Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: church

89 A General Review of Çarpanak Church

Authors: Sahabettin Ozturk, Muhammet Kurucu, Soner Guler


Çarpanak church is one of the well-known churches in the eastern part of Turkey. It is located on Çarpanak island of Van city. Çarpanak Church was built in the 6th. century and then restored in 1462 year. After an earthquake in 1703 year, the church was again restored between 1712 and 1720 years. In spite of some parts of Çarpanak church have been destroyed by natural disasters, it has survived until today without total collapse. In this study, present condition of Çarpanak church is introduced and evaluated briefly.

Keywords: Çarpanak church, earthquake, restoration, Van city

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88 Hagios Spyridon Church in Selymbria and Its Particular Standing in Middle Byzantine Architecture

Authors: Görkem Günay, Bilge Ar


Selymbria is an ancient maritime city, approximately 60 km west to Constantinople. Although it was a particularly important settlement during the Byzantine period, our knowledge about its Byzantine layer is rather sketchy. On the other hand, one of the Byzantine churches of Selymbria, namely Hagios Spyridon which had been survived until the beginning of 20th century, deserves special attention. The church is mainly known via textual and visual data from the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century. These documents, together with some architectural pieces which most probably were belonging to the church, indicate that Hagios Spyridon Church was built in ‘simple domed octagon’ plan-scheme. Nothing from the building is preserved in-situ today. However, this small church helps to fill a very important gap in the history of Middle Byzantine architecture and occupies a notable place in the on-going discussion of the origins of ‘domed octagon’ churches of Helladic paradigm and their link with the capital. This study aims to reexamine the now lost church of Hagios Spyridon in the context of architectural developments of Middle Byzantine period. In the presentation, the exact location and the architecture of the church will be tried to be clarified using the existing documents and the publications of previous scholars. Some new architectural pieces which possibly belonged to the church, will be introduced and interpretations on existing restitution drawings will be made. The church will be architecturally compared with the oldest known example of the plan-scheme, Nea Moni on Chios and its later local copies. The study of Hagios Spyridon Church of Selymbria, hopefully, will contribute to the discussion of the possible influence of the capital on the plan-scheme and will help us to ask further questions about the close relations between Constantinopolitan and provincial architecture.

Keywords: Hagios Spyridon church, insular domed octagon, middle Byzantine architecture, silymarin

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87 The Folk Influences in the Melody of Romanian and Serbian Church Music

Authors: Eudjen Cinc


Common Byzantine origins of church music of Serbs and Romanians are certainly not the only reason for great similarities between the ways of singing of the two nations, especially in the region of Banat. If it was so, the differences between the interpretation of church music in this part of Orthodox religion and the one specific for other parts where Serbs or Romanians live could not be explained. What is it that connects church signing of two nations in this peaceful part of Europe to such an extent that it could be considered a comprehensive corpus, different from other 'Serbian' or 'Romanian' regions? This is the main issue dealt with in the text according to examples and comparative processing of material. The main aim of the paper is representation of the new and interesting, while its value lies in its potential to encourage the reader or a future researcher to investigate and search further.

Keywords: folk influences, melody, melodic models, ethnomusicology

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86 Transparency within the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in the Treatment of Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

Authors: Brang Mai Lazing


The central argument of this paper proposes that while democracy cannot guarantee transparency, authentic transparency within the hierarchy of the Church can be pursued as a means of dealing with cases of clergy sexual abuse. Amid the recent global scandal of clergy sexual abuse cases, a previous study has argued that a democratic rule should be applied to the administration of the Church so that, while a democratic Church could be compelled to exercise greater transparency when handling such cases, the Church might thereby regain credibility. Using the methodology of literature analysis, this paper explores the necessity for hierarchy and finds that democracy cannot be a guarantee for transparency. Further, through a dialogue between the theological insights of Benedict XVI and Edward Schillebeeckx, this paper argues that transparency practices are possible within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases. Finally, three implications of transparency in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases are proposed, viz.: (a) that the harm which is ultimately done to the sacred faith of believers and to the sacred origin of the hierarchy through clergy sexual abuse cases should be given greater emphasis, (b) that the removal of unnecessary layers within the Church hierarchy or replacement with layers empowered with the authority to effect change might help implement accountability and transparency practices, and (c) that any changes made to enhance transparency should be made in terms of ‘adaptability’.

Keywords: Benedict XVI, clergy sexual abuses, democracy, Edward Schillebeeckx, hierarchy, transparency

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85 Aquinas Be Damned: Tension between Nothingness and Suffering

Authors: Elizabeth Latham


Aquinas has long been revered by the Catholic Church as one of the greatest theologians of all time. His most well-known and widely respected theological work, the Summa Theologica has been referenced by countless members of the clergy in support of arguments for and about the existence of God. It is surprising, then, and important that one component in his ontological arguments seems to contradict a precept upheld by the Catechism, the Catholic Church’s comprehensive document detailing their theological positions and laws. In Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas argued that God’s eternal existence is both an observable and necessary quality. In the Catechism, the Catholic Church argues that souls in Hell are separated from God, and only souls in Heaven are like him. After introducing research on Philosophical Psychology and the natures of consciousness and pain, this paper comes to the conclusion that in order to reconcile the theology of the Catholic Church at large with that of Thomas Aquinas, one must somehow solve the following problem: if a soul must exist eternally to suffer eternally, it must be like God; and, if a soul is in Hell, it is completely separate from God and not like him at all. Thomas Aquinas deviates at this point from the current theological holdings of the Catholic Church, and this apparent discrepancy must be resolved if the Church hopes to use him going forward as a standard for natural theology.

