Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Marvin Hartmann

24 Teaching Students Collaborative Requirements Engineering: Case Study of Red:Wire

Authors: Dagmar Monett, Sven-Erik Kujat, Marvin Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of a template-based approach for documenting high-quality requirements as part of course projects in an undergraduate Software Engineering course. In order to ease some of the Requirements Engineering activities that are performed when defining requirements by using the template, a new CASE tool, RED:WIRE, was first developed and later tested by students attending the course. Two questionnaires were conceived around a study that aims to analyze the new tool’s learnability as well as other obtained results concerning its usability in particular and the Requirements Engineering skills developed by the students in general.

Keywords: requirements engineering, CASE tool, SOPHIST template, undergraduate course

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23 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Vertical Cylinder under an External Magnetic Field

Authors: R. Bessaih, M. Maache

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the magnetic field direction on the free convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder filled with an Al₂O₃ nanofluid is investigated numerically. The external magnetic field is applied in either direction axial and radial on a cylinder having an aspect ratio H/R0=5, bounded by the top and the bottom disks at temperatures Tc and Th and by an adiabatic side wall. The equations of continuity, Navier Stocks and energy are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by the finite volume method. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed and compared with the numerical results found in the literature. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: The Hartmann number (Ha=0, 5, 10, …, 40), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0, 0.025, …,0.1) and Rayleigh number (Ra=103, Ra=104 and Ra=105). The behavior of average Nusselt number, streamlines and temperature contours are illustrated. The results revel that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number. Depending on the magnetic field direction and on the values of Hartmann and Rayleigh numbers, an increase of the solid volume fraction may result enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance in the nanofluid.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, natural convection, vertical cylinder

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22 Effect an Axial Magnetic Field in Co-rotating Flow Heated from Below

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjagloli

Abstract:

The effect of an axial magnetic field on the flow produced by co-rotation of the top and bottom disks in a vertical cylindrical heated from below is numerically analyzed. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations are solved by using the finite-volume method. It was observed that the Reynolds number is increased, the axisymmetric basic state loses stability to circular patterns of axisymmetric vortices and spiral waves. In mixed convection case the axisymmetric mode disappears giving an asymmetric mode m=1. It was also found that the primary thresholds Recr corresponding to the modes m=1and 2, increase with increasing of the Hartmann number (Ha). Finally, stability diagrams have been established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams giving the evolution of the primary thresholds as a function of the Hartmann number for various values of the Richardson number.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Vortices, bifurcation, co-rotating end disks, stability diagrams

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21 Magneto-Hydrodynamic Mixed Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid in a Wavy Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: Farshid Fathinia

Abstract:

This paper examines numerically the laminar steady magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a wavy lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid using FDM method. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity have a wavy geometry and are maintained at a cold and hot temperature, respectively. The top and bottom walls are considered flat and insulated while, the bottom wall moves from left to right direction with a uniform lid-driven velocity. A magnetic field is applied vertically downward on the bottom wall of the cavity. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the dominant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, solid volume fraction, and wavy wall geometry parameters are examined. The numerical results are obtained for Hartmann number varying as 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 0.6, Rayleigh numbers varying as 103≤ Ra ≤105, and the solid volume fractions varying as 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. Comparisons with previously published numerical works on mixed convection in a nanofluid filled cavity are performed and good agreements between the results are observed. It is found that the flow circulation and mean Nusselt number decrease as the solid volume fraction and Hartmann number increase. Moreover, the convection enhances when the amplitude ratio of the wavy surface increases. The results also show that both the flow and thermal fields are significantly affected by the amplitude ratio (i.e., wave form) of the wavy wall.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, mixed convection, wavy cavity, lid-driven, SPH method

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20 Hydromagnetic Linear Instability Analysis of Giesekus Fluids in Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: K. Godazandeh, K. Sadeghy

