Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 945

Search results for: terrestrial laser scanner

945 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai


The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
944 Using T-Splines to Model Point Clouds from Terrestrial Laser Scanner

Authors: G. Kermarrec, J. Hartmann


Spline surfaces are a major representation of freeform surfaces in the computer-aided graphic industry and were recently introduced in the field of geodesy for processing point clouds from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The surface fitting consists of approximating a trustworthy mathematical surface to a large numbered 3D point cloud. The standard B-spline surfaces lack of local refinement due to the tensor-product construction. The consequences are oscillating geometry, particularly in the transition from low-to-high curvature parts for scattered point clouds with missing data. More economic alternatives in terms of parameters on how to handle point clouds with a huge amount of observations are the recently introduced T-splines. As long as the partition of unity is guaranteed, their computational complexity is low, and they are flexible. T-splines are implemented in a commercial package called Rhino, a 3D modeler which is widely used in computer aided design to create and animate NURBS objects. We have applied T-splines surface fitting to terrestrial laser scanner point clouds from a bridge under load and a sheet pile wall with noisy observations. We will highlight their potential for modelling details with high trustworthiness, paving the way for further applications in terms of deformation analysis.

Keywords: deformation analysis, surface modelling, terrestrial laser scanner, T-splines

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
943 3D Point Cloud Model Color Adjustment by Combining Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Close Range Photogrammetry Datasets

Authors: M. Pepe, S. Ackermann, L. Fregonese, C. Achille


3D models obtained with advanced survey techniques such as close-range photogrammetry and laser scanner are nowadays particularly appreciated in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology fields. In order to produce high quality models representing archaeological evidences and anthropological artifacts, the appearance of the model (i.e. color) beyond the geometric accuracy, is not a negligible aspect. The integration of the close-range photogrammetry survey techniques with the laser scanner is still a topic of study and research. By combining point cloud data sets of the same object generated with both technologies, or with the same technology but registered in different moment and/or natural light condition, could construct a final point cloud with accentuated color dissimilarities. In this paper, a methodology to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details by balancing the point color will be presented.

Keywords: color models, cultural heritage, laser scanner, photogrammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
942 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: Ali Emre Öztürk, Ergun Ercelebi


Autonomous robotic systems needs an equipment like a human eye for their movement. Robotic camera systems, distance sensors and 3D laser scanners have been used in the literature. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been produced for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper. Furthermore for the laser scanner a motor driver, an embedded system control board has been used and at the same time a user interface card has been used to make the communication between those cards and computer. Due to this laser scanner, the density of the objects, the distance between the objects and the necessary path ways for the robot can be calculated. The data collected by the laser scanner system is converted in to cartesian coordinates to be modeled in AutoCAD program. This study shows also the synchronization between the computer user interface, AutoCAD and the embedded systems. As a result it makes the solution cheaper for such systems. The scanning results are enough for an autonomous robot but the scan cycle time should be developed. This study makes also contribution for further studies between the hardware and software needs since it has a powerful performance and a low cost.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, embedded system, 1D laser range finder, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
941 Combination of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data for Citrus Yield Estimation

