Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: M. Shehu

22 Predisposition of Small Scale Businesses in Fagge, Kano State, Nigeria, Towards Profit and Loss Sharing Mode of Finance

Authors: Farida, M. Shehu, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

Access to finance has been recognized in the literature as one of the major impediments confronting small scale businesses (SSBs). This largely arises due to high lending rate, religious inclinations, collateral, etc. Islamic mode finance operates under Profit and Loss Sharing (PLS) arrangement between a borrower (business owner) and a lender (Islamic bank). This paper empirically assesses the determinants of predisposition of small scale business operators in Fagge local government area, Kano State, Nigeria, towards the PLS. Cross-sectional data from a sample of 291 small scale business operators was analyzed using logit and probit regression models. Empirical results reveal that while awareness and religion inclination positively drive interest towards the PLS, lending rate and collateral work against it. The paper, therefore, strongly recommends more advocacy campaigns and setting up of more Islamic banks in the country to cater for the financing and religious needs of SSBs in the study area.

Keywords: Islamic finance, logit and probit models, profit and loss sharing small scale businesses, finance, commerce

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21 Managing Education through, Effective School Community Relationships/Participation for National Security

Authors: Shehu S. Janguza

Abstract:

The need for national security cannot be over Emphasis, which should be pursued by any means. Thus the need for effective management of education through effective school community Relationship/participation. In preparing and implementing only effort to promote community involvement in manning Education, it is importance to understand the whole picture of community participation, how it works, what forms are used, what benefit it can yield and what we should expect in the process of carrying out the efforts finally emphasis will be made on how effective school community relationship/participation and lead to national security.

Keywords: community participation, managing, school community, national security

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20 The Roles of ECOWAS Parliament on Regional Integration of the West African Sub-Region

Authors: Sani Shehu, Mohd Afandi Salleh

Abstract:

Parliament is a law making body which provided at national, state, province and territorial level playing a parliamentary role of representing people, law making, peace, and conflict resolution, ratifying and incorporating international convention into municipal law. Parliaments are created globally to give solid legitimacy to good governance under democratic system of government, and the representatives must be elected by the people, so the ECOWAS parliament is entitled to have this legitimacy, where members must be elected by adult people among the citizens of ECOWAS member states. This paper will discuss on the roles that ECOWAS parliament plays for the achievement of regional integration and economic goals of development and cooperation in the sub-region.

Keywords: ECOWAS parliament, composition, competence, power

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19 Islamic Social Security: A Discourse

Authors: Safiyya A. Abba, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper deals with Islamic social security: a discourse explores the meaning and nature of Islamic social security system. The paper reviews the social security framework and operations during the early period. The paper further identifies the instruments of Islamic social security discusses its principles and objectives. The paper discovers that Islamic social security is a personification of a comprehensive welfare approach in view of its varied instruments that are deeply rooted in the Islamic law, unique principles and realistic and achievable objectives. Furthermore, the Islamic social security system has far reaching socioeconomic implications; social justice, cohesion, equity, a catalyst for poverty eradication, income redistribution, economic growth and development.

Keywords: Islamic social security, basic needs, zakat, socioeconomic justice, equity

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18 Promoting the Contructor's Reputation in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Abdulkadir Adamu Shehu

Abstract:

Company’s reputation is an elusive asset. The reputation gained by companies must be preserved for sustainability of the company. However, the construction project is still suffering from declination of character due to the factors that affect their reputation. The problem led to the loss of projects, abandoning of the projects and many more. This contributed to negative impact on the contractors in the construction industry. As for today, previous studies have not investigated in this regards yet. For that reason, this paper examines the factors which could promote contractor’s reputation in the construction industry in Nigeria. To achieve this aim, 140 questionnaires were distributed to the Nigerian contractors. Based on the 67% response rate, descriptive analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were the tools applied for the data obtained to be analysed. The result shows that, good communication system and improve quality of output of products are the most significant variables that can promote contractor’s reputation. The homogenous analyses indicate that there are significant different perceptions of respondents in term of the significant effects. The research concluded that contractor’s reputation in construction industry must be maintained and further research was suggested to focus on the qualitative method to have in-depth knowledge on contractor’s reputation in the construction industry.