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of magnetic field on the hydrodynamic instability of Taylor-Couette flow between two concentric rotating cylinders has been numerically investigated. At the beginning the basic flow has been solved using continuity, Cauchy equations (with regards to Lorentz force) and the constitutive equations of a viscoelastic model called "Giesekus" model. Small perturbations, considered to be normal mode, have been superimposed to the basic flow and the unsteady perturbation equations have been derived consequently. Neglecting non-linear terms, the general eigenvalue problem obtained has been solved using pseudo spectral method (combination of Chebyshev polynomials). The objective of the calculations is to study the effect of magnetic fields on the onset of first mode of instability (axisymmetric mode) for different dimensionless parameters of the flow. The results show that the stability picture is highly influenced by the magnetic field. When magnetic field increases, it first has a destabilization effect which changes to stabilization effect due to more increase of magnetic fields. Therefor there is a critical magnetic number (Hartmann number) for instability of Taylor-Couette flow. Also, the effect of magnetic field is more dominant in large gaps. Also based on the results obtained, magnetic field shows a more considerable effect on the stability at higher Weissenberg numbers (at higher elasticity), while the "mobility factor" changes show no dominant role on the intense of suction and injection effect on the flow's instability.

Keywords: Taylor-Couette flow, Magnetic Field, Giesekus model, pseudo spectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, mobility factor

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19 Blood Clot Emulsification via Ultrasonic Thrombolysis Device

Authors: Sun Tao, Lou Liang, Tan Xing Haw Marvin, Gu Yuandong Alex

Abstract:

Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness. To treat blood clots, clinicians presently have two options. The first involves drug therapy to thin the blood and thus reduce the clot. The second choice is to invasively remove the clot using a plastic tube called a catheter. Both approaches carry a high risk of bleeding, and invasive procedures, such as catheter intervention, can also damage the blood vessel wall and cause infection. Ultrasonic treatment as a potential alternative therapy to break down clots is attracting growing interests due to the reduced adverse effects. To demonstrate the concept, in this investigation a microfabricated ultrasonic device was electrically packaged with printed circuit board to treat healthy human blood. The red blood cells could be broken down after 3-hour ultrasonic treatment.

Keywords: Microfabrication, blood clot, ultrasonic thrombolysis device, ultrasonic device

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18 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Henda Kahalerras, Brahim Fersadou

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, mixed convection, porous channel, heat sources

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17 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Misaligned Duct under a Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Chang Nyung Kim, Mengqi Zhu

Abstract:

This study numerically investigates three-dimensional liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a misaligned duct under a uniform magnetic field. The duct consists of two misaligned horizontal channels (one is inflow channel, the other is outflow channel) and one central vertical channel. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to predict the behavior of the MHD flows, using commercial code CFX. In the current study, a case with Hartmann number 1000 is considered. The electromagnetic features of LM MHD flows are elucidated to examine the interdependency of the flow velocity, current density, electric potential, pressure drop and Lorentz force. The results show that pressure decreases linearly along the main flow direction.

Keywords: pressure drop, CFX, liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows, misaligned duct

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16 Steady and Oscillatory States of Swirling Flows under an Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Rachid Bessaïh

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study of steady and oscillatory flows with heat transfer submitted to an axial magnetic field is studied. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using the finite-volume method. The flow and temperature fields are presented by stream function and isotherms, respectively. The flow between counter-rotating end disks is very unstable and reveals a great richness of structures. The results are presented for various values of the Hartmann number, Ha=5, 10, 20, and 30, and Richardson numbers , Ri=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4, in order to see their effects on the value of the critical Reynolds number, Recr. Stability diagrams are established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams put in evidence the dependence of Recr with the increase of Ha for various values of Ri.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, cylinder, swirling, counter-rotating end disks, oscillatory

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15 Swirling Flows with Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical under Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: B. Mahfoud, R. Harouz

Abstract:

The present work examine numerically the effect of axial magnetic field on mixed convection through a cylindrical cavity, filled with a liquid metal and having a rotating top and bottom disks. Effects of Richardson number (Ri = 0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and Hartman number (Ha = 0, 5, 10, and 20) on temperature and flow fields were analyzed. The basic state of this system is steady and axisymmetric, when the counter-rotation is sufficiently large, producing a free shear layer. This shear layer is unstable and different complex flows appear successively: steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 1; travelling waves and steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 2. Mixed modes and azimuthal wavenumber of 3 are also found with increasing Hartmann number. The stability diagram (Recr-Ha) corresponding to the axisymmetric-three-dimensional transition for increasing values of the axial magnetic field is obtained.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, instabilities, axisymmetric, counter-rotating, magnetohydrodynamic, wavenumber

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14 The Imminent Other in Anna Deavere Smith’s Performance

Authors: Joy Shihyi Huang

Abstract:

This paper discusses the concept of community in Anna Deavere Smith’s performance, one that challenges and explores existing notions of justice and the other. In contrast to unwavering assumptions of essentialism that have helped to propel a discourse on moral agency within the black community, Smith employs postmodern ideas in which the theatrical attributes of doubling and repetition are conceptualized as part of what Marvin Carlson coined as a ‘memory machine.’ Her dismissal of the need for linear time, such as that regulated by Aristotle’s The Poetics and its concomitant ethics, values, and emotions as a primary ontological and epistemological construct produced by the existing African American historiography, demonstrates an urgency to produce an alternative communal self to override metanarratives in which the African Americans’ lives are contained and sublated by specific historical confines. Drawing on Emmanuel Levinas’ theories in ethics, specifically his notion of ‘proximity’ and ‘the third,’ the paper argues that Smith enacts a new model of ethics by launching an acting method that eliminates the boundary of self and other. Defying psychological realism, Smith conceptualizes an approach to acting that surpasses the mere mimetic value of invoking a ‘likeness’ of an actor to a character, which as such, resembles the mere attribution of various racial or sexual attributes in identity politics. Such acting, she contends, reduces the other to a representation of, at best, an ultimate rendering of me/my experience. She instead appreciates ‘unlikeness,’ recognizes the unavoidable actor/character gap as a power that humbles the self, whose irreversible journey to the other carves out its own image.

Keywords: Performance, other, Anna Deavere Smith, Emmanuel Levinas

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13 Agile Smartphone Porting and App Integration of Signal Processing Algorithms Obtained through Rapid Development

Authors: Marvin Chibuzo Offiah, Susanne Rosenthal, Markus Borschbach

Abstract:

Certain research projects in Computer Science often involve research on existing signal processing algorithms and developing improvements on them. Research budgets are usually limited, hence there is limited time for implementing the algorithms from scratch. It is therefore common practice, to use implementations provided by other researchers as a template. These are most commonly provided in a rapid development, i.e. 4th generation, programming language, usually Matlab. Rapid development is a common method in Computer Science research for quickly implementing and testing new developed algorithms, which is also a common task within agile project organization. The growing relevance of mobile devices in the computer market also gives rise to the need to demonstrate the successful executability and performance measurement of these algorithms on a mobile device operating system and processor, particularly on a smartphone. Open mobile systems such as Android, are most suitable for this task, which is to be performed most efficiently. Furthermore, efficiently implementing an interaction between the algorithm and a graphical user interface (GUI) that runs exclusively on the mobile device is necessary in cases where the project’s goal statement also includes such a task. This paper examines different proposed solutions for porting computer algorithms obtained through rapid development into a GUI-based smartphone Android app and evaluates their feasibilities. Accordingly, the feasible methods are tested and a short success report is given for each tested method.