Authors: Mohammed Hmimou, Khalid Amediaz, Imane Sebari, Nabil Bounajma


Annual crop production is one of the most important macroeconomic indicators for the majority of countries around the world. This information is valuable, especially for exporting countries which need a yield estimation before harvest in order to correctly plan the supply chain. When it comes to estimating agricultural yield, especially for arboriculture, conventional methods are mostly applied. In the case of the citrus industry, the sale before harvest is largely practiced, which requires an estimation of the production when the fruit is on the tree. However, conventional method based on the sampling surveys of some trees within the field is always used to perform yield estimation, and the success of this process mainly depends on the expertise of the ‘estimator agent’. The present study aims to propose a methodology based on the combination of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point cloud to estimate citrus production. During data acquisition, a fixed wing and rotatory drones, as well as a terrestrial laser scanner, were tested. After that, a pre-processing step was performed in order to generate point cloud and digital surface model. At the processing stage, a machine vision workflow was implemented to extract points corresponding to fruits from the whole tree point cloud, cluster them into fruits, and model them geometrically in a 3D space. By linking the resulting geometric properties to the fruit weight, the yield can be estimated, and the statistical distribution of fruits size can be generated. This later property, which is information required by importing countries of citrus, cannot be estimated before harvest using the conventional method. Since terrestrial laser scanner is static, data gathering using this technology can be performed over only some trees. So, integration of drone data was thought in order to estimate the yield over a whole orchard. To achieve that, features derived from drone digital surface model were linked to yield estimation by laser scanner of some trees to build a regression model that predicts the yield of a tree given its features. Several missions were carried out to collect drone and laser scanner data within citrus orchards of different varieties by testing several data acquisition parameters (fly height, images overlap, fly mission plan). The accuracy of the obtained results by the proposed methodology in comparison to the yield estimation results by the conventional method varies from 65% to 94% depending mainly on the phenological stage of the studied citrus variety during the data acquisition mission. The proposed approach demonstrates its strong potential for early estimation of citrus production and the possibility of its extension to other fruit trees.

Keywords: citrus, digital surface model, point cloud, terrestrial laser scanner, UAV, yield estimation, 3D modeling

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940 Bridge Members Segmentation Algorithm of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds Using Fuzzy Clustering Method

Authors: Donghwan Lee, Gichun Cha, Jooyoung Park, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park


3D shape models of the existing structure are required for many purposes such as safety and operation management. The traditional 3D modeling methods are based on manual or semi-automatic reconstruction from close-range images. It occasions great expense and time consuming. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a common survey technique to measure quickly and accurately a 3D shape model. This TLS is used to a construction site and cultural heritage management. However there are many limits to process a TLS point cloud, because the raw point cloud is massive volume data. So the capability of carrying out useful analyses is also limited with unstructured 3-D point. Thus, segmentation becomes an essential step whenever grouping of points with common attributes is required. In this paper, members segmentation algorithm was presented to separate a raw point cloud which includes only 3D coordinates. This paper presents a clustering approach based on a fuzzy method for this objective. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is reviewed and used in combination with a similarity-driven cluster merging method. It is applied to the point cloud acquired with Lecia Scan Station C10/C5 at the test bed. The test-bed was a bridge which connects between 1st and 2nd engineering building in Sungkyunkwan University in Korea. It is about 32m long and 2m wide. This bridge was used as pedestrian between two buildings. The 3D point cloud of the test-bed was constructed by a measurement of the TLS. This data was divided by segmentation algorithm for each member. Experimental analyses of the results from the proposed unsupervised segmentation process are shown to be promising. It can be processed to manage configuration each member, because of the segmentation process of point cloud.

Keywords: fuzzy c-means (FCM), point cloud, segmentation, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS)

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939 Terrestrial Laser Scans to Assess Aerial LiDAR Data

Authors: J. F. Reinoso-Gordo, F. J. Ariza-López, A. Mozas-Calvache, J. L. García-Balboa, S. Eddargani


The DEMs quality may depend on several factors such as data source, capture method, processing type used to derive them, or the cell size of the DEM. The two most important capture methods to produce regional-sized DEMs are photogrammetry and LiDAR; DEMs covering entire countries have been obtained with these methods. The quality of these DEMs has traditionally been evaluated by the national cartographic agencies through punctual sampling that focused on its vertical component. For this type of evaluation there are standards such as NMAS and ASPRS Positional Accuracy Standards for Digital Geospatial Data. However, it seems more appropriate to carry out this evaluation by means of a method that takes into account the superficial nature of the DEM and, therefore, its sampling is superficial and not punctual. This work is part of the Research Project "Functional Quality of Digital Elevation Models in Engineering" where it is necessary to control the quality of a DEM whose data source is an experimental LiDAR flight with a density of 14 points per square meter to which we call Point Cloud Product (PCpro). In the present work it is described the capture data on the ground and the postprocessing tasks until getting the point cloud that will be used as reference (PCref) to evaluate the PCpro quality. Each PCref consists of a patch 50x50 m size coming from a registration of 4 different scan stations. The area studied was the Spanish region of Navarra that covers an area of 10,391 km2; 30 patches homogeneously distributed were necessary to sample the entire surface. The patches have been captured using a Leica BLK360 terrestrial laser scanner mounted on a pole that reached heights of up to 7 meters; the position of the scanner was inverted so that the characteristic shadow circle does not exist when the scanner is in direct position. To ensure that the accuracy of the PCref is greater than that of the PCpro, the georeferencing of the PCref has been carried out with real-time GNSS, and its accuracy positioning was better than 4 cm; this accuracy is much better than the altimetric mean square error estimated for the PCpro (<15 cm); The kind of DEM of interest is the corresponding to the bare earth, so that it was necessary to apply a filter to eliminate vegetation and auxiliary elements such as poles, tripods, etc. After the postprocessing tasks the PCref is ready to be compared with the PCpro using different techniques: cloud to cloud or after a resampling process DEM to DEM.