Keywords: construction industry, contractor’s reputation, effects of delay, Nigeria

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17 The Benefits of Mountain Climbing in the Physical Well-Being of Young People

Authors: Zylfi Shehu, Rozeta Shatku

Abstract:

The aim of this study is the identification of the goods and the consequences it brings up the mountain climbing to the youth, how mountain climbing influences in physical activity and the health of young people. Taken to study 37 young people aged 18-30 years, 25 males and 12 females. The selection was made at random and voluntary. Subjects were not professionals but amateurs climbing in the mountain. They were informed and instructed for the test to be carried out. The ascent was made in January 2016 in the Mount of Gjallica in Kukës, Albania, the height of the mountain is 2489 m above sea level. Backpack for each subject weighing 32 kg. Time of ascent, attitude and descent was 6 days. In 22 males, 2 of them did not afford the ascent on the first day and went back. Of the 12 women, 5 of them withdrew on the first day. During the descent on day six, 20 males 7 of them had minor injuries, three with serious injuries. While a total of 7 women, 4 of them had minor injuries and one with serious injuries. Most of the men and women who deal with physical activity throughout life faced the light and were not injured, and the rest that were not dealt with physical activity were more injured. Lack of experience and knowledge was one of the causes of injuries. The subjects had anxiety all the time, uncertainty and fear of avalanches of snow and difficult terrain.

Keywords: climbing, physical activity, young people

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16 The Anatomy of Inter-Religious Conflict in Northern Nigeria: A Conflict without Peace Education

Authors: Shehu Hashimu

Abstract:

Ever since the independence, Northern Nigeria has been experiencing a flashpoint of all sorts of conflict ranging from ethnoreligious, intra-religious, and inter-religious violence; many people are of the view and worrisome that indeed the region (North) is becoming a religious-political battle-ground. The trends of violence associated with these conflicts are a reflection of high level of misunderstanding, misinform unpolitical zeal toward uplifting peace education for greater enhancement among the religious, ethnic group or sects in the northern region. The aims of this paper, among other things, are to outline the misconception on the term inter-religious conflict. It is justifiable to state the brief historical antecedence of the making of contemporary Northern Nigeria and how conflict is fluctuating over and over without concrete resolution is another concern of the paper. The desirability of peace education in enhancing cordial relations and cementing potholes among various religious sects in the region (Northern Nigeria) cannot over emphasized considering the pivotal role play toward national cohesion; therefore, this paper strategically made a lengthy discourse for elaborations. In the conclusion aspect of it, the paper outline some relevant recommendation and suggestions for viable co-existence if properly implemented.

Keywords: anatomy, inter-religious, conflict, peace education

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15 Effect of Temperature and Time on the Yield of Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Mohammed Adamu Musa, Shehu Saminu Babba

Abstract:

The technological trend towards waste utilization and cost reduction in industrial processing has attracted use of Rice Husk as a value added material. Both rice husk (RH) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been found suitable for wide range of domestic as well as industrial applications. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to produce high grade sodium silicate from rice husk ash by considering the effect of temperature and time of heating as the process variables. The experiment was performed by heating the rice husk at temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C and time 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min were used to obtain the ash. 1.0M of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to dissolve the silicate from the ash, which contained crude sodium silicate. In addition, the ash was neutralized by adding 5M of HCL until the pH reached 3.5 to give silica gel. At 6000C and 120mins, 94.23% silica was obtained from the RHA. At higher temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) the percentage yield of silica reduced due to surface melting and carbon fixation in the lattice caused by presence of potassium. For this research, 600 °C is considered to be the optimum temperature for silica production from RHA. Silica produced from RHA can generate aggregate value and can be used in areas such as pulp and paper, plastic and rubber reinforcement industries.

