Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1655

Search results for: foreign languages

1655 English as a Foreign Language for Deaf Students in the K-12 Schools in Turkey: A Policy Analysis

Authors: Cigdem Fidan

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Deaf students in Turkey generally do not have access to foreign language classes. However, the knowledge of foreign languages, especially English, is important for them to access knowledge and other opportunities in the globalizing world. In addition, learning any language including foreign languages is a basic linguistic human right. This study applies critical discourse analysis to examine language ideologies, perceptions of deafness and current language and education policies used for deaf education in Turkey. The findings show that representation of deafness as a disability in policy documents, ignorance the role of sign languages in education and lack of policies that support foreign language education for the deaf may result in inaccessibility of foreign language education for deaf students in Turkey. The paper concludes with recommendations for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates for the deaf.

Keywords: deaf learners, English as a foreign language, language policy, linguistic human rights

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1654 Foreign Languages and Employability in the EU

Authors: Paulina Pietrzyk-Kowalec

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This paper presents the phenomenon of multilingualism becoming the norm rather than the exception in the European Union. It also seeks to describe the correlation between the command of foreign languages and employability. It is evident that the challenges of today's societies when it comes to employability and to the reality of the current labor market are more and more diversified. Thus, it is one of the crucial tasks of higher education to prepare its students to face this kind of complexity, understanding its nuances and having the capacity to adapt effectively to situations that are common in corporations based in the countries belonging to the EU. From this perspective, the assessment of the impact that the mastery of foreign languages among university students could have on the numerous business sectors becomes vital. It involves raising awareness of future professionals to make them understand the importance of mastering communicative skills in foreign languages that will meet the requirements of students` prospective employers. The direct connection between higher education institutions and the world of business also allows the companies to realize that they should rethink their recruitment and Human Resources policy in order to take into account the importance of foreign languages. This article focuses on the objective of the multilingualism policy developed by the European Commission, which is to enable young people to master at least two foreign languages, which is crucial in their future careers. The article advocates the existence of a significant connection between the research conducted in higher education institutions and the business sector in order to bridge current qualification gaps.

Keywords: employability, human resources, language attitudes, multilingualism

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1653 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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1652 University Arabic/Foreign Language Teacher's Competences, Professionalism and the Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Abeer Heider

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The article considers the definitions of teacher’s competences and professionalism from different perspectives of Arab and foreign scientists. A special attention is paid to the definition, classification of the stages and components of University Arabic /foreign language teacher’s professionalism. The results of the survey are offered and recommendations are given. In this paper, only some of the problems of defining professional competence and professionalism of the university Arabic/ foreign language teacher have been mentioned. It needs much more analysis and discussion, because the quality of training today’s competitive and mobile students with a good knowledge of foreign languages depends directly on the teachers’ professional level.

Keywords: teacher’s professional competences, Arabic/ foreign language teacher’s professionalism, teacher evaluation, teacher quality

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1651 Misconception on Multilingualism in Glorious Quran

Authors: Muhammed Unais

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The holy Quran is a pure Arabic book completely ensured the absence of non Arabic term. If it was revealed in a multilingual way including various foreign languages besides the Arabic, it can be easily misunderstood that the Arabs became helpless to compile such a work positively responding to the challenge of Allah due to their lack of knowledge in other languages in which the Quran is compiled. As based on the presence of some non Arabic terms in Quran like Istabrq, Saradiq, Rabbaniyyoon, etc. some oriental scholars argued that the holy Quran is not a book revealed in Arabic. We can see some Muslim scholars who either support or deny the presence of foreign terms in Quran but all of them agree that the roots of these words suspected as non Arabic are from foreign languages and are assimilated to the Arabic and using as same in that foreign language. After this linguistic assimilation was occurred and the assimilated non Arabic words became familiar among the Arabs, the Quran revealed as using these words in such a way stating that all words it contains are Arabic either pure or assimilated. Hence the two of opinions around the authenticity and reliability of etymology of these words are right. Those who argue the presence of foreign words he is right by the way of the roots of that words are from foreign and those who argue its absence he is right for that are assimilated and changed as the pure Arabic. The possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book is logically negative but its significance is being changed according to time and place. The problem of multilingualism in Quran is the misconception raised by some oriental scholars that the Arabs became helpless to compile a book equal to Quran not because of their weakness in Arabic but because the Quran is revealed in languages they are ignorant on them. Really, the Quran was revealed in pure Arabic, the most literate language of the Arabs, and the whole words and its meaning were familiar among them. If one become positively aware of the linguistic and cultural assimilation ever found in whole civilizations and cultural sets he will have not any question in this respect. In this paper the researcher intends to shed light on the possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book and debates among scholars in this issue, foreign terms in Quran and the logical justifications along with the exclusive features of Quran.