Keywords: data quality, DEM, LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanner, accuracy

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938 Assessment of Runway Micro Texture Using Surface Laser Scanners: An Explorative Study

Authors: Gerard Van Es


In this study, the use of a high resolution surface laser scanner to assess the micro texture of runway surfaces was investigated experimentally. Micro texture is one of the important surface components that helps to provide high braking friction between aircraft tires and a wet runway surface. Algorithms to derive different parameters that characterise micro texture was developed. Surface scans with a high resolution laser scanner were conducted on 40 different runway (like) surfaces. For each surface micro texture parameters were calculated from the laser scan data. These results were correlated with results obtained from a British pendulum tester that was used on the same surface. Results obtained with the British pendulum tester are generally considered to be indicative for the micro texture related friction characteristics. The results show that a meaningful correlation can be found between different parameters that characterise micro texture obtained with the laser scanner and the British pendulum tester results. Surface laser scanners are easier to operate and give more consistent results than a British pendulum tester. Therefore for airport operators surface laser scanners can be a useful tool to determine if their runway becomes slippery when wet due to a smooth micro texture.

Keywords: runway friction, micro texture, aircraft braking performance, slippery runways

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937 Applying Laser Scanning and Digital Photogrammetry for Developing an Archaeological Model Structure for Old Castle in Germany

Authors: Bara' Al-Mistarehi


Documentation and assessment of conservation state of an archaeological structure is a significant procedure in any management plan. However, it has always been a challenge to apply this with a low coast and safe methodology. It is also a time-demanding procedure. Therefore, a low cost, efficient methodology for documenting the state of a structure is needed. In the scope of this research, this paper will employ digital photogrammetry and laser scanner to one of highly significant structures in Germany, The Old Castle (German: Altes Schloss). The site is well known for its unique features. However, the castle suffers from serious deterioration threats because of the environmental conditions and the absence of continuous monitoring, maintenance and repair plans. Digital photogrammetry is a generally accepted technique for the collection of 3D representations of the environment. For this reason, this image-based technique has been extensively used to produce high quality 3D models of heritage sites and historical buildings for documentation and presentation purposes. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanners are used, which directly measure 3D surface coordinates based on the run-time of reflected light pulses. These systems feature high data acquisition rates, good accuracy and high spatial data density. Despite the potential of each single approach, in this research work maximum benefit is to be expected by a combination of data from both digital cameras and terrestrial laser scanners. Within the paper, the usage, application and advantages of the technique will be investigated in terms of building high realistic 3D textured model for some parts of the old castle. The model will be used as diagnosing tool of the conservation state of the castle and monitoring mean for future changes.