Keywords: burning, rice husk, rice husk ash, silica, silica gel, temperature

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14 Formation of Blends in Hausa Language

Authors: Maryam Maimota Shehu

Abstract:

Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used, and new words are formed and reformed to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire life. Despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on morphological processes in The Hausa language. Most of the works concentrated on borrowing, affixation, reduplication and derivation, but blending has been neglected to the extent that some of the Hausa linguists claim that, blending does not exist in the language. Therefore, the current study investigates and examines blending as one of the word formation processes' in the language. The study focuses its main attention on blending as a word-formation process and how this process is used adequately in the formation of words in The Hausa language. To achieve the aims, the research answered these questions: 1) is blending used as a process of word formation in Hausa? 2) What are the words formed using this process? This study utilizes the Natural Morphology Theory proposed by Dressler, (1985) which was adopted by Belly (2007). The data of this study have been collected from newspaper articles, novels, and written literature of Hausa language. Based on the findings, this study found out that, there exist new kind of words formed in The Hausa language under blending, which previous findings did not either reveal or explain in detail. Another part of the finding shows that some of the words change their grammatical classes and meaning while blended.

Keywords: morphology, word formation, blending in hausa language, language

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13 Performance of Heifer Camels (Camelus dromedarius) on Native Range Supplemented with Different Energy Levels

Authors: Shehu, B., Muhammad, B. F., Madigawa, I. L., H. A. Alkali

Abstract:

The study was conducted to assess heifer camel behavior and live weight changes on native range supplemented with different energy levels. A total of nine camels aged between 2 and 3 years were randomly allotted into three groups and supplemented with 3400, 3600 and 3800 Kcal and designated A, B and C, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed for variance in a Completely Randomized Design. The heifers utilized average of 371.70 min/day (64% of daylight time) browsing on native pasture and 2.30 min/day (6%) sand bathing. A significantly higher mean time was spent by heifers on browsing Leptadenia hastata (P<0.001), Dichrostachys cinerea (P<0.01), Acacia nilotica (P<0.001) and Ziziphus spina-christi (P<0.05) in early dry season (January). No significant difference was recorded on browsing time on Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Piliostigma reticulatum, Parkia biglobosaand Azadirachta indica. No significant (P<0.05) liveweight change was recorded on she-camels due to the three energy levels. It was concluded that nutritive browse species in the study area could meet camel nutrient requirements including energy. Further research on effect of period on camel nutrients requirement in different physiological conditions is recommended.

Keywords: heifer, camel, grazing, pasture

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12 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, power quality, selective harmonic elimination

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11 Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Quality in Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Shehu Usman Hassan

Abstract:

Published accounting information in financial statements are required to provide various users - shareholders, employees, suppliers, creditors, financial analysts, stockbrokers and government agencies – with timely and reliable information useful for making prudent, effective and efficient decisions. The widespread failure in the financial information quality has created the need to improve the financial information quality and to strengthen the control of managers by setting up good firms structures. This paper investigates firm attributes from perspective of structure, monitoring, performance elements of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted correlational research design with balanced panel data of 14 banks as sample of the study using multiple regression as a tool of analysis. The result reveals that firms attributes (leverage, profitability, liquidity, bank size and bank growth) has as significant influence on earnings quality of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria after the adoption of IFRS, while the pre period shows that the selected firm attributes has no significant impact on earnings quality. It is therefore concluded that the adoption of IFRS is right and timely.

