Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 406

Search results for: micropolar fluids

406 Stability Analysis of Three-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Micropolar Fluids

Authors: Boualem Chetti

Abstract:

The dynamic characteristics of a three-lobe journal bearing lubricated with micropolar fluids are determined by the linear stability theory. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modeled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and the finite difference technique has been used to solve it. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The computed results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.

Keywords: three-lobe bearings, micropolar fluid, dynamic characteristics, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
405 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Effects on Micropolar-Newtonian Fluid Flow through a Composite Porous Channel

Authors: Satya Deo, Deepak Kumar Maurya

Abstract:

The present study investigates the ow of a Newtonian fluid sandwiched between two rectangular porous channels filled with micropolar fluid in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in a direction perpendicular to that of the fluid motion. The governing equations of micropolar fluid are modified by Nowacki's approach. For respective porous channels, expressions for velocity vectors, microrotations, stresses (shear and couple) are obtained analytically. Continuity of velocities, continuities of micro rotations and continuity of stresses are used at the porous interfaces; conditions of no-slip and no spin are applied at the impervious boundaries of the composite channel. Numerical values of flow rate, wall shear stresses and couple stresses at the porous interfaces are calculated for different values of various parameters. Graphs of the ow rate and fluid velocity are plotted and their behaviors are discussed.

Keywords: couple stress, flow rate, Hartmann number, micropolar fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
404 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

Abstract:

Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
403 Application of the Micropolar Beam Theory for the Construction of the Discrete-Continual Model of Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Samvel H. Sargsyan

Abstract:

Together with the study of electron-optical properties of nanostructures and proceeding from experiment-based data, the study of the mechanical properties of nanostructures has become quite actual. For the study of the mechanical properties of fullerene, carbon nanotubes, graphene and other nanostructures one of the crucial issues is the construction of their adequate mathematical models. Among all mathematical models of graphene or carbon nano-tubes, this so-called discrete-continuous model is specifically important. It substitutes the interactions between atoms by elastic beams or springs. The present paper demonstrates the construction of the discrete-continual beam model for carbon nanotubes or graphene, where the micropolar beam model based on the theory of moment elasticity is accepted. With the account of the energy balance principle, the elastic moment constants for the beam model, expressed by the physical and geometrical parameters of carbon nanotube or graphene, are determined. By switching from discrete-continual beam model to the continual, the models of micropolar elastic cylindrical shell and micropolar elastic plate are confirmed as continual models for carbon nanotube and graphene respectively.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, discrete-continual, elastic, graphene, micropolar, plate, shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
402 Influence of Thermal Radiation on MHD Micropolar Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer over Vertical Flat Plate

Authors: Alouaoui Redha, Ferhat Samira, Bouaziz Mohamed Najib

Abstract:

In this work, we examine the thermal radiation effect on heat and mass transfer in steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous micropolar fluid over a vertical plate, with the presence of a magnetic field. Rosseland approximation is applied to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically. Many results are obtained and representative set is displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of the various parameters on different profiles. The conclusion is drawn that the flow field, temperature, concentration and microrotation as well as the skin friction coefficient and the both local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers are significantly influenced by Magnetic parameter, material parameter and thermal radiation parameter.

Keywords: MHD, micropolar fluid, thermal radiation, heat and mass transfer, boundary layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
401 The Exact Specification for Consumption of Blood-Pressure Regulating Drugs with a Numerical Model of Pulsatile Micropolar Fluid Flow in Elastic Vessel

Authors: Soroush Maddah, Houra Asgarian, Mahdi Navidbakhsh

Abstract:

In the present paper, the problem of pulsatile micropolar blood flow through an elastic artery has been studied. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation for the governing equations has been produced to model the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and has been solved numerically using finite difference scheme by exploiting a mesh generation technique which leads to a uniformly spaced grid in the computational plane. Effect of the variations of cardiac output and wall artery module of elasticity on blood pressure with blood-pressure regulating drugs like Atenolol has been determined. Also, a numerical model has been produced to define precisely the effects of various dosages of a drug on blood flow in arteries without the numerous experiments that have many mistakes and expenses.

