street art in the contemporary world. By studying this form of art in Brussels, it can be explained how murals show the socio-political reality of a given community and influence on its interaction. Through the definitions of street art, murals and street artists, and analysing their role in Brussels, it is possible to understand how this counter culture movement serves as an engine of social development, as it interacts with its surroundings sending a clear message to a wider audience. Street art impacts on its environment because it interacts with the people who occupies the day-to-day public space. This has proven to be effective in the arouse of social consciousness, up to the point of being adopted by the government of Brussels to promote social movements such as the AIDS-HIV campaign along with the Plate-Forme Prévention Sida. It can be concluded that street art has evolved since its vandalic beginnings, to become a form of art that has not lost it counter official status, but now has a critical vision that can promote social awakening. Street art is now a global trend that uses visual inputs to create a positive impact.

Keywords: street art, Brussels, social impact, political perspective

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131 Web-Content Analysis of the Major Spanish Tourist Destinations Evaluation by Russian Tourists

Authors: Natalia Polkanova, Sergey Kazakov

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In the research, we proposed the set of factors of tourist destinations attractiveness in Spain and determined the factors that have the greatest impact on the positive perception of the tourist destination by Russian tourists; also, we examined what factors create the willingness for Russians to recommend this tourist destination to their friends and relatives. The tourists' comments on the Russian travel sites have been analyzed in order to determine the frequency of attractiveness characteristics references. Additionally, the study will reflect the relationship of variables.

Keywords: tourism destination, destination attractiveness, destination competitiveness, content analysis, unstructured image

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
130 The Relationship between Permissive Parenting Style and Sexual Exploitation

Authors: Natalia Langner Smith

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Because of the covert nature of sexual exploitation (SE), there is a need to explore a range of risk profiles beyond the typical victim to increase victim identification and services. The current study utilized ADD health data to assess the influence of parental involvement on the risk of SE using the logistic regression analysis. The study showed the need to expand risk assessment to minors who show red flags for SE instead of focusing on specific characteristics of their vulnerabilities. The study showed that minors from loving and warm families are also at risk for exploitation.

Keywords: permissive parenting style, sexual exploitation, risk profiles, identification

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129 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov

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In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor network

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128 Effects of Medium Composition on the Production of Biomass and a Carbohydrate Isomerase by a Novel Strain of Lactobacillus

Authors: M. Miriam Hernández-Arroyo, Ivonne Caro-Gonzales, Miguel Ángel Plascencia-Espinosa, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

Abstract:

A large biodiversity of Lactobacillus strains has been detected in traditional foods and beverages from Mexico. A selected strain of Lactobacillus sp - PODI-20, used for the obtained from an artisanal fermented beverage was cultivated in different carbon sources in a complex medium, in order to define which carbon sourced induced more effectively the isomerization of arabinose by cell fractions obtained by fermentation. Four different carbon sources were tested in a medium containing peptone and yeast extract and mineral salts. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and lactose were tested individually at three different concentrations: 3.5, 6, and 10% w/v. The biomass yield ranged from 1.72 to 17.6 g/L. The cell pellet was processed by mechanical homogenization. Both fractions, the cellular debris, and the lysis supernatant were tested for their ability to isomerize arabinose into ribulose. The highest yield of isomer was 12 % of isomerization in the supernatant fractions; whereas up to 9.3% was obtained by the use of cell debris. The isomerization of arabinose has great significance in the production of lactic acid by fermentation of complex carbohydrate hydrolysates.

Keywords: isomerase, tagatose, aguamiel, isomerization

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127 Creation of Greenhouses by Students, Using the Own Installations of the University and Increasing the Growth of Plants

Authors: Espinosa-Garza G., Loera-Hernandez I., Antonyan N.

Abstract:

To innovate, it is necessary to perform projects directed towards the search of improvement. The agricultural technique and the design of greenhouses have been studied by undergraduate engineering students from the Tecnológico de Monterrey using the campus areas. The purpose of this project was to incite students to create innovations and help rural populations of the state to solve one of the problems that they are dealing with nowadays. The main objective of the project was to search for an alternative technique that will allow the planting of the “chile piquín” plant, also known as Capsicum annuum, to grow quicker as it germinates. The “chile piquín” is one of the original crops of Mexico and forms the basis of the Mesoamerican cultures’ diet since the pre-hispanic era. To fulfill with today’s demand, it is required to implement new alternative methods to increase the “chile piquín’s” growth. The project lasted one semester with the participation of engineering students from multiple majors. The most important results from this academic experience were that, from the proposed goal, the students could analyze the needs of their town and were capable of introducing new and innovative ideas with the aim of resolving them. In the present article the pedagogic methodologies that allowed to carry out this project will be discussed.