Keywords: Programming languages, MATLAB, android, GUI, Java, smartphone, SMARTNAVI, App, Rapid Development, Octave, C/C++, NDK, SDK, Linux, Ubuntu, Emulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
12 Optimal Maintenance Clustering for Rail Track Components Subject to Possession Capacity Constraints

Authors: Cuong D. Dao, Rob J.I. Basten, Andreas Hartmann

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This paper studies the optimal maintenance planning of preventive maintenance and renewal activities for components in a single railway track when the available time for maintenance is limited. The rail-track system consists of several types of components, such as rail, ballast, and switches with different preventive maintenance and renewal intervals. To perform maintenance or renewal on the track, a train free period for maintenance, called a possession, is required. Since a major possession directly affects the regular train schedule, maintenance and renewal activities are clustered as much as possible. In a highly dense and utilized railway network, the possession time on the track is critical since the demand for train operations is very high and a long possession has a severe impact on the regular train schedule. We present an optimization model and investigate the maintenance schedules with and without the possession capacity constraint. In addition, we also integrate the social-economic cost related to the effects of the maintenance time to the variable possession cost into the optimization model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the model.

Keywords: Maintenance, rail-track components, optimal clustering, possession capacity

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11 Comparative Analysis of Effect of Capital Structure to Profitability in Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia and Malaysia in 2009 - 2014

Authors: Hatane Semuel, Hartmann H. Ngono, Sautma R. Basana

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The effect of capital structure on profitability is often debated by many financial investigators. The application of the trade-off theory and pecking order theory to analyze this relationship may generate different views. Each company has its own strategies to achieve its objectives and the external environment, such as state policy has a broad impact on the relationship with the capital structure of the company's profitability. Malaysia is the country closest to Indonesia that had a similar growth rate of GDP and industrial production with Indonesia, but Malaysia has lower inflation rate than Indonesia. This study was conducted to compare the performance of manufacturing sector between two countries when entering the era of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The samples for this study were 69 companies in Indonesia and 242 companies in Malaysia that engaged in manufacturing sector. The study uses panel data analysis. The study found that the capital structure have positive effect on profitability of manufacturing company in Indonesia, and it turns to negative effect on manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The results also showed that there are significant differences in short-term debt towards profitability of manufacturing companies in the two countries Indonesia and Malaysia.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Profitability, Capital Structure, Indonesia, Malaysia

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10 Numerical Solution of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flow of a Viscous Fluid in the Presence of Nanoparticles with Fractional Derivatives through a Cylindrical Tube

Authors: Asma Rashid Butt, Muhammad Abdullah, Nauman Raza

Abstract:

Biomagnetic fluids like blood play key role in different applications of medical science and bioengineering. In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid with magnetic particles through a cylindrical tube is investigated. The fluid is electrically charged in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The movement in the fluid is produced due to the cylindrical tube. Initially, the fluid and tube are at rest and at time t=0⁺, the tube starts to move along its axis. To obtain the mathematical model of flow with fractional derivatives fractional calculus approach is used. The solution of the flow model is obtained by using Laplace transformation. The Simon's numerical algorithm is employed to obtain inverse Laplace transform. The hybrid technique, we are employing has less computational effort as compared to other methods. The numerical calculations have been performed with Mathcad software. As the special cases of our problem, the solution of flow model with ordinary derivatives and flow without magnetic particles has been procured. Finally, the impact of non-integer fractional parameter alpha, Hartmann number Ha, and Reynolds number Re on flow and magnetic particles velocity is analyzed and depicted by graphs.

Keywords: Fractional Calculus, Magnetic Particles, viscous fluid, laplace transformation

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9 A Mathematical Study of Magnetic Field, Heat Transfer and Brownian Motion of Nanofluid over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma

Abstract:

Thermal conductivity of ordinary heat transfer fluids is not adequate to meet today’s cooling rate requirements. Nanoparticles have been shown to increase the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer to the base fluids. One of the possible mechanisms for anomalous increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is the Brownian motions of the nanoparticles in the basefluid. In this paper, the natural convection of incompressible nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field is studied. The flow and heat transfer induced by stretching sheets is important in the study of extrusion processes and is a subject of considerable interest in the contemporary literature. Appropriate similarity variables are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary (similarity) differential equations. For computational purpose, Finite Element Method is used. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid are calculated by KKL (Koo – Klienstreuer – Li) correlation. In this model effect of Brownian motion on thermal conductivity is considered. The effect of important parameter i.e. nonlinear parameter, volume fraction, Hartmann number, heat source parameter is studied on velocity and temperature. Skin friction and heat transfer coefficients are also calculated for concerned parameters.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, Magnetic Field, Finite Element Method, stretching sheet, Brownian motion

