Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3725

Search results for: low carbon steel

3725 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry

Abstract:

The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion rate, erosion, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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3724 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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3723 Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile)-Polyaniline Dodecylbenzenesulfonate [NBR-PAni.DBSA] Blends for Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

Authors: Kok-Chong Yong

Abstract:

Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-polyaniline Dodecylbenzenesulfonate [NBR-PAni.DBSA] blends with useful electrical conductivity (up to 0.1 S/cm) were prepared and their corrosion inhibiting behaviours for carbon steel were successfully assessed for the first time. The level of compatibility between NBR and PAni.DBSA was enhanced through the introduction of 1.0 wt % hydroquinone. As found from both total immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests, NBR-PAni.DBSA blends with 10.0-30.0 wt% of PAni.DBSA content exhibited the best corrosion inhibiting behaviour for carbon steel, either in acid or artificial brine environment. On the other hand, blends consisting of very low and very high PAni.DBSA contents (i.e. ≤ 5.0 wt % and ≥ 40.0 wt %) showed significantly poorer corrosion inhibiting behaviour for carbon steel.

Keywords: conductive rubber, nitrile rubber, polyaniline, carbon steel, corrosion inhibition

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3722 Enhanced of Corrosion Resistance of Carbon Steel C1018 with Nano-Tio2 Films Using Dip-Coating Method

Authors: Mai M. Khalaf, Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

Abstract:

A new good application for the sol gel method is to improve the corrosion inhibition properties of carbon steel by the dip coating method of Nano TiO2 films and its modification with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). The prepared coating samples were investigated by different techniques, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). The corrosion inhibition performance of the blank carbon steel and prepared coatings samples were evaluated in 0.5 M H2SO4 by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that corrosion resistance of carbon steel increases with increasing the number of coated layers of both nano–TiO2 films and its modification of PEG. SEM-EDAX analyses confirmed that the percentage atomic content of iron for the carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 is 83% and after the deposition of the steel in nano TiO2 sol and that with PEG are 94.3% and 93.7% respectively.

Keywords: dip-coatings, corrosion protection, sol gel, TiO2 films, PEG

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3721 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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3720 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee

Abstract:

Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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3719 Study the Behavior of Different Composite Short Columns (DST) with Prismatic Sections under Bending Load

Authors: V. Sadeghi Balkanlou, M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, A. Hasanbakloo, B. Bagheri Azar

Abstract:

In this paper, the behavior of different types of DST columns has been studied under bending load. Briefly, composite columns consist of an internal carbon steel tube and an external stainless steel wall that the between the walls are filled with concrete. Composite columns are expected to combine the advantages of all three materials and have the advantage of high flexural stiffness of CFDST columns. In this research, ABAQUS software is used for finite element analysis then the results of ultimate strength of the composite sections are illustrated.

Keywords: DST, stainless steel, carbon steel, ABAQUS, straigh columns, tapered columns

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3718 Analysis of Various Factors Affecting Hardness and Content of Phases Resulting from 1030 Carbon Steel Heat Treatment Using AC3 Software

Authors: Saeid Shahraki, Mohammad Mahdi Kaekha

Abstract:

1030 steel, a kind of carbon steel used in homogenization, cold-forming, quenching, and tempering conditions, is generally utilized in small parts resisting medium stress, such as connection foundations, hydraulic cylinders, tiny gears, pins, clamps, automotive normal forging parts, camshafts, levers, pundits, and nuts. In this study, AC3 software was used to measure the effect of carbon and manganese percentage, dimensions and geometry of pieces, the type of the cooling fluid, temperature, and time on hardness and the content of 1030 steel phases. Next, the results are compared with the analytical values obtained from the Lumped Capacity Method.

Keywords: 1030Steel, AC3software, heat treatment, lumped capacity method

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3717 Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu, Lele Yang, Koji Shimotsu

Abstract:

The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, hot stamping process, carbon steel, mechanical property

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3716 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructural Evolution in Weld Region of X70 Pipeline Steel

Authors: K. Digheche, K. Saadi, Z. Boumerzoug

Abstract:

Welding is one of the most important technological processes used in many branches of industry such as industrial engineering, shipbuilding, pipeline fabrication among others. Generally, welding is the preferred joining method and most common steels are weldable. This investigation is a contribution to scientific work of welding of low carbon steel. This work presents the results of the isothermal heat treatment effect at 200, 400 and 600 °C on microstructural evolution in weld region of X70 pipeline steel. The welding process has been realized in three passes by industrial arc welding. We have found that the heat treatments cause grain growth reaction.