Keywords: academic experience, chile piquín, engineering education, greenhouse design, innovation

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126 Nature Writing in Margaret Atwood’s 'The Testaments'

Authors: Natalia Fontes De Oliveira

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Nature and women have a long age association that has persisted throughout history, cultures, literature, and arts. Women’s physiological functions of reproduction and childbearing are viewed as closer to nature as a binary opposition to men, who have metaphorically and historically been associated with culture. To liberate from strictures of phallogocentric rhetoric, a radical critique of the categories of nature and culture must be undertaken. This paper proposes that nature writing in Margaret Atwood’s The Testaments is used subversively as a form of rebellion to disrupt the metaphorical relationship between women and nature. In tune with ecofeminist concerns, the imagery rewrites patriarchal paradigms of binary oppositions as the protagonists narrate a complex and plural relationship between nature and women.

Keywords: ecofeminism, Margaret Atwood, nature writing, women's writing

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125 Application of Signature Verification Models for Document Recognition

Authors: Boris M. Fedorov, Liudmila P. Goncharenko, Sergey A. Sybachin, Natalia A. Mamedova, Ekaterina V. Makarenkova, Saule Rakhimova

Abstract:

In modern economic conditions, the question of the possibility of correct recognition of a signature on digital documents in order to verify the expression of will or confirm a certain operation is relevant. The additional complexity of processing lies in the dynamic variability of the signature for each individual, as well as in the way information is processed because the signature refers to biometric data. The article discusses the issues of using artificial intelligence models in order to improve the quality of signature confirmation in document recognition. The analysis of several possible options for using the model is carried out. The results of the study are given, in which it is possible to correctly determine the authenticity of the signature on small samples.

Keywords: signature recognition, biometric data, artificial intelligence, neural networks

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124 Women's Contemporary Dystopias: Feminist Protagonists Taking Back Control

Authors: Natalia Fontes De Oliveira

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The Canadian author Margaret Atwood deconstructs the tainted dichotomies between women and men by embracing the disorder throughout her dystopias. In Atwood’s The Testaments, nature can be seen as a background to the story as well as a metaphorical expression of the characters’ state of mind, nevertheless, the protagonists’ nature writing portrays conveys a curiosity to the pre-established sanctions of a docile garden, viewing nature as an autonomous entity, especially when they are away from the confinements of Gilead’s regime. The three narrating protagonists, Agnes, Aunt Lydia, and Nicole, use nature writing subversively as a form of rebellion. This paper investigates how the three protagonists narrate nature through an intimist point of view, with sensibility to observe the multiple relationships among humanity, nature, and the impositions of a theocratic ultra conservative patriarchal society.

Keywords: contemporary literature, dystopias, feminism, women’s writing

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123 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

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From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP

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122 Unsupervised Neural Architecture for Saliency Detection

Authors: Natalia Efremova, Sergey Tarasenko

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We propose a novel neural network architecture for visual saliency detections, which utilizes neuro physiologically plausible mechanisms for extraction of salient regions. The model has been significantly inspired by recent findings from neuro physiology and aimed to simulate the bottom-up processes of human selective attention. Two types of features were analyzed: color and direction of maximum variance. The mechanism we employ for processing those features is PCA, implemented by means of normalized Hebbian learning and the waves of spikes. To evaluate performance of our model we have conducted psychological experiment. Comparison of simulation results with those of experiment indicates good performance of our model.

Keywords: neural network models, visual saliency detection, normalized Hebbian learning, Oja's rule, psychological experiment

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121 Sustainability Index for REDD-Plus Implementation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Febrina Natalia, Noriyuki Tanaka, Mitsuru Osaki

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Sustainability Index for REDD-plus implementation was constructed to evaluate the sustainability of different communities in 5 villages (Taruna Jaya, Tumbang Nusa, Marang, Terantang, and Seragam Jaya) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia based on the main objectives of REDD-plus project (reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation, increasing carbon stock, preserving biodiversity and sustaining forest management). This index was separately composed of 3 different components; (1) ecology, (2) economy, and (3) society. The index of sustainability was determined into four categories; 3,3-4,0 (excellent), 2,5-3,2 (good), 1,8-2,4 (fair), and 1,0-1,7 (poor). Overall, this technique aims to assist all stakeholders and local government in particular in providing information of villages’ sustainability index before implementing REDD-plus project that the assistance and benefits given to villages will be beneficial, effective and efficient.