Keywords: Digital photogrammetry, Terrestrial laser scanners, 3D textured model, archaeological structure

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936 Study and Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritages with the Use of Laser Scanner and Processing System for 3D Modeling Spatial Data

Authors: Julia Desiree Velastegui Caceres, Luis Alejandro Velastegui Caceres, Oswaldo Padilla, Eduardo Kirby, Francisco Guerrero, Theofilos Toulkeridis


It is fundamental to conserve sites of natural and cultural heritage with any available technique or existing methodology of preservation in order to sustain them for the following generations. We propose a further skill to protect the actual view of such sites, in which with high technology instrumentation we are able to digitally preserve natural and cultural heritages applied in Ecuador. In this project the use of laser technology is presented for three-dimensional models, with high accuracy in a relatively short period of time. In Ecuador so far, there are not any records on the use and processing of data obtained by this new technological trend. The importance of the project is the description of the methodology of the laser scanner system using the Faro Laser Scanner Focus 3D 120, the method for 3D modeling of geospatial data and the development of virtual environments in the areas of Cultural and Natural Heritage. In order to inform users this trend in technology in which three-dimensional models are generated, the use of such tools has been developed to be able to be displayed in all kinds of digitally formats. The results of the obtained 3D models allows to demonstrate that this technology is extremely useful in these areas, but also indicating that each data campaign needs an individual slightly different proceeding starting with the data capture and processing to obtain finally the chosen virtual environments.

Keywords: laser scanner system, 3D model, cultural heritage, natural heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
935 Development of a Shape Based Estimation Technology Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Authors: Gichun Cha, Byoungjoon Yu, Jihwan Park, Minsoo Park, Junghyun Im, Sehwan Park, Sujung Sin, Seunghee Park


The goal of this research is to estimate a structural shape change using terrestrial laser scanning. This study proceeds with development of data reduction and shape change estimation algorithm for large-capacity scan data. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. Technique of shape estimation is studied to detect changes in structure patterns, such as skyscrapers, bridges, and tunnels based on large point cloud data. The point cloud analysis applies the octree data structure to speed up the post-processing process for change detection. The point cloud data is the relative representative value of shape information, and it used as a model for detecting point cloud changes in a data structure. Shape estimation model is to develop a technology that can detect not only normal but also immediate structural changes in the event of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and fires, thereby preventing major accidents caused by aging and disasters. The study will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance.

Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning, point cloud, shape information model, displacement measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
934 Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner

Authors: Loke Kean Koay, Mani Maran Ratnam


A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However, the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of the mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.

Keywords: torsional scanner, design optimization, computer-aided design, magnet position variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
933 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia


This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration, robot-assisted surgery, supervisory control

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
932 Shape Management Method for Safety Evaluation of Bridge Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Using Least Squares

Authors: Gichun Cha, Dongwan Lee, Junkyeong Kim, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


All the world are studying the construction technology of double deck tunnel in order to respond to the increasing urban traffic demands and environmental changes. Advanced countries have the construction technology of the double deck tunnel structure. but the domestic country began research on it. Construction technologies are important. But Safety evaluation of structure is necessary to prevent possible accidents during construction. Thus, the double deck tunnel was required the shape management of middle slabs. The domestic country is preparing the construction of double deck tunnel for an alternate route and a pleasant urban environment. Shape management of double deck tunnel has been no research because it is a new attempted technology. The present, a similar study is bridge structure for the shape management. Bridge is implemented shape model using terrestrial laser scanning(TLS). Therefore, we proceed research on the bridge slabs because there is a similar structure of double deck tunnel. In the study, we develop shape management method of bridge slabs using TLS. We select the Test-bed for measurement site. This site is bridge located on Sungkyunkwan University Natural Sciences Campus. This bridge has a total length of 34m, the vertical height of 8.7m from the ground. It connects Engineering Building #1 and Engineering Building #2. Point cloud data for shape management is acquired the TLS and We utilized the Leica ScanStation C10/C5 model. We will confirm the Maximum displacement area of middle slabs using Least-Squares Fitting. We expect to raise stability for double deck tunnel through shape management for middle slabs.

Keywords: bridge slabs, least squares, safety evaluation, shape management method, terrestrial laser scanning

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
931 A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor

Authors: Yongmin You


Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.