Keywords: arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, Atenolol, fluid structure interaction, micropolar fluid, pulsatile blood flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
400 Effects of Dispersion on Peristaltic Flow of a Micropolar Fluid Through a Porous Medium with Wall Effects in the Presence of Slip

Authors: G. Ravi Kiran, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of slip boundary condition and wall properties on the dispersion of a solute matter in peristaltic flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid through a porous medium. Long wavelength approximation, Taylor's limiting condition and dynamic boundary conditions at the flexible walls are used to obtain the average effective dispersion coefficient in the presence of combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The effects of various pertinent parameters on the effective dispersion coefficient are discussed. It is observed that peristalsis enhances dispersion. It also increases with micropolar parameter, cross viscosity coefficient, Darcy number, slip parameter and wall parameters. Further, dispersion decreases with homogenous chemical reaction rate and heterogeneous chemical reaction rate.

Keywords: chemical reaction, dispersion, peristalsis, slip condition, wall properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
399 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
398 Effect of Joule Heating on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over Truncated Cone with Convective Boundary Condition Using Spectral Quasilinearization Method

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chetteti

Abstract:

This work emphasizes the effects of heat generation/absorption and Joule heating on chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow over a truncated cone with convective boundary condition. For this complex fluid flow problem, the similarity solution does not exist and hence using non-similarity transformations, the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of non-dimensional partial differential equations. Several authors have applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The influence of pertinent parameters namely Biot number, Joule heating, heat generation/absorption, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, spectral quasilinearization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
397 Quadratic Convective Flow of a Micropolar Fluid in a Non-Darcy Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: Ch. Ramreddy, P. Naveen, D. Srinivasacharya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear temperature and concentration on the mixed convective flow of micropolar fluid over an inclined flat plate in a non-Darcy porous medium in the presence of convective boundary condition. In order to analyze all the essential features, the transformed nonlinear conservation equations are worked out numerically by spectral method. By insisting the comparison between vertical, horizontal and inclined plates, the physical quantities of the flow and its characteristics are exhibited graphically and quantitatively with various parameters. An increase in the coupling number and inclination of angle tend to decrease the skin friction, mass transfer rate and the reverse change is there in wall couple stress and heat transfer rate. The nominal effect on the wall couple stress and skin friction is encountered whereas the significant effect on the local heat and mass transfer rates are found for high enough values of Biot number.

Keywords: convective boundary condition, micropolar fluid, non-darcy porous medium, non-linear convection, spectral method

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
396 Influence of Convective Boundary Condition on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over a Truncated Cone Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chitteti

Abstract:

This article analyzes the mixed convection flow of chemically reacting micropolar fluid over a truncated cone embedded in non-Darcy porous medium with convective boundary condition. In addition, heat generation/absorption and Joule heating effects are taken into consideration. The similarity solution does not exist for this complex fluid flow problem, and hence non-similarity transformations are used to convert the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions into a set of nondimensional partial differential equations. Many authors have been applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters namely, Biot number, mixed convection parameter, heat generation/absorption, Joule heating, Forchheimer number, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, mixed convection, spectral quasi-linearization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
395 A Two-Dimensional Problem Micropolar Thermoelastic Medium under the Effect of Laser Irradiation and Distributed Sources

Authors: Devinder Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar

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The present investigation deals with the deformation of micropolar generalized thermoelastic solid subjected to thermo-mechanical loading due to a thermal laser pulse. Laplace transform and Fourier transform techniques are used to solve the problem. Thermo-mechanical laser interactions are taken as distributed sources to describe the application of the approach. The closed form expressions of normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are obtained in the domain. Numerical inversion technique of Laplace transform and Fourier transform has been implied to obtain the resulting quantities in the physical domain after developing a computer program. The normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress and temperature are depicted graphically to show the effect of relaxation times. Some particular cases of interest are deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: pulse laser, integral transform, thermoelastic, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
394 A Steady State Characteristics of Four-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Couple Stress Fluids in Turbulent Flow Regime

Authors: Boualem Chetti, Samir Zahaf

Abstract:

This paper presents the steady-state performance analysis of a four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids operating in the turbulent regime, following Constantinescu’s turbulent lubrication theory. The modified Reynolds equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method taking into consideration the effects of the turbulence and the couple stress. In this analysis, the steady-state parameters in terms of the attitude angle, load carrying capacity, side leakage and friction coefficient are determined at various values of eccentricities ratio. The computed results show that the turbulence increases the load carrying capacity, the attitude angle and the friction coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a Newtonian or a couple stress fluids. It is found that the turbulence has strongly influence on the steady-state performances of the four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with Newtonian fluids or a couple stress fluids.