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8 Potential Contribution of Local Food Resources towards Sustainable Food Tourism in Nueva Vizcaya

Authors: Marvin Eslava

Abstract:

The over-arching aim of this research is to determine the potential contribution of local food resources to the tourism growth of Nueva Vizcaya. It reviews some of the underpinning concepts and to provide a set of considerations for stakeholders to maximize the opportunity of local food can offer to businesses and the wider community. The basis of the study is to develop a sustainable food tourism model for Nueva Vizcaya. For the purpose of this research, there were 60 total numbers of respondents classified as samples from a six municipality. The respondents of the study were stakeholder consisting of government official, local producers, businessman and Non-government organizations in the selected municipalities of Nueva Vizcaya. Stratified purposive sampling was the appropriate technique that was used to the local government officials and employees, NGOs including the businessmen who are associated with local food resources and local producers. The documentary study, focus group discussion and survey questionnaire was used in order to meet the objectives of the study. Kruskall Wallis test was used to test the variances the ratings of the participants. This was used in the computation of hypothesis. The study concluded that the province of Nueva Vizcaya is blessed for its rich farmlands and fertile mountain soil boasts to produce high quality agricultural products. It is a home of various different indigenous groups creating a wide range of local cuisine. The province has substantial local food development evidence by the various food tourism related resources, increase in facilities and celebrating food tourism related events. The local food resources provide extensive potential economic empowerment and help in building the identity of the province. In addition, the local food resources extensively enhance the agriculture sector and other attractions in the province. Finally, it helps to preserve the authenticity of the food culture and generated pride among all stakeholders extensively. All stakeholders have the same perception on the potential contribution of local food resources to the development of the province of Nueva Vizcaya. The public and private sectors are cognizant on their roles to support the production of local food resources in Nueva Vizcaya. Major challenges and barriers in the development of sustainable food tourism in Nueva Vizcaya include production or supply and marketing.

Keywords: Food tourism, benefits, local food resources, contribution

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7 Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Copper-Water Nanofluid with Temperature Dependent Viscosity past a Riga Plate

Authors: Fahad Abbasi

Abstract:

Flow of electrically conducting nanofluids is of pivotal importance in countless industrial and medical appliances. Fluctuations in thermophysical properties of such fluids due to variations in temperature have not received due attention in the available literature. Present investigation aims to fill this void by analyzing the flow of copper-water nanofluid with temperature dependent viscosity past a Riga plate. Strong wall suction and viscous dissipation have also been taken into account. Numerical solutions for the resulting nonlinear system have been obtained. Results are presented in the graphical and tabular format in order to facilitate the physical analysis. An estimated expression for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are obtained by performing linear regression on numerical data for embedded parameters. Results indicate that the temperature dependent viscosity alters the velocity, as well as the temperature of the nanofluid and, is of considerable importance in the processes where high accuracy is desired. Addition of copper nanoparticles makes the momentum boundary layer thinner whereas viscosity parameter does not affect the boundary layer thickness. Moreover, the regression expressions indicate that magnitude of rate of change in effective skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with respect to nanoparticles volume fraction is prominent when compared with the rate of change with variable viscosity parameter and modified Hartmann number.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, curved channel, peristaltic flows, radially varying magnetic field

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6 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Coatings, Immune System, Implants

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5 Dynamic Environmental Impact Study during the Construction of the French Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: A. Er-Raki, D. Hartmann, J. P. Belaud, S. Negny

Abstract:

This paper has a double purpose: firstly, a literature review of the life cycle analysis (LCA) and secondly a comparison between conventional (static) LCA and multi-level dynamic LCA on the following items: (i) inventories evolution with time (ii) temporal evolution of the databases. The first part of the paper summarizes the state of the art of the static LCA approach. The different static LCA limits have been identified and especially the non-consideration of the spatial and temporal evolution in the inventory, for the characterization factors (FCs) and into the databases. Then a description of the different levels of integration of the notion of temporality in life cycle analysis studies was made. In the second part, the dynamic inventory has been evaluated firstly for a single nuclear plant and secondly for the entire French nuclear power fleet by taking into account the construction durations of all the plants. In addition, the databases have been adapted by integrating the temporal variability of the French energy mix. Several iterations were used to converge towards the real environmental impact of the energy mix. Another adaptation of the databases to take into account the temporal evolution of the market data of the raw material was made. An identification of the energy mix of the time studied was based on an extrapolation of the production reference values of each means of production. An application to the construction of the French nuclear power plants from 1971 to 2000 has been performed, in which a dynamic inventory of raw material has been evaluated. Then the impacts were characterized by the ILCD 2011 characterization method. In order to compare with a purely static approach, a static impact assessment was made with the V 3.4 Ecoinvent data sheets without adaptation and a static inventory considering that all the power stations would have been built at the same time. Finally, a comparison between static and dynamic LCA approaches was set up to determine the gap between them for each of the two levels of integration. The results were analyzed to identify the contribution of the evolving nuclear power fleet construction to the total environmental impacts of the French energy mix during the same period. An equivalent strategy using a dynamic approach will further be applied to identify the environmental impacts that different scenarios of the energy transition could bring, allowing to choose the best energy mix from an environmental viewpoint.

Keywords: Nuclear Energy, Construction, Dynamic, Inventory, Energy Transition, Energy Mix, Static, LCA

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4 Ionic Liquids as Substrates for Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis

Authors: Julian Mehler, Marcus Fischer, Martin Hartmann, Peter S. Schulz

Abstract:

During the last two decades, the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has gained ever increasing attention. Based on their pore size and shape as well as host-guest interactions, they are of interest for numerous fields related to porous materials, like catalysis and gas separation. Usually, MOF-synthesis takes place in an organic solvent between room temperature and approximately 220 °C, with mixtures of polyfunctional organic linker molecules and metal precursors as substrates. Reaction temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent, i.e. solvothermal reactions, are run in autoclaves or sealed glass vessels under autogenous pressures. A relatively new approach for the synthesis of MOFs is the so-called ionothermal synthesis route. It applies an ionic liquid as a solvent, which can serve as a structure-directing template and/or a charge-compensating agent in the final coordination polymer structure. Furthermore, this method often allows for less harsh reaction conditions than the solvothermal route. Here a variation of the ionothermal approach is reported, where the ionic liquid also serves as an organic linker source. By using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium terephthalates ([EMIM][Hbdc] and [EMIM]₂[bdc]), the one-step synthesis of MIL-53(Al)/Boehemite composites with interesting features is possible. The resulting material is already formed at moderate temperatures (90-130 °C) and is stabilized in the usually unfavored ht-phase. Additionally, in contrast to already published procedures for MIL-53(Al) synthesis, no further activation at high temperatures is mandatory. A full characterization of this novel composite material is provided, including XRD, SS-NMR, El-Al., SEM as well as sorption measurements and its interesting features are compared to MIL-53(Al) samples produced by the classical solvothermal route. Furthermore, the syntheses of the applied ionic liquids and salts is discussed. The influence of the degree of ionicity of the linker source [EMIM]x[H(2-x)bdc] on the crystal structure and the achievable synthesis temperature are investigated and give insight into the role of the IL during synthesis. Aside from the synthesis of MIL-53 from EMIM terephthalates, the use of the phosphonium cation in this approach is discussed as well. Additionally, the employment of ILs in the preparation of other MOFs is presented briefly. This includes the ZIF-4 framework from the respective imidazolate ILs and chiral camphorate based frameworks from their imidazolium precursors.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, MOFs, Material synthesis, ionothermal synthesis, MIL-53