Keywords: Quran, foreign Terms, multilingualism, language

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1650 Efficiency of a Semantic Approach in Teaching Foreign Languages

Authors: Genady Shlomper

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During the process of language teaching, each teacher faces some general and some specific problems. Some of these problems are mutual to all languages because they yield to the rules of cognition, conscience, perception, understanding and memory; to the physiological and psychological principles pertaining to the human race irrespective of origin and nationality. Still, every language is a distinctive system, possessing individual properties and an obvious identity, as a result of a development in specific natural, geographical, cultural and historical conditions. The individual properties emerge in the script, in the phonetics, morphology and syntax. All these problems can and should be a subject of a detailed research and scientific analysis, mainly from practical considerations and language teaching requirements. There are some formidable obstacles in the language acquisition process. Among the first to be mentioned is the existence of concepts and entire categories in foreign languages, which are absent in the language of the students. Such phenomena reflect specific ways of thinking and the world-outlook, which were shaped during the evolution. Hindi is the national language of India, which belongs to the group of Indo-Iranian languages from the Indo-European family of languages. The lecturer has gained experience in teaching Hindi language to native speakers of Uzbek, Russian and Hebrew languages. He will show the difficulties in the field of phonetics, morphology and syntax, which the students have to deal with during the acquisition of the language. In the proposed lecture the lecturer will share his experience in making the process of language teaching more efficient by using non-formal semantic approach.

Keywords: applied linguistics, foreign language teaching, language teaching methodology, semantics

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1649 Students' Perspectives about Humor and the Process of Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

Authors: Samuel Marínez González

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In the last decades, the studies about humor have been increasing significantly in all areas. In the field of education and, specially, in the second language teaching, most research has concentrated on the beneficial effects that the introduction of humor in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language, as well as its impact on teachers and students. In the following research, we will try to know the learners’ perspectives about humor and its use in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classes. In order to do this, a different range of students from the Spanish courses at the University of Cape Town will participate in a survey that will reveal their beliefs about the frequency of humor in their daily lives and their Spanish lessons, their reactions to humorous situations, and the main advantages or disadvantages, from their point of view, to the introduction of humor in the teaching of Spanish as a Foreign Language.

Keywords: education, foreign languages, humor, pedagogy, Spanish as a Foreign Language, students’ perceptions

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1648 Phonetics Problems and Solutions for 5th Grade Students of Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in Demirel College in 2015-2016 Academic Year

Authors: Huseyin Demir

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Foreign language learners are able to make mistakes in their pronunciation and writing when they encounter with alphabetical indications that are not available in their own language. The fifth-grade students who learn Turkish language at Demirel College in Georgia constitute the concrete example. ‘F’, ‘y’, ‘ö’, ‘ü’ letters in the Turkish alphabet are the most common mistakes they make. After a careful comparative linguistic study, it was found out that the mistakes caused by the fact that these signs were not available in Georgian. These problems have been tried to be solved through comparative language teaching method by using the pronunciation possibilities in other languages, which are spoken or known by students. First of all, other languages known by students are identified, the similar pronunciation difficulties in Turkish are also found in those languages in order to minimize the pronunciation problem in Turkish, pronunciation possibilities are that are available in those language are utilized. In this context, visual animations are made for pronunciation of English words such as year (yr), earn (örn), fair (fêir) and made student familiar with pronunciation with these words through repetition. With this study, it is observed that student’s motivation has been increased and with these indications, student’s mistakes are minimized.

Keywords: pronunciation, Demirel college, motivations, Turkish as a foreign language

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1647 Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Authors: S. Tarighat, F. Shateri

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This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.