Keywords: Four-lobe journal bearings, static characteristics, couple-stress fluids, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
393 EHD Effect on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Journal Bearing Lubricated with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis for the dynamic performance of a finite journal bearing lubricated with couple stress fluid taking into account the effect of the deformation of the bearing liner. The modified Reynolds equation has been solved by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, critical mass and whirl ratio are evaluated for different values of eccentricity ratio and elastic coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids and a Newtonian fluid. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids are improved compared to journal bearings lubricated with Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: journal bearing, elastohydrodynamic, stability, couple stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
392 Borate Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids: Laboratory Determination of Rheology

Authors: Lalnuntluanga Hmar, Hardik Vyas

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing has become an essential procedure to break apart the rock and release the oil or gas which are trapped tightly in the rock by pumping fracturing fluids at high pressure down into the well. To open the fracture and to transport propping agent along the fracture, proper selection of fracturing fluids is the most crucial components in fracturing operations. Rheology properties of the fluids are usually considered the most important. Among various fracturing fluids, Borate crosslinked fluids have proved to be highly effective. Borate in the form of Boric Acid, borate ion is the most commonly use to crosslink the hydrated polymers and to produce very viscous gels that can stable at high temperature. Guar and HPG (Hydroxypropyl Guar) polymers are the most often used in these fluids. Borate gel rheology is known to be a function of polymer concentration, borate ion concentration, pH, and temperature. The crosslinking using Borate is a function of pH which means it can be formed or reversed simply by altering the pH of the fluid system. The fluid system was prepared by mixing base polymer with water at pH ranging between 8 to 11 and the optimum borate crosslinker efficiency was found to be pH of about 10. The rheology of laboratory prepared Borate crosslinked fracturing fluid was determined using Anton Paar Rheometer and Fann Viscometer. The viscosity was measured at high temperature ranging from 200ᵒF to 250ᵒF and pressures in order to partially stimulate the downhole condition. Rheological measurements reported that the crosslinking increases the viscosity, elasticity and thus fluid capability to transport propping agent.

Keywords: borate, crosslinker, Guar, Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG), rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
391 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

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Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
390 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar

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Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
389 A Mathematical Model of Pulsatile Blood Flow through a Bifurcated Artery

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, G. Madhava Rao

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In this article, the pulsatile flow of blood flow in bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated. Blood is treated to be a micropolar fluid with constant density. The arteries forming bifurcation are assumed to be symmetric about its axes and straight cylinders of restricted length. As the geometry of the stenosed bifurcated artery is irregular, it is changed to regular geometry utilizing the appropriate transformations. The numerical solutions, using the finite difference method, are computed for the flow rate, the shear stress, and the impedance. The influence of time, coupling number, half of the bifurcated angle and Womersley number on shear stress, flow rate and impedance (resistance to the flow) on both sides of the flow divider is shown graphically. It has been observed that the shear stress and flow rate are increasing with increase in the values of Womersley number and bifurcation angle on both sides of the apex. The shear stress is increasing along the inner wall and decreasing along the outer wall of the daughter artery with an increase in the value of coupling number. Further, it has been noticed that the shear stress, flow rate, and impedance are perturbed largely near to the apex in the parent artery due to the presence of backflow near the apex.

Keywords: micropolar fluid, bifurcated artery, stenosis, back flow, secondary flow, pulsatile flow, Womersley number

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
388 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil

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Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
387 Vibration Damping Properties of Electrorheological Materials Based on Chitosan/Perlite Composite

Authors: M. Cabuk, M. Yavuz, T. A. Yesil, H. I. Unal

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Electrorheological (ER) fluids are a class of smart materials exhibiting reversible changes in their rheological and mechanical properties under an applied electric field (E). ER fluids generally are composed of polarisable solid particles dispersed in non-conducting oil. ER fluids are fluids which exhibit. The resistance to motion of the ER fluid can be controlled by adjusting the applied E, due to their fast and reversible changes in their rheological properties presence of E. In this study, a series of chitosan/expanded perlite (CS/EP) composites with different chitosan mass fractions (10%, 20%, and 50%) was used. Characterizations of the composites were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. Antisedimentation stability and dielectric properties of the composites were also determined. The effects of volume fraction, electric field strength, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER properties of the CS/EP composite particles dispersed in silicone oil (SO) were investigated in detail. Vibration damping behavior of the CS/EP composites were determined as a function of frequence, storage (Gʹ) and loss (Gʹ ʹ) moduli. It was observed that ER response of the CS/EP/SO ER fluids increased with increasing electric field strength and exhibited the typical shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behaviors with increasing shear rate. The maximum yield stress was obtained with 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm. Further, the CS/EP/SO ER fluids were observed to sensitive to vibration control by showing reversible viscosity enhancements (Gʹ > Gʹ ʹ). Acknowledgements: The authors thank the TÜBİTAK (214Z199) for the financial support of this work.