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3 Food Security in Germany: Inclusion of the Private Sector through Law Reform Faces Challenges

Authors: Agnetha Schuchardt, Jennifer Hartmann, Laura Schulte, Roman Peperhove, Lars Gerhold

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If critical infrastructures fail, even for a short period of time, it can have significant negative consequences for the affected population. This is especially true for the food sector that is strongly interlinked with other sectors like the power supply. A blackout could lead to several cities being without food supply for numerous days, simply because cash register systems do no longer work properly. Following the public opinion, securing the food supply in emergencies is considered a task of the state, however, in the German context, the key players are private enterprises and private households. Both are not aware of their responsibility and both cannot be forced to take any preventive measures prior to an emergency. This problem became evident to officials and politicians so that the law covering food security was revised in order to include private stakeholders into mitigation processes. The paper will present a scientific review of governmental and regulatory literature. The focus is the inclusion of the food industry through a law reform and the challenges that still exist. Together with legal experts, an analysis of regulations will be presented that explains the development of the law reform concerning food security and emergency storage in Germany. The main findings are that the existing public food emergency storage is out-dated, insufficient and too expensive. The state is required to protect food as a critical infrastructure but does not have the capacities to live up to this role. Through a law reform in 2017, new structures should to established. The innovation was to include the private sector into the civil defense concept since it has the required knowledge and experience. But the food industry is still reluctant. Preventive measures do not serve economic purposes – on the contrary, they cost money. The paper will discuss respective examples like equipping supermarkets with emergency power supply or self-sufficient cash register systems and why the state is not willing to cover the costs of these measures, but neither is the economy. The biggest problem with the new law is that private enterprises can only be forced to support food security if the state of emergency has occurred already and not one minute earlier. The paper will cover two main results: the literature review and an expert workshop that will be conducted in summer 2018 with stakeholders from different parts of the food supply chain as well as officials of the public food emergency concept. The results from this participative process will be presented and recommendations will be offered that show how the private economy could be better included into a modern food emergency concept (e. g. tax reductions for stockpiling).

Keywords: Food Security, critical infrastructure, Resilience, disaster control, emergency food storage, private economy

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2 Real-Time Neuroimaging for Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Manfred Hartmann, Hannes Perko, Tilmann Kluge, Gerhard Gritsch, Ana Skupch, Wolfgang Frühwirt, Dieter Grossegger

Abstract:

Rehabilitation of stroke patients is dominated by classical physiotherapy. Nowadays, a field of research is the application of neurofeedback techniques in order to help stroke patients to get rid of their motor impairments. Especially, if a certain limb is completely paralyzed, neurofeedback is often the last option to cure the patient. Certain exercises, like the imagination of the impaired motor function, have to be performed to stimulate the neuroplasticity of the brain, such that in the neighboring parts of the injured cortex the corresponding activity takes place. During the exercises, it is very important to keep the motivation of the patient at a high level. For this reason, the missing natural feedback due to a movement of the effected limb may be replaced by a synthetic feedback based on the motor-related brain function. To generate such a synthetic feedback a system is needed which measures, detects, localizes and visualizes the motor related µ-rhythm. Fast therapeutic success can only be achieved if the feedback features high specificity, comes in real-time and without large delay. We describe such an approach that offers a 3D visualization of µ-rhythms in real time with a delay of 500ms. This is accomplished by combining smart EEG preprocessing in the frequency domain with source localization techniques. The algorithm first selects the EEG channel featuring the most prominent rhythm in the alpha frequency band from a so-called motor channel set (C4, CZ, C3; CP6, CP4, CP2, CP1, CP3, CP5). If the amplitude in the alpha frequency band of this certain electrode exceeds a threshold, a µ-rhythm is detected. To prevent detection of a mixture of posterior alpha activity and µ-activity, the amplitudes in the alpha band outside the motor channel set are not allowed to be in the same range as the main channel. The EEG signal of the main channel is used as template for calculating the spatial distribution of the µ - rhythm over all electrodes. This spatial distribution is the input for a inverse method which provides the 3D distribution of the µ - activity within the brain which is visualized in 3D as color coded activity map. This approach mitigates the influence of lid artifacts on the localization performance. The first results of several healthy subjects show that the system is capable of detecting and localizing the rarely appearing µ-rhythm. In most cases the results match with findings from visual EEG analysis. Frequent eye-lid artifacts have no influence on the system performance. Furthermore, the system will be able to run in real-time. Due to the design of the frequency transformation the processing delay is 500ms. First results are promising and we plan to extend the test data set to further evaluate the performance of the system. The relevance of the system with respect to the therapy of stroke patients has to be shown in studies with real patients after CE certification of the system. This work was performed within the project ‘LiveSolo’ funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (project number: 853263).