Keywords: aquinas, catholic catechism, consciousness, philosophical psychology, summa theologica

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84 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud


This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

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83 Changes in Attitudes of State Towards Orthodox Church: Greek Case after Eurozone Crisis in Alexis Tsipras Era

Authors: Zeynep Selin Balci, Altug Gunal


Religion has always an effect on the policies of states. In the case of religion having a central role in defining identity, especially when becoming an independent state, the bond between religious authority and state cannot easily be broken. As independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire was acquired at the same time with the creation of its own church under the name of the Church of Greece by declaring its independence from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Istanbul, the new church became an important part of Greek national identity. As the Church has the ability to influence Greeks, its rituals, public appearances, and practices are used to provide support to the state. Although there sometimes have been controversies between church and state, it has always been a fact that church is an integral part of the state, which is proved by that paying the salaries of priest by state payroll and them being naturally civil servants. European Union membership, on the other hand, has a changing impact on this relationship. This impact started to be more visible in 2000 when then government decided to exclude the religion section from identity cards. Church’s reaction was to gather people around recalling their religious identity and followed by redefining the content of nationality, which aspired nationalist fronts. After 2015 when leftist coalition Syriza and its self-described atheist leader came to power, the situation for nationalists and Church became more tangling in addition to the economic crisis started in 2010 and evolved into the Eurozone crisis by affecting not only Greece but also other members. Although the church did not have direct confrontations with the government, the fact that Tsipras refused to take the oath on Bible created tensions because it was not acceptable for a state whose Constitution starts ‘in the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity’. Moreover, austerity measures to overcome the economic crisis, which affected the everyday life of citizens in terms of both prices and salaries, did not harm the church’s economic situation much. Considering church being the second biggest landowner after state and paying no taxes, the fact that church was exempt from austerity measures showed to the government the necessity to find a way to make church contribute to solution for the crisis. In 2018, when the government agreed with the head of the church on cutting off the priests from government payroll automatically meaning to end priests’ civil servant status, it created tensions both for church and in society. As a result of the elections held in July 2019, Tsipras could not have the chance to apply the decision as he left the office. In light of these, this study aims to analyze the position of the church in the economic crisis and its effects on Tsipras term. In order to sufficiently understand this, it is to look at the historical changing points of Church’s influence in Greek’s eyes.

Keywords: Eurozone crisis, Greece, Orthodox Church, Tsipras

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82 The Sociolinguistics of Visual Culture: An Analogous Appraisal of the Language of Trado-Medical and Church Adverts in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Temiloluwa Agbede, Rodwell Makombe, Gift Mheta


The study adopts a sociolinguistic framework to analyse trado-medical and church advertisements in Nigeria. The study employs a qualitative case-study approach to examine the language of trado-medical and church adverts in Nigeria. Obviously, language serves as an instrument of thought. Thus, it is safe to say that language is at the centre of every human activity and experience because it differentiates human beings from all other animals. The study analyses the appropriateness of language and visual elements in trado-medical and church advertisements in relation to their meaning. It focuses on billboard advertisements as well as selected Newspapers in Nigeria. It then became clearer that society influences language and vice versa. Thus, the justification for this study is predicated on the fact that more work still needs to be done to unpack the intertwined relationship among sociolinguistics, visual culture and advertisement. Given that this research focuses on visual advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches in Nigeria, it is therefore necessary to investigate the interplay between language and visuality in advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches.

Keywords: commercials, culture, language, visuality

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81 Images of Spiritism in Brazilian Catholic Discourse (1889-1937)

Authors: Frantisek Kalenda


With the ultimate triumph of the republican movement in 1889 in Brazil and adoption of constitution promoting religious freedom, formerly dominant Roman Catholic Church entered a long period of struggle to recover its lost position, fighting both liberal and secular character of the new regime and rising competition on the “market of faith”. Spiritism in its originally Brazilian form proved to be one if its key adversaries during the First (1889-1930) and Second Republic (1930-1937), provoking significant attempt within official Church to discredit and destroy the movement. This paper explores this effort through Catholic portrayal of Spiritism in its official media, focusing, on the creation of stereotypes and both theological and “scientific” arguments used against it. Its core is based on primary sources’ analysis, mainly influential A Ordem and Mensageiro da Fé.

Keywords: Catholic Church, media, other, spiritism, stereotype

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80 Relationships of Clergy Work-Family Enrichment with Job Attitudes

Authors: John Faucett, Hao Wu, Bruce Moore, Sean Nadji


The demands of the ministry often conflict with responsibilities at home, and clergy often experience domain ambiguity between the domains of work and family. However, the unique level of family involvement in the pastor’s profession might enrich the pastor’s ministry as well as the functioning of the family unit. Life in the church family might offer clergy family members a sense of meaning and purpose, social support, and a feeling of belonging. Church activities can offer enhanced opportunities for family interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of work/family enrichment to clergy job satisfaction, burnout, engagement, and withdrawal. Method: Participants were clergy serving within a state conference of the United Methodist Church. A survey was administered electronically, with e-mails and the United Methodist Church (UMC) Facebook page used as access points to the survey. Usable responses for this portion of the survey were obtained from 132 clergy. Participants completed The Work-Family Enrichment Scales, The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, The Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry, The Satisfaction in Ministry Scale, and a scale of withdrawal developed for the present study. They also answered questions relating to how involved their spouses are in their ministry and the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry. Findings: Higher scores for work to family enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = - .69, p < .01) and engagement (r = .50, p < .01), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01) and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Higher scores for family to work enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = .29, p = .01) and engagement (.24, p < .05), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01), and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Hierarchical regression analysis suggested that clergy perceptions concerning the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry moderates the relationship between degree of spouse involvement in church activities and clergy withdrawal. To the degree that spouse involvement is believed to strengthen ministry, high spouse involvement is related to less clergy withdrawal (Multiple R-Squared = .068, Adj. R-Squared = .043, F = 2.69 on 3 & 110 DF, p = .05). Concluding Statement: Clergy job attitudes are related to work/family enrichment. Spouse involvement in parish ministry is associated with less clergy withdrawal, as long as clergy believe spouse involvement strengthens their ministry.