Keywords: bilingualism, foreign language learning, l2 acquisition, willingness to communicate

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1646 The Foreign Policy and Foreign Strategy of Japan in the Post-Cold-War Era

Authors: Yutong Shen

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In Japan, the parliamentary procedure is the highest level in the process of foreign policymaking, and the cabinet is responsible for the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. After the war, Japan's foreign strategy and foreign policy were consistent with the LDP's ideas. In this paper, we navigate through international newspapers and related literature. By systematically reviewing them, we understand the ideology of Japan's foreign policies for different countries. Among different stakes the government considered in designing foreign policies, Japan seems always to put economic interests before politics or social culture.

Keywords: Japan, international relations, East Asian study, foreign policy, Japan politics, cold war

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1645 Are Some Languages Harder to Learn and Teach Than Others?

Authors: David S. Rosenstein

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The author believes that modern spoken languages should be equally difficult (or easy) to learn, since all normal children learning their native languages do so at approximately the same rate and with the same competence, progressing from easy to more complex grammar and syntax in the same way. Why then, do some languages seem more difficult than others? Perhaps people are referring to the written language, where it may be true that mastering Chinese requires more time than French, which in turn requires more time than Spanish. But this may be marginal, since Chinese and French children quickly catch up to their Spanish peers in reading comprehension. Rather, the real differences in difficulty derive from two sources: hardened L1 language habits trying to cope with contrasting L2 habits; and unfamiliarity with unique L2 characteristics causing faulty expectations. It would seem that effective L2 teaching and learning must take these two sources of difficulty into consideration. The author feels that the latter (faulty expectations) causes the greatest difficulty, making effective teaching and learning somewhat different for each given foreign language. Examples from Chinese and other languages are presented.

Keywords: learning different languages, language learning difficulties, faulty language expectations

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1644 Multilingualism and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Salome Labeh

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Diverse Languages that exist in Nigeria, gave rise to the need to choose among these languages, which one or ones to be used as the National Language(s) in Nigeria. The Multilingual Nature of Nigeria has been examined, in relation to the provisional result of 1991 census conducted in Nigeria and the status of language policy in the country, which eventually led to the discovery of the fact that Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba languages have the highest speaker in terms of population, and are already made co-official languages in Nigeria, alongside with English language. Then, these languages should be considered as the National Languages, if eventually a language policy emerges in Nigeria.

Keywords: multilingual, languages, culture, Nigeria

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1643 Foreign Literature at the Lessons of Individual Reading: Contemporary Methods of Phraseological Units Teaching

Authors: Diana Davletbaeva, Elena Pankratova

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This article observes some current questions of use of foreign literature in a process of phraseological units teaching in schools. It reveals and establishes different advantages of literary read at the lessons of individual reading and gives some core points of arrangements and organizational work. The article touches upon some essential keys concerning successful phraseological units mastering and improvement of students’ knowledge in a sphere of phraseology.

Keywords: foreign languages teaching, literary read, individual reading, phraseological unit, complex of exercises

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1642 [Keynote Talk]: Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL/ESOL) as a Foreign Language (TEFL/EFL), Second Language (TESL/ESL), or Additional Language (TEAL/EAL)

Authors: Andrew Laghos

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Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is defined as the use of computers to help learn languages. In this study we look at several different types of CALL tools and applications and how they can assist Adults and Young Learners in learning the English language as a foreign, second or additional language. It is important to identify the roles of the teacher and the learners, and what the learners’ motivations are for learning the language. Audio, video, interactive multimedia games, online translation services, conferencing, chat rooms, discussion forums, social networks, social media, email communication, songs and music video clips are just some of the many ways computers are currently being used to enhance language learning. CALL may be used for classroom teaching as well as for online and mobile learning. Advantages and disadvantages of CALL are discussed and the study ends with future predictions of CALL.