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Neurofeedback, Stroke, real-time EEG neuroimaging, EEG–signal processing

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1 Digital Holographic Interferometric Microscopy for the Testing of Micro-Optics

Authors: Varun Kumar, Chandra Shakher

Abstract:

Micro-optical components such as microlenses and microlens array have numerous engineering and industrial applications for collimation of laser diodes, imaging devices for sensor system (CCD/CMOS, document copier machines etc.), for making beam homogeneous for high power lasers, a critical component in Shack-Hartmann sensor, fiber optic coupling and optical switching in communication technology. Also micro-optical components have become an alternative for applications where miniaturization, reduction of alignment and packaging cost are necessary. The compliance with high-quality standards in the manufacturing of micro-optical components is a precondition to be compatible on worldwide markets. Therefore, high demands are put on quality assurance. For quality assurance of these lenses, an economical measurement technique is needed. For cost and time reason, technique should be fast, simple (for production reason), and robust with high resolution. The technique should provide non contact, non-invasive and full field information about the shape of micro- optical component under test. The interferometric techniques are noncontact type and non invasive and provide full field information about the shape of the optical components. The conventional interferometric technique such as holographic interferometry or Mach-Zehnder interferometry is available for characterization of micro-lenses. However, these techniques need more experimental efforts and are also time consuming. Digital holography (DH) overcomes the above described problems. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) allows one to extract both the amplitude and phase information of a wavefront transmitted through the transparent object (microlens or microlens array) from a single recorded digital hologram by using numerical methods. Also one can reconstruct the complex object wavefront at different depths due to numerical reconstruction. Digital holography provides axial resolution in nanometer range while lateral resolution is limited by diffraction and the size of the sensor. In this paper, Mach-Zehnder based digital holographic interferometric microscope (DHIM) system is used for the testing of transparent microlenses. The advantage of using the DHIM is that the distortions due to aberrations in the optical system are avoided by the interferometric comparison of reconstructed phase with and without the object (microlens array). In the experiment, first a digital hologram is recorded in the absence of sample (microlens array) as a reference hologram. Second hologram is recorded in the presence of microlens array. The presence of transparent microlens array will induce a phase change in the transmitted laser light. Complex amplitude of object wavefront in presence and absence of microlens array is reconstructed by using Fresnel reconstruction method. From the reconstructed complex amplitude, one can evaluate the phase of object wave in presence and absence of microlens array. Phase difference between the two states of object wave will provide the information about the optical path length change due to the shape of the microlens. By the knowledge of the value of the refractive index of microlens array material and air, the surface profile of microlens array is evaluated. The Sag of microlens and radius of curvature of microlens are evaluated and reported. The sag of microlens agrees well within the experimental limit as provided in the specification by the manufacturer.

Keywords: micro-optics, microlens array, phase map, digital holographic interferometric microscopy

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