Keywords: clergy, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, job satisfaction, work/family enrichment

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79 The Applicability of General Catholic Canon Law during the Ongoing Migration Crisis in Hungary

Authors: Lorand Ujhazi


The vast majority of existing canonical studies about migration are focused on examining the general pastoral and legal regulations of the Catholic Church. The weakness of this approach is that it ignores a number of important factors; like the financial, legal and personal circumstances of a particular church or the canonical position of certain organizations which actually look after the immigrants. This paper is a case study, which analyses the current and historical migration related policies and activities of the Catholic Church in Hungary. To achieve this goal the study uses canon law, historical publications, various instructions and communications issued by church superiors, Hungarian and foreign media reports and the relevant Hungarian legislation. The paper first examines how the Hungarian Catholic Church assisted migrants like Armenians fleeing from the Ottoman Empire, Poles escaping during the Second World War, East German and Romanian citizens in the 1980s and refugees from the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. These events underline the importance of past historical experience in the development of contemporary pastoral and humanitarian policy of the Catholic Church in Hungary. Then the paper turns to the events of the ongoing crisis by describing the unique challenges faced by churches in transit countries like Hungary. Then the research contrasts these findings with the typical responsibilities of churches in countries which are popular destinations for immigrants. The next part of the case study focuses on the changes to the pre-crisis legal and canonical framework which influenced the actions of hierarchical and charity organizations in Hungary. Afterwards, the paper illustrates the dangers of operating in an unclear legal environment, where some charitable activities of the church like a fundraising campaign may be interpreted as a national security risk by state authorities. Then the paper presents the reactions of Hungarian academics to the current migration crisis and finally it offers some proposals how to improve parts of Canon Law which govern immigration. The conclusion of the paper is that during the formulation of the central refugee policy of the Catholic Church decision makers must take into consideration the peculiar circumstances of its particular churches. This approach may prevent disharmony between the existing central regulations, the policy of the Vatican and the operations of the local church organizations.

Keywords: canon law, Catholic Church, civil law, Hungary, immigration, national security

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78 Spirituality in Adults with Developmental Disabilities in the Practice of Pastoral Care Ministry

Authors: Olutayo Stephen Shodipo


This paper explores how individuals with disabilities understand and express their spirituality like everyone else can help provide church ministers and religious leaders with new knowledge of human experience and change the way pastoral care ministry is being practiced with this population. Disability literature has revealed studies on various aspects of disability. However, on the spirituality of people with disabilities, there is a gap. This paper offers a brief overview of what has been studied on the spiritual needs of adults with developmental disabilities (ADDs) and the church and the gap that still exists. Along with explaining this gap, it considers the reality of ADDs’ spiritual needs and why the church needs to validate their spirituality and religious expressions and create an inclusive environment where their spiritual experience and expressions can be enhanced and supported. This paper, then, aims to explore the diverse spiritual experiences of ADDs in faith communities, and their theological, moral, and social implications for Pastoral care ministry practices.

Keywords: spirituality, inclusive ministry, pastoral theology, developmental disability, pastoral care

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77 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska


Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

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76 The Stage as Pulpit; Contemporary Practice of Theatre for Religion in Kenya

Authors: Shikuku Emmanuel Tsikhungu


Theatre and religion have enjoyed a symbiotic relationship from time immemorial, each transforming in different epochs and into different forms of practice but gaining from each other’s growth. Despite the fact that religion has more or less looked at the theatre and its dramatic rituals with distaste, the two human engagements have had dynamic and reciprocal relationships. In Kenya, there is an emerging innovation and transformation of theatre for religion in which churches and sects are consciously developing a youth wing that is vibrant in theatre practice. The imagination that youth and children derive pleasure and vibrancy in theatre has led to a lively competition among churches that is now creating a new form of theatre in Kenya. This has given rise to a practice in which art engages the religious not at the spiritual level but at the social-cultural level. Thus theatre is finding itself in sanctums that it had been banished; not for its own sake but as a tool for keeping the youth nearer the church if not the church This article analyses findings of a study carried out in December of 2017 among theatre festivals for the Catholic Church held in Kitui School, KituiCounty, and the Methodist Church of Kenya festival held in Ntemwene Church, Nkubu, Meru County, Kenya. One of the findings of interest was that while they were not theatres of religion nor religious theatres since they did not fuse the religious rituals with the dramatic rituals, the festivals never the less qualify as theatres for religion for they link the former to the latter. Secondly, while they claimed to be youth or children theatre festivals, they lacked youth-centredness nor child-centredness associated with such. Thirdly and most importantly the style of dramatic execution ranged from bibliodramatic to secular drama with Christian messages. Fourthly, by this stroke of acceptance in formerly forbidden sanctums, theatre is re-inventing itself back to its ‘old’ nature and function. It may be argued conclusively that this sprouting movement of theatre for religion may be comparable to the Jesuit Theatre fronted by Ignatius Loyola but clothed in modern African theatre practice.