Keywords: central kalimantan, Indonesia, REDD-plus, sustainability index

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120 Educational Experience and the Investigation Results: Creation of New Healthy Products

Authors: G. Espinosa Garza, I. Loera, N. Antonyan

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In the last decades, teaching in particular engineering subjects is going through a significative problem. A quick evaluation of the entrepreneurial surroundings makes it more difficult for students to identify the course contents with real situations related with their future professions. Proposing teaching through challenges or problem-based projects, and real-life situations is turning into an important challenge for any university-level educator. The objective of this work is to present the educational experience and the investigation results taken through the Project Viability course, done by a group of professors and students from the Technologic of Monterrey. Currently, in Mexico, the orange peels are considered a dispose and they are not being utilized as an alternative to create subproducts. However, there is a great opportunity in its use as a raw material with the goal to originate the waste from the local citric firms or business. The project challenge consisted in the development of edible products from the orange peel with the intention to generate new healthy products. With this project, apart from the obtainment of the original results, the accomplishment consisted in creating a learning atmosphere, where students together with the professors were able to plan, evaluate, and implement the project related with the creative, innovative, and sustainable processes with the goal to apply it in the development of local solutions. In the present article, the pedagogic methodologies that allowed to carry out this project will be discussed.

Keywords: engineering subjects, learning project, orange peel, sustainable process

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
119 Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Gabriela V. Angeles Perez, Jose Castillejos Lopez, Araceli L. Reyes Cabello, Emilio Bravo Grajales, Adriana Perez Espinosa, Jose L. Quiroz Fabian

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represents very high inversion of time and money, additionally, the result are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms was the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.

Keywords: data mining, k-means, road traffic accidents, Waze, Weka

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118 Assessment of Aminopolyether on 18F-FDG Samples

Authors: Renata L. C. Leão, João E. Nascimento, Natalia C. E. S. Nascimento, Elaine S. Vasconcelos, Mércia L. Oliveira

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The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopeias consists of a thin layer chromatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) preparations. The approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and they showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in 18F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the reference method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of 18F-FDG.

Keywords: chemical purity, Kryptofix 222, thin layer chromatography, validation

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117 A Child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Trap of Expectations: About the Golem Effect at School

Authors: Natalia Kajka, Agnieszka Kulik

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The aim of the study is to present the results regarding differences in perception of cognitive progress of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by adults and children themselves. The experiment was attended by 45 children with ADHD, their parents and teachers. The children attended the 3-month metacognitive training. Both children and adults were examined before and after joining this project. In order to show significant differences between the first and second measurement of the test, non-parametric Wilcoxon tests were performed. The analysis showed statistically significant differences in the change of cognitive functioning in children with ADHD participating in metacognitive training, this was also confirmed by the results of the parents' research. There were no significant differences in the teachers' assessment of these children.

Keywords: ADHD, executive function, Golem effect metacognitive training

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116 Obstacles to Innovation for SMEs: Evidence from Germany

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

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Achieving effective innovation is a complex task and during this process firms (especially SMEs) often face obstacles. However, research into obstacles to innovation focusing on SMEs is very scarce. In this study, we propose a theoretical framework for describing these obstacles to innovation and investigate their influence on the innovative performance of SMEs. Data were collected in 2013 through face-to-face interviews with executives of 49 technology SMEs from Germany. The semi-structured interviews were designed on the basis of scales for measuring innovativeness, financial/competitive performance and obstacles to innovation, next to purely open questions. We find that the internal obstacles lack the know-how, capacity overloading, unclear roles and tasks, as well as the external obstacle governmental bureaucracy negatively influence the innovative performance of SMEs. However, in contrast to prior findings this study shows that cooperation ties of firms might also negatively influence the innovative performance.

Keywords: innovation, innovation process, obstacles, SME

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115 'Caucasian Mountaineer / Scottish Highlander': Correlation between Semantics and Culture

Authors: Natalia M. Nepomniashchikh

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The research focuses on Russian and English linguoculturemes Caucasian mountaineer and Scottish Highlander, the effort of comparative-contrastive analysis was made. In order to reach the aim, the analysis of the vocabulary definitions of the concepts under consideration was taken, which made it possible to build the lexical-semantic fields of both lexical items in Russian and English. This stage of research helped to turn to the linguistic-cultural fields construction. To build these fields, literary pieces containing the concepts under consideration and the items directly related to them were taken from the works about the Caucasus mountains and mountaineers living there by M. Yu. Lermontov and the ones by W. Scott devoted to the Scottish Highlands and their inhabitants. All collected data was systematized in schemes and tables reflecting the differences and intercrossing areas.