Keywords: heat treatments, low carbon steel, microstructures, welding

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3715 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera

Abstract:

The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

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3714 Investigation of Fusion Zone Microstructures in Plasma Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS-304L) with Low Carbon Steel (A-36) with or without Filler Alloy

Authors: Shan-e-Fatima, Mushtaq Khan, Syed Imran Hussian

Abstract:

Plasma arc welding technology is used for welding SS-304L with A-36. Two different optimize butt welded joints were produced by using austenitic filler alloy E-309L and with direct fusion at 45 A, 2mm/sec by keeping plasma gas flow rate at 0.5LPM. Microstructure analysis of the weld bead was carried out. The results reveal complex heterogeneous microstructure in austenitic base filler alloy sample where as full martensite was found in directly fused sample.

Keywords: fusion zone microstructure, stainless steel, low carbon steel, plasma arc welding

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3713 Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modelling of a Medium-Carbon Steel

Authors: Khalil Boroumanda, Morteza Hadib, Reza Vafaeia

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior of a medium-carbon structural steel. This steel is known as 30XΓCA steel in GOST standard and contains 3 wt% carbon. To investigate the hot deformation behavior of this steel, hot compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples in temperature ranges from 800 to 1000 °C and strain ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 S-1. Microstructure of samples was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The true stress-strain curves of 30XΓCA steel obtained at various deformation conditions showed that the softening phenomenon based on recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred during hot deformation tests. The results indicated that the peak stress decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. With increasing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C, the peak stress decreased by 52%, 60% and 38% at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 S-1, respectively. According to the results, it can be claimed that the DRX was a dominate mechanism of softening in all deformation conditions. The changes of work hardening rate for 30XΓCA steel during hot deformation were analyzed to confirm the results. Accordingly, it was observed that critical stress for the initiation of DRX decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Furthermore, constitutive equations and activation energy of deformation for 30XΓCA steel were successfully determined. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of hot deformation of 30XΓCA steel was 256.11 kJ/mole.

Keywords: 30XΓCA steel, hot compression, dynamic recrystallization, constitutive equations

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3712 Designing, Processing and Isothermal Transformation of Al-Si High Carbon Ultrafine High Strength Bainitic Steel

Authors: Mohamed K. El-Fawkhry, Ahmed Shash, Ahmed Ismail Zaki Farahat, Sherif Ali Abd El Rahman, Taha Mattar

Abstract:

High-carbon, silicon-rich steels are commonly suggested to obtain very fine bainitic microstructure at low temperature ranged from 200 to 300°C. Thereby, the resulted microstructure consists of slender of bainitic-ferritic plates interwoven with retained austenite. The advanced strength and ductility package of this steel is much dependent on the fineness of bainitic ferrite, as well as the retained austenite phase. In this article, Aluminum to Silicon ratio, and the isothermal transformation temperature have been adopted to obtain ultra high strength high carbon steel. Optical and SEM investigation of the produced steels have been performed. XRD has been used to track the retained austenite development as a result of the change in the chemical composition of developed steels and heat treatment process. Mechanical properties in terms of hardness and microhardness of obtained phases and structure were investigated. It was observed that the increment of aluminum to silicon ratio has a great effect in promoting the bainitic transformation, in tandem with improving the stability and the fineness of retained austenite. Such advanced structure leads to enhancement in the whole mechanical properties of the high carbon steel.

Keywords: high-carbon steel, silicon-rich steels, fine bainitic microstructure, retained austenite, isothermal transformation

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3711 Formation of in-situ Ceramic Phase in N220 Nano Carbon Containing Low Carbon Mgo-C Refractory

Authors: Satyananda Behera, Ritwik Sarkar

Abstract:

In iron and steel industries, MgO–C refractories are widely used in basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces and steel ladles due to their excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and other excellent hot properties. Conventionally magnesia carbon refractories contain about 8-20 wt% of carbon but the use of carbon is also associate with disadvantages like oxidation, low fracture strength, high heat loss and higher carbon pick up in steel. So, MgO-C refractory having low carbon content without compromising the beneficial properties is the challenge. Nano carbon, having finer particles, can mix and distribute within the entire matrix uniformly and can result in improved mechanical, thermo-mechanical, corrosion and other refractory properties. Previous experiences with the use of nano carbon in low carbon MgO-C refractory have indicated an optimum range of use of nano carbon around 1 wt%. This optimum nano carbon content was used in MgO-C compositions with flaky graphite followed by aluminum and silicon metal powder as an anti-oxidant. These low carbon MgO-C refractory compositions were prepared by conventional manufacturing techniques. At the same time 16 wt. % flaky graphite containing conventional MgO-C refractory was also prepared parallel under similar conditions. The developed products were characterized for various refractory related properties. Nano carbon containing compositions showed better mechanical, thermo-mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance compared to that of conventional composition. Improvement in the properties is associated with the formation of in-situ ceramic phase-like aluminum carbide, silicon carbide, and magnesium aluminum spinel. Higher surface area and higher reactivity of N220 nano carbon black resulted in greater formation in-situ ceramic phases, even at a much lower amount. Nano carbon containing compositions were found to have improved properties in MgO-C refractories compared to that of the conventional ones at much lower total carbon content.

Keywords: N220nano carbon black, refractory properties, conventionally manufacturing techniques, conventional magnesia carbon refractories

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3710 Morphology Feature of Nanostructure Bainitic Steel after Tempering Treatment

Authors: Chih Yuan Chen, Chien Chon Chen, Jin-Shyong Lin

Abstract:

The microstructure characterization of tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steel is investigated in the present study. It is found that two types of plastic relaxation, dislocation debris and nanotwin, occurs in the displacive transformation due to relatively low transformation temperature and high carbon content. Because most carbon atoms trap in the dislocation, high dislocation density can be sustained during the tempering process. More carbides only can be found in the high tempered temperature due to intense recovery progression.

Keywords: nanostructure bainitic steel, tempered, TEM, nano-twin, dislocation debris, accommodation

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3709 Microstructures Evolution of a Nano/Ultrafine Grained Low Carbon Steel Produced by Martensite Treatment Using Accumulative Roll Bonding

Authors: Mehdi Salari

Abstract:

This work introduces a new experimental method of martensite treatment contains accumulative roll-bonding used for producing the nano/ultrafine grained structure in low carbon steel. The ARB process up to 4 cycles was performed under unlubricated conditions, while the annealing process was carried out in the temperature range of 450–550°C for 30–100 min. The microstructures of the deformed and annealed specimens were investigated. The results showed that in the annealed specimen at 450°C for 30 or 60 min, recrystallization couldn’t be completed. Decrease in time and temperature intensified the volume fraction of the martensite cell blocks. Fully equiaxed nano/ultrafine grained ferrite was developed from the martensite cell blocks during the annealing at temperature around 500°C for 100 min.

Keywords: martensite process, accumulative roll bonding, recrystallization, nanostructure, plain carbon steel

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3708 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

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3707 Electrochemical and Theoretical Quantum Approaches on the Inhibition of C1018 Carbon Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium Containing Chloride Using Newly Synthesized Phenolic Schiff Bases Compounds

Authors: Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

Abstract:

Two novel Schiff bases, 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(pyridin-3-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAP) and 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(quinolin-8-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAQ) have been synthesized. They have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, IR and NMR). Moreover, the molecular structure of HBSAP and HBSAQ compounds are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The inhibition activity of HBSAP and HBSAQ for carbon steel in 3.5 %NaCl+0.1 M HCl for both short and long immersion time, at different temperatures (20-50 ºC), was investigated using electrochemistry and surface characterization. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the inhibitors molecule is more adsorbed on the cathodic sites. Its efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentrations (92.8 % at the optimal concentration of 10-3 M for HBSAQ). Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm with physical/chemical nature of the adsorption, as it is shown also by scanning electron microscopy. Further, the electronic structural calculations using quantum chemical methods were found to be in a good agreement with the results of the experimental studies.