Keywords: theatre, religion, theatre for religion, social constructs, socio-cultural

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75 Palestine Smart Tourism Augmented Reality Mobile Application

Authors: Murad Al-Rajab, Sherin Hazboun, Azhar Al-Hamamreh, Nirmeen Odeh, Siham Halaseh


Tourism is considered an important sector for most countries, while maintaining good tourism attractions can promote national economic development. The State of Palestine is historically considered a wealthy country full of many archaeological places. In the city of Bethlehem, for example, the Church of the Nativity is the most important touristic site, but it does not have enough technology development to attract tourists. In this paper, we propose a smart mobile application named “Pal-STAR” (Palestine Smart Tourist Augmented Reality) as an innovative solution which targets tourists and assists them to make a visit inside the Church of the Nativity. The application will use augmented reality and feature a virtual tourist guide showing views of the church while providing historical information in a smart, easy, effective and user-friendly way. The proposed application is compatible with multiple mobile platforms and is considered user friendly. The findings show that this application will improve the practice of the tourism sector in the Holy Land, it will also increase the number of tourists visiting the Church of the Nativity and it will facilitate access to historical data that have been difficult to obtain using traditional tourism guidance. The value that tourism adds to a country cannot be denied, and the more technological advances are incorporated in this sector, the better the country’s tourism sector can be served. Palestine’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism in many of its main cities, despite several limitations, and technological development is needed to enable this sector to flourish. The proposed mobile application would definitely have a good impact on the development of the tourism sector by creating an Augmented Reality environment for tourists inside the church, helping them to navigate and learn about holy places in a non-traditional way, using a virtual tourist guide.

Keywords: smartphones, tourism, tourists guide, augmented reality, Palestine

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74 From Distance to Contestation: New Dimensions of Women’s Attitudes in Poland Towards Religion and the Church

Authors: Remi Szauer


Introductory, Background, and Importance of the Study: For many years, religiosity in Poland remained at a stable level of religious practice. When the symptoms of secularization and privatization processes appeared in Poland, it was not clearly felt but rather related to the decline in compulsory practices carried out in public, the growing distance of respondents to catholic ethic, and the lack of acceptance regarding the intervention of the Church in legislation and policy. The basic indicators observed over the years kept the picture: more religious women - less religious men. By carrying out own research in the field of religious and moral attitudes in 2019-2021, it was noticed that a reversal of the trend preserved over the years could be observed. The data showed that women under 40 are radically different in their responses than women older than them - especially those over 50: in terms of practices or ties with the Church and many more specific aspects. This became the basis for a careful examination of the responses in the under 40 age cohorts among women. This study is significant because it shows completely new perspectives of women's perception of religiosity and allows us to notice clearly the aspects of social changes mapped in the minds of the surveyed women. Research Methodology: The original survey was carried out using the quantitative method among 2,346 respondents in northern Poland, 1,349 of whom were women. The findings from these observations led to deepening the topic of beliefs of women under 40 compared to other age cohorts of women. Hence, studies were carried out on the general population of women in Poland, which constituted a comparative sample. These were panel studies. The selection of the sample among women was random, respecting the age amounts so that the two statistical groups could be compared. The designated research parameters included: declarations of religious faith, declarations of religious practice, bond with the Church, acceptance of Mariological dogmas, attitude towards the image of women in the Church, and acceptance of selected issues in Catholic ethics. Main Research Findings: Among women under 40, the decline in declarations not only concerning compulsory public practices but also private practices and declarations of religious faith is more pronounced. Not only is the range of indifferent religious attitudes increasing, but also attitudes directly declaring religious disbelief, for which there are important justifications. Women under 40 years of age strongly distance themselves from the institutions of the Church and from accepting Mariological dogmas. Moreover, they note that the image of a woman is marked by stereotyping, favoring the intensification of violence against women, as well as disregarding her potential and agency. Concluding Statement: By analyzing the answers of the female respondents and the data obtained in the research, it can be observed a reevaluation of women's beliefs, which opens the perspective of analyzing the role of religion and the Church in Poland as well as religious socialization.

Keywords: religiosity, morality, gender, feminism, social change

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73 Manager-Sensitive Theological Curricula: Rethinking Pastoral Care for Christians in High Positions Based on a Namibian Case Study

Authors: Florence Matsveru


The 21st-century church in Africa is faced with a myriad of challenges, which need attention. One of those challenges is pastoral ministry to congregants in high positions. This paper is based on a Ph.D. study entitled, ‘Wellbeing and work performance of Christians in managerial positions: A Namibian case study’ conducted between 2015 and 2018. The study was conducted with 32 purposively selected Christians working in managerial positions in Ohangwena Region, Namibia. The study employed a mixed-methods approach, i.e., both qualitative (to get participants’ feelings and perceptions) and quantitative (to get proportions of the experiences and perceptions). The research process involved a questionnaire survey and interviews. The study revealed that Christians in managerial positions have both common and unique experiences in three spheres: the workplace, the family and the church. The experiences lead to physical, emotional, psychological, social and spiritual needs. The findings also showed that some of the expectations placed upon Christians in managerial positions in the church may be unrealistic, while at the same time this group of congregants want to use their work experiences for the benefit of the church. A worrying finding was that pastors are generally not well-trained for ministry to congregants in high positions. Since these were perceptions of the participants (some of whom were also pastors), the researcher went further to do a short internet survey of the curricula of a number of theological colleges in Southern Africa. This survey did not show any ‘manager-sensitive’ modules in the surveyed colleges. Theological education for pastors, especially in African theological institutions, seems to ignore the unique needs of congregants in high positions. This paper argues that the needs of Christians in high positions should be considered in pastoral care and that theological education is key in equipping pastors with the necessary knowledge and skills. This paper is, therefore, a call to theological institutions to include ministry to people in high positions in their curricula. Pastors who are already beyond theological school may find it helpful to attend or hold workshops that focus on congregants in high positions so that this kind of 'sheep' will find good pasture in the church. A paper of this nature helps to strengthen pastoral ministry and to enhance the relevance of theological education.