Keywords: lexemes, lexical items, lexical-semantic field, linguistic-cultural field, linguoculturemes

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114 Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Central Mexico

Authors: Jacobo Tabla, P. F. Rodriguez-Espinosa, M. E. Perez-Lopez

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Valsequillo reservoir located in Puebla City, Central Mexico receives water from the Atoyac River (Northwest) and from Alseseca River in the north. It has been the receptacle of municipal and industrial wastes for the past few decades affecting the water quality lethally. As a result, there is an outburst of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) in the reservoir occupying around 50 % of the total area. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the concentration levels of toxic metals (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As) in the water hyacinths and the ambient waters during the dry season. Fourteen water samples and three water hyacinth samples were procured from the Valsequillo reservoir. The collected samples of water hyacinth (roots, rhizome, stems and leaves) were analyzed using an Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) Ultramass 700 (Varian Inc.) to determine the metal levels. Results showed that water hyacinth presented an exhaustion in metal capture from the inlet to outlet of the reservoir. The maximum bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As were 5000, 47474, 4929, 17090 and 74000 respectively. On the other hand, the maximum Translocation Factor (TF) of 0.85 was observed in Zn, whilst Co presented the minimum TF of 0.059. Thus, the results presented the fact that water hyacinth in Valsequillo reservoir proves to be an important environmental utility for efficiently accumulating and translocating heavy metals from the ambient waters to its organelles (stems and leaves).

Keywords: bioaccumulation factor, toxic metals, translocation factor, water hyacinth

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113 Solving the Set Covering Problem Using the Binary Cat Swarm Optimization Metaheuristic

Authors: Broderick Crawford, Ricardo Soto, Natalia Berrios, Eduardo Olguin

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In this paper, we present a binary cat swarm optimization for solving the Set covering problem. The set covering problem is a well-known NP-hard problem with many practical applications, including those involving scheduling, production planning and location problems. Binary cat swarm optimization is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the behavior of discrete cats. Domestic cats show the ability to hunt and are curious about moving objects. The cats have two modes of behavior: seeking mode and tracing mode. We illustrate this approach with 65 instances of the problem from the OR-Library. Moreover, we solve this problem with 40 new binarization techniques and we select the technical with the best results obtained. Finally, we make a comparison between results obtained in previous studies and the new binarization technique, that is, with roulette wheel as transfer function and V3 as discretization technique.

Keywords: binary cat swarm optimization, binarization methods, metaheuristic, set covering problem

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112 Environmental Consequences of Metal Concentrations in Stream Sediments of Atoyac River Basin, Central Mexico: Natural and Industrial Influences

Authors: V. C. Shruti, P. F. Rodríguez-Espinosa, D. C. Escobedo-Urías, Estefanía Martinez Tavera, M. P. Jonathan

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Atoyac River, a major south-central river flowing through the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala in Mexico is significantly impacted by the natural volcanic inputs in addition with wastewater discharges from urban, agriculture and industrial zones. In the present study, core samples were collected from R. Atoyac and analyzed for sediment granularity, major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P and S) and trace elemental concentrations (Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). The textural studies reveal that the sediments are mostly sand sized particles exceeding 99% and with very few to no presence of mud fractions. It is observed that most of the metals like (avg: all values in μg g-1) Ca (35,528), Mg (10,789), K (7453), S (1394), Ba (203), Cr (30), Cd (4), Pb (11), Sr (435), Zn (76) and Zr (88) are enriched throughout the sediments mainly sourced from volcanic inputs, source rock composition of Atoyac River basin and industrial influences from the Puebla city region. Contamination indices, such as anthropogenic factor (AF), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), were used to investigate the level of contamination and toxicity as well as quantitatively assess the influences of human activities on metal concentrations. The AF values (>1) for Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and S suggested volcanic inputs from the study region, where as Cd and Zn are attributed to the impacts of industrial inputs in this zone. The EF and Igeo values revealed an extreme enrichment of S and Cd. The ecological risks were evaluated using potential ecological risk index (RI) and the results indicate that the metals Cd and V pose a major hazard for the biological community.

Keywords: Atoyac River, contamination indices, metal concentrations, Mexico, textural studies

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111 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5

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