Keywords: earnings quality, firm attributes, listed deposit money bank, Nigeria

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10 Formation of Clipped Forms in Hausa Language

Authors: Maryam Maimota Shehu

Abstract:

Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used, and new words are formed and reformed in order to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire life. Despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on morphological processes in Hausa language. Most of the works concentrated on borrowing, affixation, reduplication and derivation, but clipping has been neglected to the extent that only a few scholars sited some examples in the language. Therefore, the current study investigates and examines clipping as one of the word formation processes fully found in the language. The study focuses its main attention on clipping as a word-formation process and how this process is used adequately in the formation of words and their occurrence in Hausa sentences. In order to achieve the aims, the research answered these questions: 1) is clipping used as process of word formation in Hausa? 2) What are the words formed using this process? This study utilizes the Natural Morphology Theory proposed by Dressler, (1985) which was adopted by belly (2007). The data of this study have been collected from newspaper articles, novels, and written literature of Hausa language. Based on the findings, this study found out that, there exist many kinds of words formed in Hausa language using clipping in sentence and discuss, which previous findings did not either reveals, or explain in detail. Other part of the finding shows that clipping in Hausa language occurs on nouns, verbs, adjectives, reduplicated words and compounds while retains their meanings and grammatical classes.

Keywords: clipping, Hausa language, morphology, word formation processes

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9 Reproductive Performance of Red Sokoto Goats from a Semi-Intensive Management System in Semi-Arid Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Yusuf, Ibrahim Rakson Muhammad, Bashir Fagge Muhammad, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi

Abstract:

On-farm data were collected to evaluate reproductive performance of Red Sokoto does reared under small-holder agro-pastoral production system within metropolitan Kano, semi-arid, Nigeria. The effects of age of dams, parity, litter size(s) and sex of kid(s) on pre-weaning growth rate were investigated. Data was obtained from semi-intensively managed herds of twenty four households for a period of six months. Pregnant does were ear tagged and age determined through dentition. Upon kidding, litter size, parity of dam and sex of kid(s) were recorded. Subsequently, daily liveweight changes of kids was monitored and recorded. Results obtained revealed average weight at birth to be 3.18 kg and 2.87 kg for female and male kids with average daily weight gain of 0.11 and 0.13 kg, respectively. Result also showed that male kids gained higher liveweight from 21st day to weaning and single or twin births had higher liveweight changes relative to triplets. Does at third parity produced kids with higher weight gain. From the results of this study, it is concluded that male kids at 21 days of age (single or twin) or dam at third parity or three years of age be selected for a sound breeding programme.

Keywords: agro-pastoral, goats, parity, reproductive, semi-intensive

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8 Corporate Governance, Performance, and Financial Reporting Quality of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria

Authors: Jamila Garba Audu, Shehu Usman Hassan

Abstract:

The widespread failure in the financial information quality has created the need to improve the financial information quality and to strengthen the control of managers by setting up good firms structures. Published accounting information in financial statements is required to provide various users - shareholders, employees, suppliers, creditors, financial analysts, stockbrokers and government agencies – with timely and reliable information useful for making prudent, effective and efficient decisions. The relationship between corporate governance and performance to financial reporting quality is imperative; this is because despite rapid researches in this area the findings obtained from these studies are constantly inconclusive. Data for the study were extracted from the firms’ annual reports and accounts. After running the OLS regression, a robustness test was conducted for the validity of statistical inferences; the data was empirically tested. A multiple regression was employed to test the model as a technique for data analysis. The results from the analysis revealed a negative association between all the regressors and financial reporting quality except the performance of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. This indicates that corporate governance plays a significant role in mitigating earnings management and improving financial reporting quality while performance does not. The study recommended among others that the composition of audit committee should be made in accordance with the provision for code of corporate governance which is not more than six (6) members with at least one (1) financial expert.

Keywords: corporate governance, financial reporting quality, manufacturing firms, Nigeria, performance

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7 The Effect of Sustainable Land Management Technologies on Food Security of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Shehu A. Salau, Robiu O. Aliu, Nofiu B. Nofiu

Abstract:

Nigeria is among countries of the world confronted with food insecurity problem. The agricultural production systems that produces food for the teaming population is not endurable. Attention is thus being given to alternative approaches of intensification such as the use of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) technologies. Thus, this study assessed the effect of SLM technologies on food security of farming households in Kwara State, Nigeria. A-three stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 200 farming households for this study. Descriptive statistics, Shriar index, Likert scale, food security index and logistic regression were employed for the analysis. The result indicated that majority (41%) of the household heads were between the ages of 51 and 70 years with an average of 60.5 years. Food security index revealed that 35% and 65% of the households were food secure and food insecure respectively. The logistic regression showed that SLM technologies, estimated income, household size, gender and age of the household heads were the critical determinants of food security among farming households. The most effective coping strategies adopted by households geared towards lessening the effects of food insecurity are reduced quality of food consumed, employed off-farm jobs to raise household income and diversion of money budgeted for other uses to purchase foods. Governments should encourage the adoption and use of SLM technologies at all levels. Policies and strategies that reduce household size should be enthusiastically pursued to reduce food insecurity.

Keywords: agricultural practices, coping strategies, farming households, food security, SLM technologies, logistic regression

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6 Functional Role of Tyr12 in the Catalytic Activity of Zeta-Like Glutathione S-Transferase from Acidovorax sp. KKS102

Authors: D. Shehu, Z. Alias

Abstract:

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. The gene for KKSG9 was cloned, purified and biochemically characterized. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH). The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate (a common substrate for zeta class GSTs) in addition to permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.

Keywords: Acidovorax sp. KKS102, bioremediation, glutathione s-transferase, site-directed mutagenesis, zeta

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5 Effect of Instructional Materials on Academic Performance in Heat Transfer Concept among Secondary School Physics Students in Fagge Educational Zone, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Shehu Aliyu

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of instructional materials on academic achievement among senior secondary school students on the concept of Heat Transfer in physics in Fagge Educational Zone, Kano State Nigeria. The population consisted of SSII students from 10 public schools. Out of this, 87 students were randomly selected from which 24 males and 22 females formed the experimental group and 41 students as control group. A quasi experiential design with pretest and post-test for both the groups was adopted. Two research questions and null hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. The experimental group was exposed to teaching using instructional materials while the control group was taught using the normal lecture mode. Head Transfer Performance Test (HTPT) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts in the science education field. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to determine the reliability co-efficient and was found to be r=0.83. The research questions were answered using descriptive statistics while the hypotheses were tested at p≤ 0.05 level of significance using t-test. The result obtained from the data analysis showed that students in experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance between male and female students in the experimental group. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that the physics teachers should be receiving regular training on the importance of using instructional materials whether ready made or improved in their teaching.

Keywords: heat transfer, physics, instructional materials, academic performance

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4 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

Abstract:

This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

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3 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Wood Composite Panel from Recycled Plastic and Sawdust of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.)

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba, Usman Shehu

Abstract:

Wood plastic composite boards were made from sawn dust of Cordia alliodora and recycled polyethylene at a mixing ratio of 1.5ratio1, 2.5ratio1 and 3.5ratio1 and nominal densities of 600 kilograms per meter cube, 700 kilograms per meter cube, and 800 kilograms per meter cube, The material was hot pressed at 150-degree celsius to produce board of 250 millimeter by 250 millimeter by 6 millimeter of which 18 boards were produced. The experiment was subject to 3 by 3 factorial experiments in Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was adopted by 3 by 3 at 5 percent probability. The strength properties of the boards such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were investigated, while the dimensional properties of the board such as the water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were as well determined after 12hrs and 24hrs of water immersion. The result showed that the mean values of MOE ranged from 9100.73 Newtons per square millimeters to 12086.96 Newtons per square millimeters while MOR values ranged from 48.26 Newtons per square millimeters to 103.09 Newtons per square millimeters. The values of WA and TS after 12hrs immersion ranged from 1.21 percent to 1.56 percent and 0.00 percent to 0.13 percent, respectively. The values of WA and TS after 24hrs of water immersion ranged from 1.66 percent to 2.99 percent and 0.02 percent to 0.18 percent, respectively. The higher the value of board density and the high-density polythene /sawdust ratio, the stronger, the stiffer and more dimensionally stable the wood plastic composite boards obtained. In addition, as the density of the board increases, the strength property of the boards increases. Hence the board will be suitable for internal construction materials.