Keywords: Christian managers, theological curricula, pastoral care, African

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72 An Empty Canvas is Full

Authors: Joonha Park


This essay examines the Soviet Artist Pavel Korin’s artistic pursuit towards his life-long project, “Requiem/Passing of the Rus,” framing the funeral of Tikhon, the last great defender of the Russian orthodox Church during the Great purge, as the final moment of “Rus,” which is the identity of the Russian people that built up in the 1000 year of history behind Russian Orthodoxy. Korin’s project remains in the form of a series of 29 man-sized portraits and a monumental blank canvas. Born in a family dedicated to iconography, Korin witnessed the historic drama during Stalin’s terror; therefore, he tried to convey the nation’s mourning for the disappearance of “Rus” and disapproval of the Soviet notion of atheism. Yet, due to Korin’s success as a state artist, many believed that the political pressure led Korin to give up his belief and controversy arose over the fact that Korin left the canvas blank. The empty 40-square-meter canvas, which remains untouched in his studio since 1930, supports this theory to an extent. However, resources such as Korin’s notes, primary accounts from his fellow Soviet Artists, and testimonies from his wife suggested that this assumption is incorrect. Moreover, Korin’s uninterrupted relationship with the church and the religious attributes in his commissioned works were brought up as evidence of Korin’s continued belief. The empty canvas not only represents Korin’s discontentment towards the repression and the hardships that the Orthodox Church experienced, but also depicts the identity that coexisted with the Church in order to bequeath this idea to future generations. The faultless canvas surrounded by the striking 29 portraits is a symbol of the highest spirit, similar to that of the iconography paintings placed in every Russian house that unites the Russian people till this day, therefore one can deduce that the legacy of “Requiem” is still relevant to the Russian people even under freedom of religious expression. Consequently, “Requiem” was on display at the Tretyakov Gallery for the first time in public in 2013 even though Korin started creating this piece in 1925, extolling Korin not only as an artist but also as a historian; by recording the turmoil of the Great Oppression, Korin exhibited the social responsibility universal to artists across time and space. In this essay, the legacy Korin left behind, both to his contemporaries and his posterity is reevaluated through the lens of his works, unfinished as they were.

Keywords: Pavel Korin, Art History, Art, Russia, Soviet Union, Requiem, Russian orthodox church, Treytyakov gallery, contemporary art, socialist realism, Maxim Gorky

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71 The Power of Spirituality: The Experience of the Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society in Taiwan

Authors: Weihsuan Lin


The Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society (BMS) in Taiwan has influenced and made an important contribution to religion and social work in Taidong. This German-speaking Catholic missionary society is located in Taidong, which is the political and economic periphery of Taiwan but is the cultural center of the Chinese and many different Austronesian ethnic groups, including Amis, Paiwan, Puyuma, Yami, Bunun, and Rukai. Through document analysis and fieldwork, this research aims to explore the result of the confrontation, exchange, and innovation between the BMS and other ethnic groups. Further, based upon Michael Foucault’s discussion of two modalities of constructing individuals, namely ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self,’ this research will analyze the ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self’ mechanisms of and between BMS Fathers, Brothers, and Church followers at the scale of individuals. At the scale of groups, the ‘autonomy’ and ‘been governed’ of the BMS in relationship to the Catholic Church in Taiwan and the world will also be examined.

Keywords: Bethlehem Mission Society, Religion and Geography, Spirituality, Foucault

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70 Land Use, Land Cover Changes and Woody Vegetation Status of Tsimur Saint Gebriel Monastery, in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Abraha Hatsey, Nesibu Yahya, Abeje Eshete


Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church has a long tradition of conserving the Church vegetation and is an area treated as a refugee camp for many endangered indigenous tree species in Northern Ethiopia. Though around 36,000 churches exist in Ethiopia, only a few churches have been studied so far. Thus, this study assessed the land use land cover change of 3km buffer (1986-2018) and the woody species diversity and regeneration status of Tsimur St. Gebriel monastery in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. For vegetation study, systematic sampling was used with 100m spacing between plots and between transects. Plot size was 20m*20m for the main plot and 2 subplots (5m*5m each) for the regeneration study. Tree height, diameter at breast height(DBH) and crown area were measured in the main plot for all trees with DBH ≥ 5cm. In the subplots, all seedlings and saplings were counted with DBH < 5cm. The data was analyzed on excel and Pass biodiversity software for diversity and evenness analysis. The major land cover classes identified include bare land, farmland, forest, shrubland and wetland. The extents of forest and shrubland were declined considerably due to bare land and agricultural land expansions within the 3km buffer, indicating an increasing pressure on the church forest. Regarding the vegetation status, A total of 19 species belonging to 13 families were recorded in the monastery. The diversity (H’) and evenness recorded were 2.4 and 0.5, respectively. The tree density (DBH ≥ 5cm) was 336/ha and a crown cover of 65%. Olea europaea was the dominant (6.4m2/ha out of 10.5m2 total basal area) and a frequent species (100%) with good regeneration in the monastery. The rest of the species are less frequent and are mostly confined to water sources with good site conditions. Juniperus procera (overharvested) and the other indigenous species were with few trees left and with no/very poor regeneration status. The species having poor density, frequency and regeneration (Junperus procera, Nuxia congesta Fersen and Jasminium abyssinica) need prior conservation and enrichment planting. The indigenous species could also serve as a potential seed source for the reproduction and restoration of nearby degraded landscapes. The buffer study also demonstrated expansion of agriculture and bare land, which could be a threat to the forest of the isolated monastery. Hence, restoring the buffer zone is the only guarantee for the healthy existence of the church forest.