Keywords: chitosan, electrorheology, perlite, vibration control

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
386 Modelling the Yield Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids

Authors: Hesam Khajehsaeid, Naeimeh Alagheband

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Magnetorheological fluids (MRF) are a category of smart materials. They exhibit a reversible change from a Newtonian-like fluid to a semi-solid state upon application of an external magnetic field. In contrast to ordinary fluids, MRFs can tolerate shear stresses up to a threshold value called yield stress which strongly depends on the strength of the magnetic field, magnetic particles volume fraction and temperature. Even beyond the yield, a magnetic field can increase MR fluid viscosity up to several orders. As yield stress is an important parameter in the design of MR devices, in this work, the effects of magnetic field intensity and magnetic particle concentration on the yield stress of MRFs are investigated. Four MRF samples with different particle concentrations are developed and tested through flow-ramp analysis to obtain the flow curves at a range of magnetic field intensity as well as shear rate. The viscosity of the fluids is determined by means of the flow curves. The results are then used to determine the yield stresses by means of the steady stress sweep method. The yield stresses are then determined by means of a modified form of the dipole model as well as empirical models. The exponential distribution function is used to describe the orientation of particle chains in the dipole model under the action of the external magnetic field. Moreover, the modified dipole model results in a reasonable distribution of chains compared to previous similar models.

Keywords: magnetorheological fluids, yield stress, particles concentration, dipole model

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
385 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino

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Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while  was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching  of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

Keywords: bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
384 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain

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Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, nanoparticles, heat transfer, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
383 Fluid Prescribing Post Laparotomies

Authors: Gusa Hall, Barrie Keeler, Achal Khanna

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Introduction: NICE guidelines have highlighted the consequences of IV fluid mismanagement. The main aim of this study was to audit fluid prescribing post laparotomies to identify if fluids were prescribed in accordance to NICE guidelines. Methodology: Retrospective database search of eight specific laparotomy procedures (colectomy right and left, Hartmann’s procedure, small bowel resection, perforated ulcer, abdominal perineal resection, anterior resection, pan proctocolectomy, subtotal colectomy) highlighted 29 laparotomies between April 2019 and May 2019. Two of 29 patients had secondary procedures during the same admission, n=27 (patients). Database case notes were reviewed for date of procedure, length of admission, fluid prescribed and amount, nasal gastric tube output, daily bloods results for electrolytes sodium and potassium and operational losses. Results: n=27 based on 27 identified patients between April 2019 – May 2019, 93% (25/27) received IV fluids, only 19% (5/27) received the correct IV fluids in accordance to NICE guidelines, 93% (25/27) who received IV fluids had the correct electrolytes levels (sodium & potassium), 100% (27/27) patients received blood tests (U&E’s) for correct electrolytes levels. 0% (0/27) no documentation on operational losses. IV fluids matched nasogastric tube output in 100% (3/3) of the number of patients that had a nasogastric tube in situ. Conclusion: A PubMed database literature review on barriers to safer IV prescribing highlighted educational interventions focused on prescriber knowledge rather than how to execute the prescribing task. This audit suggests IV fluids post laparotomies are not being prescribed consistently in accordance to NICE guidelines. Surgical management plans should be clearer on IV fluids and electrolytes requirements for the following 24 hours after the plan has been initiated. In addition, further teaching and training around IV prescribing is needed together with frequent surgical audits on IV fluid prescribing post-surgery to evaluate improvements.

Keywords: audit, IV Fluid prescribing, laparotomy, NICE guidelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
382 The Nature of Mineralizing Fluids in the Hammam Zriba Deposit (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) in North-eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, David Banks

Abstract:

The Hammam Zriba (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeast Tunisia, 60 Km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation (Tithonian age) and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralization occurs as stratiform replacement heaps and lenses. The mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite, and galena. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 83 to 140°C, final melting temperature range from −18 to −7.0, corresponding to salinities of 5 to 21 wt % NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 132 and 178°C. Final ice melting temperatures range from −25 to −6.8 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl Equivalent. The LA-ICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>Ca>K>Mg, with the concentration of Fe being equivalent to that of Mg. Microthermometric analyses of the fluid inclusions observed in fluorite and sphalerite show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralization deposition: a warmer saline fluid (132-178°C, 17-24 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler saline fluid (83°C-140, 5-21 wt %NaCl equivalent). The ore fluid result from highly saline and Na-Ca dominated with lower Mg concentrations come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks by the fluids.