Keywords: wood Plastic composite, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, dimensional stability

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2 Evaluation of Health Risk Degree Arising from Heavy Metals Present in Drinking Water

Authors: Alma Shehu, Majlinda Vasjari, Sonila Duka, Loreta Vallja, Nevila Broli

Abstract:

Humans consume drinking water from several sources, including tap water, bottled water, natural springs, filtered tap water, etc. The quality of drinking water is crucial for human survival given the fact that the consumption of contaminated drinking water is related to many diseases and deaths all over the world. This study represents the investigation of the quality and health risks of different types of drinking waters being consumed by the population in Albania, arising from heavy metals content. Investigated water included industrialized water, tap water, and spring water. In total, 20 samples were analyzed for the content of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn, Al, and Mn. Determination of each metal concentration in selected samples was conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy method with electrothermal atomization, GFAAS. Water quality was evaluated by comparing the obtained metals concentrations with the recommended maximum limits, according to the European Directive (98/83/EC) and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2017). Metal Index (MI) was used to assess the overall water quality due to heavy metals content. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the recommendations of the USEPA (1996), human health risk assessment, via ingestion. Results of this investigation showed that Al, Ni, Fe, and Cu were the metals found in higher concentrations while Cd exhibited the lowest concentration. Among the analyzed metals, Al (one sample) and Ni (in five samples) exceeded the maximum allowed limit. Based on the pollution metal index, it was concluded that the overall quality of Glina bottled water can be considered as toxic to humans, while the quality of bottled water (Trebeshina) was classified as moderately toxic. Values of health risk quotient (HQ) varied between 1x10⁻⁶-1.3x10⁻¹, following the order Ni > Cd > Pb > Cu > Al > Fe > Zn > Mn. All the values were lower than 1, which suggests that the analyzed samples exhibit no health risk for humans.

Keywords: drinking water, health risk assessment, heavy metals, pollution index

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1 Risk Factors Associated with Outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis in Kano State- Nigeria, March-May 2017

Authors: Visa I. Tyakaray, M. Abdulaziz, O. Badmus, N. Karaye, M. Dalhat, A. Shehu, I. Bello, T. Hussaini, S. Akar, G. Effah, P. Nguku

Abstract:

Introduction: Nigeria has recorded outbreaks of meningitis in the past, being in the meningitis belt. A multi-state outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) from Neisseria meningitides occurred in 2017 involving 24 states, and Kano State reported its first two confirmed CSM cases on 22nd March, 2017. We conducted the outbreak investigation to characterize the outbreak, determine its associated risk factors and institute appropriate control measures. Method: We conducted an unmatched Case-control study with ratio 1:2. A case was defined as any person with sudden onset of fever (>38.5˚C rectal or 38.0˚C axillary) and one of the following: neck stiffness, altered consciousness or bulging fontanelle in toddlers while a control was defined as any person who resides around the case such as family members, caregivers, neighbors, and healthcare personnel. We reviewed and validated line list and conducted active case search in health facilities and neighboring communities. Descriptive, bivariate, stratified and multivariate analysis were performed. Laboratory confirmation was by Latex agglutination and/or Culture. Results: We recruited 48 cases with median age of 11 years (1 month – 65 years), attack rate was 2.4/100,000 population with case fatality rate of 8%; 34 of 44 local government areas were affected.On stratification, age was found to be a confounder. Independent factors associated with the outbreak were age (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR =6.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =2.85-15.180, history of Vaccination (AOR=0.37; 95% CI=0.13-0.99) and history of travel (AOR=10.16; (1.99-51.85). Laboratory results showed 22 positive cases for Neisseria meningitides types C and A/Y. Conclusion: Major risk factors associated with this outbreak were age (>14years), not being vaccinated and history of travel. We sensitized communities and strengthened case management. We recommended immediate reactive vaccination and enhanced surveillance in bordering communities.

Keywords: cerebrospinal, factors, Kano-Nigeria, meningitis, risk

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