Keywords: church forests, regeneration, land use change, vegetation status

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69 The Filipino Catholics in Japan: Traces and Cues of De/Ghettoization

Authors: Willard Enrique R. Macaraan


Filipino Catholics' historicized narrative in the Church of Japan is found to be marked by contestation and negotiation. This paper aims to uncover the nuances of this marginality by utilizing Loic Wacquant's theorization of urban ghettos as well as Pierre Bourdieu's field ideation. In an attempt to illustrate the dynamics of the power-play that is implicit in any situation of marginality, the paper proposes a 'diamond-quadrant' (DQ) plane that may serve as a heuristic device for analytical purposes. This study is drawn from data collected and gathered through ten-month field research in selected church communities in the Archdiocese of Tokyo, Japan employing qualitative methodologies like participant observation, interviews, and document reviews. Reconstructing their historicized struggle since the late 70s, it is discovered that the arena of contested space has shifted from the right plane of "ghettoization" tendencies in the early years towards the left plane of "deghettoization" strategies in recent years. Still, a highly negotiated space, several situational factors, and emerging trends in and outside the ecclesial grounds have led to this major shift.

Keywords: Wacquant, ghetto, migration, religion

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68 U-Turn on the Bridge to Freedom: An Interaction Process Analysis of Task and Relational Messages in Totalistic Organization Exit Conversations on Online Discussion Boards

Authors: Nancy Di Tunnariello, Jenna L. Currie-Mueller


Totalistic organizations include organizations that operate by playing a prominent role in the life of its members through embedding values and practices. The Church of Scientology (CoS) is an example of a religious totalistic organization and has recently garnered attention because of the questionable treatment of members by those with authority, particularly when members try to leave the Church. The purpose of this study was to analyze exit communication and evaluate the task and relational messages discussed on online discussion boards for individuals with a previous or current connection to the totalistic CoS. Using organizational exit phases and interaction process analysis (IPA), researchers coded 30 boards consisting of 14,179 thought units from the website. Findings report all stages of exit were present, and post-exit surfaced most often. Posts indicated more tasks than relational messages, where individuals mainly provided orientation/information. After a discussion of the study’s contributions, limitations and directions for future research are explained.

Keywords: Bales' IPA, organizational exit, relational messages, scientology, task messages, totalistic organizations

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67 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless, Peter Reuter


The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

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66 Voting Behavior in an Era of Turbulent Race Relations: Revisiting Church Attendance and Turnout

Authors: JoVontae Butts


A central and enduring theme in the study of American politics is political participation, which indicates the health of a democracy, citizen buy-in, and fair political representation. Though voting push factors have been thoroughly researched and are becoming better understood, the effect of those same push factors often varies for marginalized people. Black voters begun to cast votes at a steadily increasing rate following the 1996 election, gradually growing to its highest level in the 2012 presidential election, even surpassing white voter participation rates. The thirty-year growth period of Black voter engagement concluded in the 2016 election, with the number of participating Black voters stumbling by approximately 7% while other demographics remained roughly the same. Theories for the shift in Black voter behavior range from vote suppression to discouragement due to Barack Obama’s concluding tenure in office. Furthermore, Black voter engagement rebounded in the 2020 election, leaving turnout and race scholars to speculate even further, predicting that disapproval of Trump energized the Black voter bloc. Though there is much conjecture regarding the changes in Black voter behavior, there is truly little empirical evidence to vet those suppositions. This study engages and quantifies speculations for the changes in Black voter engagement in recent elections using 2016 and 2020 American National Election Studies Pilot Study data. Additionally, this study expands upon McGregor’s theory of political hypervigilance by exploring differences in political engagement for church-attending Black voters and those that do not.

Keywords: race, religion, evangelicalism, political engagement

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65 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter


The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

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64 Shooting in The Foot at The Pulpit; An Analysis of Analysis of The Origin and Progression of Conflict Among the Born-Again Churches in Uganda

Authors: Baguma Charles Abwooli


Whereas they profess to be comrades in the fight to save souls, Born Again Churches in Uganda are shooting each other in the foot over yet to be understood reasons. For a long time, churches have sustained a bitter divide among themselves. The country has witnessed pastoral scandals, including church leaders dragging each other to court, setting each other’s churches ablaze, and even plotting assassination against each her. The most dreadful was when one pastor called a chest-thumping press conference at the demise of another. There is even an emergence of church-owned radio stations purposed to fuel this conflict. Worse still, the division among pastors has been transferred to their congregations to extent that at the first meeting, congregants ask each other where they pray from perhaps to know how to deal with each other. This has caused the born-again to maintain factions among themselves and keeping ready to fight in case there is a battle. This is quite a risk to peace and stability in the country. This kind of belligerence not only defeats the very existence of churches but is a threat to national peace and security, especially as the churches mushroom across the country. It is feared that the vice could spread to the rest of Eastern Africa and beyond, given the connectivity. There is already evidence to this. One Pastor was heard to call the late Ghanaian Pastor T. B. Joshua, a witch who has been training witches in Uganda. He said this at his demise while referring to pastors that subscribe to T. B. Joshua’s approach to preaching the Gospel. This is an abomination, especially in Africa! There is, therefore, an urgent need to understand the roots of this conflict and design measures to decisively manageit. The present study employs tools based on conflict resolution theory to conduct a deep qualitative analysis of the origin and progression of the Born-Againconflict in Uganda with intend to make recommendations of appropriate measures to resolve it.