Keywords: polygon mirror scanner motor, optimal design, finite element method, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
930 Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda


Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicates a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
929 A Simple Method for Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda


Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation, and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicate a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
928 Low-Cost Mechatronic Design of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot

Authors: S. Cobos-Guzman


This paper presents the results of a mechatronic design based on a 4-wheel omnidirectional mobile robot that can be used in indoor logistic applications. The low-level control has been selected using two open-source hardware (Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ and Arduino Mega 2560) that control four industrial motors, four ultrasound sensors, four optical encoders, a vision system of two cameras, and a Hokuyo URG-04LX-UG01 laser scanner. Moreover, the system is powered with a lithium battery that can supply 24 V DC and a maximum current-hour of 20Ah.The Robot Operating System (ROS) has been implemented in the Raspberry Pi and the performance is evaluated with the selection of the sensors and hardware selected. The mechatronic system is evaluated and proposed safe modes of power distribution for controlling all the electronic devices based on different tests. Therefore, based on different performance results, some recommendations are indicated for using the Raspberry Pi and Arduino in terms of power, communication, and distribution of control for different devices. According to these recommendations, the selection of sensors is distributed in both real-time controllers (Arduino and Raspberry Pi). On the other hand, the drivers of the cameras have been implemented in Linux and a python program has been implemented to access the cameras. These cameras will be used for implementing a deep learning algorithm to recognize people and objects. In this way, the level of intelligence can be increased in combination with the maps that can be obtained from the laser scanner.

Keywords: autonomous, indoor robot, mechatronic, omnidirectional robot

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927 Time Efficient Color Coding for Structured-Light 3D Scanner

Authors: Po-Hao Huang, Pei-Ju Chiang


The structured light 3D scanner is commonly used for measuring the 3D shape of an object. Through projecting designed light patterns on the object, deformed patterns can be obtained and used for the geometric shape reconstruction. At present, Gray code is the most reliable and commonly used light pattern in the structured light 3D scanner. However, the trade-off between scanning efficiency and accuracy is a long-standing and challenging problem. The design of light patterns plays a significant role in the scanning efficiency and accuracy. Thereby, we proposed a novel encoding method integrating color information and Gray-code to improve the scanning efficiency. We will demonstrate that with the proposed method, the scanning time can be reduced to approximate half of the one needed by Gray-code without reduction of precision.

Keywords: gray-code, structured light scanner, 3D shape acquisition, 3D reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
926 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer


Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
925 The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Jun Su Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park


This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.

Keywords: structural healthcare monitoring, terrestrial laser scanning, estimation of stress distribution, coordinate transformation, cubic smoothing spline interpolation

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924 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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923 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
922 Visualization of Corrosion at Plate-Like Structures Based on Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Images

Authors: Aoqi Zhang, Changgil Lee Lee, Seunghee Park


A non-contact nondestructive technique using laser-induced ultrasonic wave generation method was applied to visualize corrosion damage at aluminum alloy plate structures. The ultrasonic waves were generated by a Nd:YAG pulse laser, and a galvanometer-based laser scanner was used to scan specific area at a target structure. At the same time, wave responses were measured at a piezoelectric sensor which was attached on the target structure. The visualization of structural damage was achieved by calculating logarithmic values of root mean square (RMS). Damage-sensitive feature was defined as the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion damage. The corroded damage was artificially formed by hydrochloric acid. To observe the effect of the location where the corrosion was formed, the both sides of the plate were scanned with same scanning area. Also, the effect on the depth of the corrosion was considered as well as the effect on the size of the corrosion. The results indicated that the damages were successfully visualized for almost cases, whether the damages were formed at the front or back side. However, the damage could not be clearly detected because the depth of the corrosion was shallow. In the future works, it needs to develop signal processing algorithm to more clearly visualize the damage by improving signal-to-noise ratio.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, corrosion, pulsed laser scanning, ultrasonic waves, plate structure

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921 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason


Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

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920 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar


The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

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919 Flexible Programmable Circuit Board Electromagnetic 1-D Scanning Micro-Mirror Laser Rangefinder by Active Triangulation