Keywords: carbon steel, Schiff bases, corrosion inhibition, SEM, electrochemical techniques

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3706 Effect of Carbon Additions on FeCrNiMnTi High Entropy Alloy

Authors: C. D. Gomez-Esparza, Z. V. Hernandez-Castro, C. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, R. Martinez-Sanchez, A. Duarte-Moller

Abstract:

Recently, the high entropy alloys (HEA) are the focus of attention in metallurgical and materials science due to their desirable and superior properties in comparison to conventional alloys. The HEA field has promoted the exploration of several compositions including the addition of non-metallic elements like carbon, which in traditional metallurgy is mainly used in the steel industry. The aim of this work was the synthesis of equiatomic FeCrNiMnTi high entropy alloys, with minor carbon content, by mechanical alloying and sintering. The effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test. The structural and microstructural characteristics of the equiatomic alloys, as well as their hardness were compared with those of an austenitic AISI 321 stainless steel processed under the same conditions. The results showed that porosity in bulk samples decreases with carbon nanotubes addition, while the equiatomic composition favors the formation of titanium carbide and increased the AISI 321 hardness more than three times.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, graphite, high entropy alloys, mechanical alloying

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3705 Study the Impact of Welding Poles Type on the Tensile Strength Steel of Low Alloys and High Resistance

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Abdul Fatah M. Emhamed

Abstract:

The steel alloy Introduced after becoming carbon-steel does not meet the requirements of engineering industry; and it cannot be obtained tensile strength from carbon-steel higher than (700MPa), the low alloy steel enters in a lot of heavy engineering equipment parts, molds, agricultural equipment and other industry. In addition, that may be exposed to in-service failure, which may require returned to work, to do the repairs or maintenance by one of the welding methods available. The ability of steel weld determined through palpation of the cracks, which can reduce by many ways. These ways are often expensive and difficult to implement, perhaps the control to choose the type of electrode welding user is one of the easiest and least expensive applications. It has been welding the steel low alloys high resistance by manual metal arc (MMA), and by using a set of welding electrodes which varying in chemical composition and in their prices as well and test their effect on tensile strength. Results showed that using the poles of welding, which have a high proportion of iron powder and low hydrogen. The Tensile resistance is (484MPa) and the weld joint efficiency was (56.9%), but when (OK 47.04) electrode was used the tensile strength increased to (720MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (84.7%). Using the cheapest electrode (OK 45.00) the weld joint efficiency did not exceed (24.2%), but when using the most expensive electrode (OK 91.28) the weld joint efficiency is (38.1%).

Keywords: steel low alloys high resistance, electrodes welding, tensile test

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3704 Mechanism and Kinetic of Layers Growth: Application to Nitriding of 32CrMoV13 Steel

Authors: Torchane Lazhar

Abstract:

In this work, our task consists in optimizing the nitriding treatment at low-temperature of the steel 32CrMoV13 by the way of the mixtures of ammonia gas, nitrogen and hydrogen to improve the mechanical properties of the surface (good wear resistance, friction and corrosion), and of the diffusion layer of the nitrogen (good resistance to fatigue and good tenacity with heart). By limiting our work to the pure iron and to the alloys iron-chromium and iron-chrome-carbon, we have studied the various parameters which manage the nitriding: flow rate and composition of the gaseous phase, the interaction chromium-nitrogen and chromium-carbon by the help of experiments of nitriding realized in the laboratory by thermogravimetry. The acquired knowledge have been applied by the mastery of the growth of the combination layer on the diffusion layer in the case of the industrial steel 32CrMoV13.

Keywords: diffusion of nitrogen, gaseous nitriding, layer growth kinetic, steel

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3703 Opportunities and Challenges for Decarbonizing Steel Production by Creating Markets for ‘Green Steel’ Products

Authors: Hasan Muslemani, Xi Liang, Kathi Kaesehage, Francisco Ascui, Jeffrey Wilson

Abstract:

The creation of a market for lower-carbon steel products, here called ‘green steel’, has been identified as an important means to support the introduction of breakthrough emission reduction technologies into the steel sector. However, the definition of what ‘green’ entails in the context of steel production, the implications on the competitiveness of green steel products in local and international markets, and the necessary market mechanisms to support their successful market penetration remain poorly explored. This paper addresses this gap by holding semi-structured interviews with international sustainability experts and commercial managers from leading steel trade associations, research institutes and steelmakers. Our findings show that there is an urgent need to establish a set of standards to define what ‘greenness’ means in the steelmaking context; standards that avoid market disruptions, unintended consequences, and opportunities for greenwashing. We also highlight that the introduction of green steel products will have implications on product competitiveness on three different levels: 1) between primary and secondary steelmaking routes, 2) with traditional, lesser green steel, and 3) with other substitutable materials (e.g. cement and plastics). This paper emphasises the need for steelmakers to adopt a transitional approach in deploying different low-carbon technologies, based on their stage of technological maturity, applicability in certain country contexts, capacity to reduce emissions over time, and the ability of the investment community to support their deployment. We further identify market mechanisms to support green steel production, including carbon border adjustments and public procurement, highlighting a need for implementing a combination of complementary policies to ensure the products’ roll-out. The study further shows that the auto industry is a likely candidate for green steel consumption, where a market would be supported by price premiums paid by willing consumers, such as those of high-end luxury vehicles.

Keywords: green steel, decarbonisation, business model innovation, market analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3702 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi

Abstract:

The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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3701 Micro-Texture Effect on Fracture Location in Carbon Steel during Forming

Authors: Sarra Khelifi, Youcef Guerabli, Ahcene Boumaiza

Abstract:

Advances in techniques for measuring individual crystallographic orientations have made it possible to investigate the role of local crystallography during the plastic deformation of materials. In this study, the change in crystallographic orientation distribution during deformation by deep drawing in carbon steel has been investigated in order to understand their role in propagation and arrest of crack. The results show that the change of grain orientation from initial recrystallization texture components of {111}<112> to deformation orientation {111}<110> incites the initiation and propagation of cracks in the region of {111}<112> small grains. Moreover, the misorientation profile and local orientation are analyzed in detail to discuss the change from {111}<112> to {111}<110>. The deformation of the grain with {111}<110> orientation is discussed in terms of stops of the crack in carbon steel during drawing. The SEM-EBSD technique was used to reveal the change of orientation; XRD was performed for the characterization of the global evolution of texture for deformed samples.

Keywords: fracture, heterogeneity, misorientation profile, stored energy

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3700 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci

Abstract:

We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3699 Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions

Authors: M. A. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera

Abstract:

The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in the oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in the oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size, and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry, polarization, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3698 Corrosivity of Smoke Generated by Polyvinyl Chloride and Polypropylene with Different Mixing Ratios towards Carbon Steel

Authors: Xufei Liu, Shouxiang Lu, Kim Meow Liew

Abstract:

Because a relatively small fire could potentially cause damage by smoke corrosion far exceed thermal fire damage, it has been realized that the corrosion of metal exposed to smoke atmospheres is a significant fire hazard, except for toxicity or evacuation considerations. For the burning materials in an actual fire may often be the mixture of combustible matters, a quantitative study on the corrosivity of smoke produced by the combustion of mixture is more conducive to the application of the basic theory to the actual engineering. In this paper, carbon steel samples were exposed to smoke generated by polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene, two common combustibles in industrial plants, with different mixing ratios in high humidity for 120 hours. The separate and combined corrosive effects of smoke were examined subsequently by weight loss measurement, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that, although the corrosivity of smoke from polypropylene was much smaller than that of smoke from polyvinyl chloride, smoke from polypropylene enhanced the major corrosive effect of smoke from polyvinyl chloride to carbon steel. Furthermore, the corrosion kinetics of carbon steel under smoke were found to obey the power function. Possible corrosion mechanisms were also proposed. All the analysis helps to provide basic information for the determination of smoke damage and timely rescue after fire.

Keywords: corrosion kinetics, corrosion mechanism, mixed combustible, SEM/EDS, smoke corrosivity, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3697 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan

Abstract:

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
3696 Optimization of Process Parameters for Rotary Electro Discharge Machining Using EN31 Tool Steel: Present and Future Scope

Authors: Goutam Dubey, Varun Dutta

Abstract:

In the present study, rotary-electro discharge machining of EN31 tool steel has been carried out using a pure copper electrode. Various response variables such as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR), and Machining Rate (MR) have been studied against the selected process variables. The selected process variables were peak current (I), voltage (V), duty cycle, and electrode rotation (N). EN31 Tool Steel is hardened, high carbon steel which increases its hardness and reduces its machinability. Reduced machinability means it not economical to use conventional methods to machine EN31 Tool Steel. So, non-conventional methods play an important role in machining of such materials.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, EDM, tool steel, tool wear rate, optimization techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 118