Keywords: uganda, shooting, pulpit, born again churches

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63 “Uninformed” Religious Orientation Can Lead to Violence in Any Given Community: The Case of African Independence Churches in South Africa

Authors: Ngwako Daniel Sebola


Introductory Statement: Religions are necessary as they offer and teach something to their adherence. People in one religion may not have a complete understanding of the Supreme Being (Deity) in a certain religion other than their own. South Africa, like other countries in the world, consists of various religions, including Christianity. Almost 80% of South African population adheres to the Christian faith, though in different denominations and sects. Each church fulfils spiritual needs that perhaps others cannot fill. African Independent Churches is one of the denominations in the country. These churches arose as a protest to the Western forms and expressions of Christianity. Their major concern was to develop an indigenous expression of Christianity. The relevance of African Independent Churches includes addressing the needs of the people holistically. Controlling diseases was an important aspect of change in different historical periods. Through healing services, leaders of African churches are able to attract many followers. The healing power associated with the founders of many African Initiated Churches leads to people following and respecting them as true leaders within many African communities. Despite its strong points, African Independent Churches, like many others, face a variety of challenges, especially conflicts. Ironically, destructive conflicts resulted in violence.. Such violence demonstrates a lack of informed religious orientation among those concerned. This paper investigates and analyses the causes of conflict and violence in the African Independent Church. The researcher used the Shembe and International Pentecostal Holiness Churches, in South Africa, as a point of departure. As a solution to curb violence, the researcher suggests useful strategies in handling conflicts. Methodology: Comparative and qualitative approaches have been used as methods of collecting data in this research. The intention is to analyse the similarities and differences of violence among members of the Shembe and International Pentecostal Holiness Churches. Equally important, the researcher aims to obtain data through interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, among others. The researcher aims to interview fifteen individuals from both churches. Finding: Leadership squabbles and power struggle appear to be the main contributing factors of violence in many Independent Churches. Ironically, violence resulted in the loss of life and destruction of properties, like in the case of the Shembe and International Pentecostal Holiness Churches. Violence is an indication that congregations and some leaders have not been properly equipped to deal with conflict. Concluding Statement: Conflict is a common part of every human existence in any given community. The concern is when such conflict becomes contagious; it leads to violence. There is a need to understand consciously and objectively towards devising the appropriate measures to handle the conflict. Conflict management calls for emotional maturity, self-control, empathy, patience, tolerance and informed religious orientation.

Keywords: African, church, religion, violence

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62 Sexual Behaviour and Psychological Well-Being of a Group of African Adolescent Males in Alice, Eastern Cape

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Thembelihle Lobi


From a cultural perspective, expression of hegemonic masculinity in South Africa continues to escalate among adolescent males who grow up in communities lacking in role models and recreational facilities. However, when the schools are constructive, and peer influence is positive, adolescent male can potentially express character strengths and lead a meaningful life. Drawing from Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model and Keyes and Ryff’s six dimensions of psychological well-being and mental health, such youth may exemplify positive self-esteem, problem- focused coping strategies, condom self-efficacy, good leadership skills, enhanced motivation and a positive emotional state, which buffer against risky sexual behaviors. This paper was aimed at investigating the relationships between adolescent males’ sexual behavior and psychological well-being. This study employed a quantitative research to collect data from 54 Xhosa-speaking adolescent males from one school high school in Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape, South Africa. These learners were from grade nine, ten and eleven with their ages ranging from 14 to 20. Prior the research commenced, the school principal and caregivers of the learners who participated in the study, gave their informed consent. Self- administered closed-ended questionnaire with Section A (that is, biographical information) and Section B with each question rated on the 5–point Likert scale was used. The advantages of questionnaires include a high response rate as they require less time and offer anonymity because participants’ names are not identified. The SPSS version 18 was used for statistical data analysis. The mean age was 16.83 with a standard deviation of 1.611. 44.4% of the participants were from grade 9, 33.3% from grade 10 and 22.2% from grade 11. The Chronbach alpha of 0.79 was yielded, with respect to self- esteem of adolescent males. In this study, 76.9% reported to attend church services whilst 23% indicated not to attend church services. A further 96.2% of adolescent males indicated to have good relations with guardians while only 3.8% had poorer relations. A large proportion of adolescent males (72.9%) indicated to high-quality friendship as opposed to 27.1% who reported being receiving negative guidance from peers. Other findings revealed that 81.1% of the participants’ parents do not drink alcohol, and they cope at school as 79.6% reported protective factors as attributable towards non-engagement to risky sexual practices. As a result, 81.4% of participants reported not to participate in criminal activities although 85% of the participants indicated that in their school there are drugs. It could be speculated from this study that adolescent males whose caregivers are authoritative, find purpose in life and are most likely to be socially and academically competent. This paper leads to further research interest into mental health, coping strategies and sexual decision-making skills of the youth in South Africa.