Authors: Vixen Joshua Tan, Siyuan He


Scanners have been implemented within single point laser rangefinders, to determine the ranges within an environment by sweeping the laser spot across the surface of interest. The research motivation is to exploit a smaller and cheaper alternative scanning component for the emitting portion within current designs of laser rangefinders. This research implements an FPCB (Flexible Programmable Circuit Board) Electromagnetic 1-Dimensional scanning micro-mirror as a scanning component for laser rangefinding by means of triangulation. The prototype uses a laser module, micro-mirror, and receiver. The laser module is infrared (850 nm) with a power output of 4.5 mW. The receiver consists of a 50 mm convex lens and a 45mm 1-dimensional PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) placed at the focal length of the lens at 50 mm. The scanning component is an elliptical Micro-Mirror attached onto an FPCB Structure. The FPCB structure has two miniature magnets placed symmetrically underneath it on either side, which are then electromagnetically actuated by small solenoids, causing the FPCB to mechanically rotate about its torsion beams. The laser module projects a laser spot onto the micro-mirror surface, hence producing a scanning motion of the laser spot during the rotational actuation of the FPCB. The receiver is placed at a fixed distance from the micro-mirror scanner and is oriented to capture the scanning motion of the laser spot during operation. The elliptical aperture dimensions of the micro-mirror are 8mm by 5.5 mm. The micro-mirror is supported by an FPCB with two torsion beams with dimensions of 4mm by 0.5mm. The overall length of the FPCB is 23 mm. The voltage supplied to the solenoids is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 3.5 volts and 4.5 volts to achieve optical scanning angles of +/- 10 and +/- 17 degrees respectively. The operating scanning frequency during experiments was 5 Hz. For an optical angle of +/- 10 degrees, the prototype is capable of detecting objects within the ranges from 0.3-1.2 meters with an error of less than 15%. As for an optical angle of +/- 17 degrees the measuring range was from 0.3-0.7 meters with an error of 16% or less. Discrepancy between the experimental and actual data is possibly caused by misalignment of the components during experiments. Furthermore, the power of the laser spot collected by the receiver gradually decreased as the object was placed further from the sensor. A higher powered laser will be tested to potentially measure further distances more accurately. Moreover, a wide-angled lens will be used in future experiments when higher scanning angles are used. Modulation within the current and future higher powered lasers will be implemented to enable the operation of the laser rangefinder prototype without the use of safety goggles.

Keywords: FPCB electromagnetic 1-D scanning micro-mirror, laser rangefinder, position sensitive detector, PSD, triangulation

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918 Wireless Optic Last Mile Multi-Gbit/s Communication System

Authors: Manea Viorel, Puscoci Sorin, Stoichescu Dan Alexandru


Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical telecommunication system that uses laser beam to transmit data at high bit rates via terrestrial atmosphere. This article describes a method to obtain higher bit rates, under unfavorable weather conditions using multiple optical beams, which carry information with low optical power. Optical link quality assessment is given by the attenuation on different weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to compare two transmission techniques: mono and multi beam, both affected by atmospheric attenuation, using OOK and L-PPM modulation. Link availability is evaluated using eye-diagram that provides information about the overall bit error rate of the system.

Keywords: free space optics, wireless optic, laser communication, spatial diversity

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917 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid


Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming

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916 3D Building Model Utilizing Airborne LiDAR Dataset and Terrestrial Photographic Images

Authors: J. Jasmee, I. Roslina, A. Mohammed Yaziz & A.H Juazer Rizal


The need of an effective building information collection method is vital to support a diversity of land development activities. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an established technology for building information collection, location, and elevation of the reflecting laser points towards the construction of 3D building models. In this study, LiDAR datasets and terrestrial photographic images of buildings towards the construction of 3D building models is explored. It is found that, the quantitative accuracy of the constructed 3D building model, namely in the horizontal and vertical components were ± 0.31m (RMSEx,y) and ± 0.145m (RMSEz) respectively. The accuracies were computed based on sixty nine (69) horizontal and twenty (20) vertical surveyed points. As for the qualitative assessment, it is shown that the appearance of the 3D building model is adequate to support the requirements of LOD3 presentation based on the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard CityGML.

Keywords: LiDAR datasets, DSM, DTM, 3D building models

Procedia PDF Downloads 231