Keywords: Hammam Zriba , fluid inclusions, LA-ICP-MS, Zaghouan district

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381 Investigating what Effects Aviation Fluids Have on the Flatwise Compressive Strength of Nomex® Honeycomb Core Material

Authors: G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg

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One of the disadvantages of honeycomb sandwich structure is that they are prone to fluid intrusion. The purpose of this study is to determine if the structural properties of honeycomb core are affected by contact with a fluid. The test specimens were manufactured of fiberglass prepreg for the facesheets and Nomex® honeycomb core for the core material in accordance with ASTM C-365/365M. Test specimens were soaked in several different kinds of fluids, such as aircraft fuel, turbine engine oil, hydraulic fluid, and water for a period of 60 days. A flatwise compressive test was performed, and the test results were analyzed to determine how the contact with aircraft fluids affected the compressive strength of the Nomex® honeycomb core and how the strength was recovered when the specimens were dry. In addition, the investigation of de-bonding between facesheet and core material after soaking were performed to support the study.

Keywords: sandwich structure, honeycomb, environmental degradation, debonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
380 Effects of Radiation on Mixed Convection in Power Law Fluids along Vertical Wedge Embedded in a Saturated Porous Medium under Prescribed Surface Heat Flux Condition

Authors: Qaisar Ali, Waqar A. Khan, Shafiq R. Qureshi

Abstract:

Heat transfer in Power Law Fluids across cylindrical surfaces has copious engineering applications. These applications comprises of areas such as underwater pollution, bio medical engineering, filtration systems, chemical, petroleum, polymer, food processing, recovery of geothermal energy, crude oil extraction, pharmaceutical and thermal energy storage. The quantum of research work with diversified conditions to study the effects of combined heat transfer and fluid flow across porous media has increased considerably over last few decades. The most non-Newtonian fluids of practical interest are highly viscous and therefore are often processed in the laminar flow regime. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of free and mixed convection in Newtonian fluids along vertical and horizontal cylinder embedded in a saturated porous medium, whereas very few analysis have been performed on Power law fluids along wedge. In this study, boundary layer analysis under the effects of radiation-mixed convection in power law fluids along vertical wedge in porous medium have been investigated using an implicit finite difference method (Keller box method). Steady, 2-D laminar flow has been considered under prescribed surface heat flux condition. Darcy, Boussinesq and Roseland approximations are assumed to be valid. Neglecting viscous dissipation effects and the radiate heat flux in the flow direction, the boundary layer equations governing mixed convection flow over a vertical wedge are transformed into dimensionless form. The single mathematical model represents the case for vertical wedge, cone and plate by introducing the geometry parameter. Both similar and Non- similar solutions have been obtained and results for Non similar case have been presented/ plotted. Effects of radiation parameter, variable heat flux parameter, wedge angle parameter ‘m’ and mixed convection parameter have been studied for both Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. The results are also compared with the available data for the analysis of heat transfer in the prescribed range of parameters and found in good agreement. Results for the details of dimensionless local Nusselt number, temperature and velocity fields have also been presented for both Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. Analysis of data revealed that as the radiation parameter or wedge angle is increased, the Nusselt number decreases whereas it increases with increase in the value of heat flux parameter at a given value of mixed convection parameter. Also, it is observed that as viscosity increases, the skin friction co-efficient increases which tends to reduce the velocity. Moreover, pseudo plastic fluids are more heat conductive than Newtonian and dilatant fluids respectively. All fluids behave identically in pure forced convection domain.

Keywords: porous medium, power law fluids, surface heat flux, vertical wedge

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379 Alternative Acidizing Fluids and Their Impact on the Southern Algerian Shale Formations

Authors: Rezki Akkal, Mohamed Khodja, Slimane Azzi

Abstract:

Acidification is a technique used in oil reservoirs to improve annual production, reduce the skin and increase the pressure of an oil well while eliminating the formation damage that occurs during the drilling process, completion and, amongst others, to create new channels allowing the easy circulation of oil around a producing well. This is achieved by injecting an acidizing fluid at a relatively low pressure to prevent fracturing formation. The treatment fluid used depends on the type and nature of the reservoir rock traversed as well as its petrophysical properties. In order to understand the interaction mechanisms between the treatment fluids used for the reservoir rock acidizing, several candidate wells for stimulation were selected in the large Hassi Messaoud deposit in southern Algeria. The stimulation of these wells is completed using different fluids composed mainly of HCl acid with other additives such as corrosion inhibitors, clay stabilizers and iron controllers. These treatment fluids are injected over two phases, namely with clean tube (7.5% HCl) and matrix aidizing with HCl (15%). The stimulation results obtained are variable according to the type of rock traversed and its mineralogical composition. These results show that there has been an increase in production flow and head pressure respectively from 1.99 m3 / h to 3.56 m3 / h and from 13 Kgf / cm2 to 20 kgf / cm2 in the sands formation having good petrophysical properties of (porosity = 16%) and low amount of clay (Vsh = 6%).

Keywords: acidizing, Hassi-Messaoud reservoir, tube clean, matrix stimulation

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378 Effect of Cutting Tools and Working Conditions on the Machinability of Ti-6Al-4V Using Vegetable Oil-Based Cutting Fluids

Authors: S. Gariani, I. Shyha

Abstract:

Cutting titanium alloys are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality, short tool life and high machining costs. This is due to the excessive generation of heat at the cutting zone and difficulties in heat dissipation due to relatively low heat conductivity of this metal. The cooling applications in machining processes are crucial as many operations cannot be performed efficiently without cooling. Improving machinability, increasing productivity, enhancing surface integrity and part accuracy are the main advantages of cutting fluids. Conventional fluids such as mineral oil-based, synthetic and semi-synthetic are the most common cutting fluids in the machining industry. Although, these cutting fluids are beneficial in the industries, they pose a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Vegetable oils (VOs) are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, good lubricous properties, low toxicity, high flash points, low volatility, high viscosity indices and thermal stability. Fatty acids of vegetable oils are known to provide thick, strong, and durable lubricant films. These strong lubricating films give the vegetable oil base stock a greater capability to absorb pressure and high load carrying capacity. This paper details preliminary experimental results when turning Ti-6Al-4V. The impact of various VO-based cutting fluids, cutting tool materials, working conditions was investigated. The full factorial experimental design was employed involving 24 tests to evaluate the influence of process variables on average surface roughness (Ra), tool wear and chip formation. In general, Ra varied between 0.5 and 1.56 µm and Vasco1000 cutting fluid presented comparable performance with other fluids in terms of surface roughness while uncoated coarse grain WC carbide tool achieved lower flank wear at all cutting speeds. On the other hand, all tools tips were subjected to uniform flank wear during whole cutting trails. Additionally, formed chip thickness ranged between 0.1 and 0.14 mm with a noticeable decrease in chip size when higher cutting speed was used.

Keywords: cutting fluids, turning, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oils, working conditions

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377 Simplified Modelling of Visco-Elastic Fluids for Use in Recoil Damping Systems

Authors: Prasad Pokkunuri

Abstract:

Visco-elastic materials combine the stress response properties of both solids and fluids and have found use in a variety of damping applications – both vibrational and acoustic. Defense and automotive applications, in particular, are subject to high impact and shock loading – for example: aircraft landing gear, firearms, and shock absorbers. Field responsive fluids – a class of smart materials – are the preferred choice of energy absorbents because of their controllability. These fluids’ stress response can be controlled by the application of a magnetic or electric field, in a closed loop. Their rheological properties – elasticity, plasticity, and viscosity – can be varied all the way from that of a liquid such as water to a hard solid. This work presents a simplified model to study the impulse response behavior of such fluids for use in recoil damping systems. The well-known Burger’s equation, in conjunction with various visco-elastic constitutive models, is used to represent fluid behavior. The Kelvin-Voigt, Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM), and Oldroyd-B constitutive models are implemented in this study. Using these models in a one-dimensional framework eliminates additional complexities due to geometry, pressure, body forces, and other source terms. Using a finite difference formulation to numerically solve the governing equation(s), the response to an initial impulse is studied. The disturbance is confined within the problem domain with no-inflow, no-outflow boundary conditions, and its decay characteristics studied. Visco-elastic fluids typically involve a time-dependent stress relaxation which gives rise to interesting behavior when subjected to an impulsive load. For particular values of viscous damping and elastic modulus, the fluid settles into a stable oscillatory state, absorbing and releasing energy without much decay. The simplified formulation enables a comprehensive study of different modes of system response, by varying relevant parameters. Using the insights gained from this study, extension to a more detailed multi-dimensional model is considered.

Keywords: Burgers Equation, Impulse Response, Recoil Damping Systems, Visco-elastic Fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 228