Keywords: church, mental health, school, sexual behaviour

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61 Working Without a Safety Net: Exploring Struggles and Dilemmas Faced by Greek Orthodox Married Clergy Through a Mental Health Lens, in the Australian Context

Authors: Catherine Constantinidis (Nee Tsacalos)


This paper presents one aspect of the larger Masters qualitative study exploring the roles of married Greek Orthodox clergy, the Priest and Presbytera, under the wing of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia. This ground breaking research necessitated the creation of primary data within a phenomenological paradigm drawing from lived experiences of the Priests and Presbyteres in contemporary society. As a Social Worker, a bilingual (Greek/English) Mental Health practitioner and a Presbytera, the questions constantly raised and pondered are: Who do the Priest and Presbytera turn to when they experience difficulties or problems? Where do they go for support? What is in place for their emotional and psychological health and well-being? Who cares for the spiritual carer? Who is there to catch our falling clergy and their wives? What is their 'safety net'? Identified phenomena of angst, stress, frustration and confusion experienced by the Priest and (by extension) the Presbytera, within their position, coupled with basic assumptions, perceptions and expectations about their roles, the role of the organisation (the Church), and their role as spouse often caused confusion and in some cases conflict. Unpacking this complex and multi-dimensional relationship highlighted not only the roller coaster of emotions, potentially affecting their physical and mental health, but also the impact on the interwoven relationships of marriage and ministry. The author considers these phenomena in the light of bilingual cultural and religious organisational practice frameworks, specifically the Greek Orthodox Church, whilst filtering these findings through a mental health lens. One could argue that it is an expectation that clergy (and by default their wives) take on the responsibility to be kind, nurturing and supportive to others. However, when it comes to taking care of self, they are not nearly as kind. This research looks at a recurrent theme throughout the interviews where all participants talked about limited support systems and poor self care strategies and the impact this has on their ministry, mental, emotional, and physical health and ultimately on their relationships with self and others. The struggle all participants encountered at some point in their ministry was physical, spiritual and psychological burn out. The overall aim of the researcher is to provide a voice for the Priest and the Presbytera painting a clearer picture of these roles and facilitating an awareness of struggles and dilemmas faced in their ministry. It is hoped these identified gaps in self care strategies and support systems will provide solid foundations for building a culturally sensitive, empathetic and effective support system framework, incorporating the spiritual and psychological well-being of the Priest and Presbytera, a ‘safety net’. A supplementary aim is to inform and guide ministry practice frameworks for clergy, spouses, the church hierarchy and religious organisations on a local and global platform incorporating some sort of self-care system.

Keywords: care for the carer, mental health, Priest, Presbytera, religion, support system

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60 Discourse Functions of Rhetorical Devices in Selected Roman Catholic Bishops' Pastoral Letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha, Nigeria

Authors: Virginia Chika Okafor


The pastoral letter, an open letter addressed by a bishop to members of his diocese for the purpose of promoting faith and good Christian living, constitutes a persuasive religious discourse characterized by numerous rhetorical devices. Previous studies on Christian religious language have concentrated mainly on sermons, liturgy, prayers, theology, scriptures, hymns, and songs to the exclusion of the persuasive power of pastoral letters. This study, therefore, examined major rhetorical devices in selected Roman Catholic bishops’ Lenten pastoral letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha, with a view to determining their persuasive discourse functions. Aristotelian Rhetoric was adopted as the framework because of its emphasis on persuasion through three main rhetorical appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. Data were drawn from 10 pastoral letters of five Roman Catholic bishops in five dioceses (two letters from each) out of the seven in the Ecclesiastical of Onitsha. The five dioceses (Onitsha arch-diocese, Nnewi, Awka, Enugu, and Awgu dioceses) were chosen because pastoral letters are regularly published there. The 10 pastoral letters were published between 2000 and 2010 and range between 20 and 104 pages. They were selected, through purposive sampling, based on consistency in the publication and rhetorical content. Data were subjected to discourse analysis. Three categories of rhetorical devices were identified: those relating to logos (logical devices), those relating to pathos (pathetical devices), and those relating to ethos (ethical devices). Major logical devices deployed were: testimonial reference functioning as authority to validate messages; logical arguments appealing to the rationality of the audience; nominalization and passivation objectifying the validity of ideas; and modals of obligation/necessity appealing to the audience’s sense of responsibility and moral duty. Prominent among the pathetical devices deployed were: use of Igbo language to express solidarity with the audience; inclusive pronoun (we) to create a feeling of belonging, collectivism and oneness with them; prayers to inspire them; and positive emotion-laden words to refer to the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) to keep the audience emotionally attached to it. Finally, major ethical devices deployed were: use of first-person singular pronoun (I) and imperatives to invoke the authority of the bishops’ office; Latinisms to show learnedness; greetings and appreciation to express goodwill; and exemplary Biblical characters as models of faith, repentance, and love. The rhetorical devices were used in relation to the bishops’ messages of faith, repentance, love and loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church. Roman Catholic bishops’ pastoral letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha are thus characterized by logos-, pathos-, and ethos-related rhetorical devices designed to persuade the audience to live according to the bishops’ messages of faith, love, repentance, and loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church. The rhetorical devices, therefore, establish the pastoral letters as a significant form of persuasive religious discourse.

Keywords: ecclesiastical province of Onitsha, pastoral letters, persuasive discourse functions, rhetorical devices, Roman Catholic bishops

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