Keywords: computer-assisted language learning (CALL), teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL/EFL), adult learners, young learners

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1641 Effects of Foreign-language Learning on Bilinguals' Production in Both Their Languages

Authors: Natalia Kartushina

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Foreign (second) language (L2) learning is highly promoted in modern society. Students are encouraged to study abroad (SA) to achieve the most effective learning outcomes. However, L2 learning has side effects for native language (L1) production, as L1 sounds might show a drift from the L1 norms towards those of the L2, and this, even after a short period of L2 learning. L1 assimilatory drift has been attributed to a strong perceptual association between similar L1 and L2 sounds in the mind of L2 leaners; thus, a change in the production of an L2 target leads to the change in the production of the related L1 sound. However, nowadays, it is quite common that speakers acquire two languages from birth, as, for example, it is the case for many bilingual communities (e.g., Basque and Spanish in the Basque Country). Yet, it remains to be established how FL learning affects native production in individuals who have two native languages, i.e., in simultaneous or very early bilinguals. Does FL learning (here a third language, L3) affect bilinguals’ both languages or only one? What factors determine which of the bilinguals’ languages is more susceptible to change? The current study examines the effects of L3 (English) learning on the production of vowels in the two native languages of simultaneous Spanish-Basque bilingual adolescents enrolled into the Erasmus SA English program. Ten bilingual speakers read five Spanish and Basque consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel words two months before their SA and the next day after their arrival back to Spain. Each word contained the target vowel in the stressed syllable and was repeated five times. Acoustic analyses measuring vowel openness (F1) and backness (F2) were performed. Two possible outcomes were considered. First, we predicted that L3 learning would affect the production of only one language and this would be the language that would be used the most in contact with English during the SA period. This prediction stems from the results of recent studies showing that early bilinguals have separate phonological systems for each of their languages; and that late FL learner (as it is the case of our participants), who tend to use their L1 in language-mixing contexts, have more L2-accented L1 speech. The second possibility stated that L3 learning would affect both of the bilinguals’ languages in line with the studies showing that bilinguals’ L1 and L2 phonologies interact and constantly co-influence each other. The results revealed that speakers who used both languages equally often (balanced users) showed an F1 drift in both languages toward the F1 of the English vowel space. Unbalanced speakers, however, showed a drift only in the less used language. The results are discussed in light of recent studies suggesting that the amount of language use is a strong predictor of the authenticity in speech production with less language use leading to more foreign-accented speech and, eventually, to language attrition.

Keywords: language-contact, multilingualism, phonetic drift, bilinguals' production

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1640 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

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The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition

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1639 The Contemporary Format of E-Learning in Teaching Foreign Languages

Authors: Nataliya G. Olkhovik

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Nowadays in the system of Russian higher medical education there have been undertaken initiatives that resulted in focusing on the resources of e-learning in teaching foreign languages. Obviously, the face-to-face communication in foreign languages bears much more advantages in terms of effectiveness in comparison with the potential of e-learning. Thus, we’ve faced the necessity of strengthening the capacity of e-learning via integration of active methods into the process of teaching foreign languages, such as project activity of students. Successful project activity of students should involve the following components: monitoring, control, methods of organizing the student’s activity in foreign languages, stimulating their interest in the chosen project, approaches to self-assessment and methods of raising their self-esteem. The contemporary methodology assumes the project as a specific method, which activates potential of a student’s cognitive function, emotional reaction, ability to work in the team, commitment, skills of cooperation and, consequently, their readiness to verbalize ideas, thoughts and attitudes. Verbal activity in the foreign language is a complex conception that consolidates both cognitive (involving speech) capacity and individual traits and attitudes such as initiative, empathy, devotion, responsibility etc. Once we organize the project activity by the means of e-learning within the ‘Foreign language’ discipline we have to take into consideration all mentioned above characteristics and work out an effective way to implement it into the teaching practice to boost its educational potential. We have integrated into the e-platform Moodle the module of project activity consisting of the following blocks of tasks that lead students to research, cooperate, strive to leadership, chase the goal and finally verbalize their intentions. Firstly, we introduce the project through activating self-activity of students by the tasks of the phase ‘Preparation of the project’: choose the topic and justify it; find out the problematic situation and its components; set the goals; create your team, choose the leader, distribute the roles in your team; make a written report on grounding the validity of your choices. Secondly, in the ‘Planning the project’ phase we ask students to represent the analysis of the problem in terms of reasons, ways and methods of solution and define the structure of their project (here students may choose oral or written presentation by drawing up the claim in the e-platform about their wish, whereas the teacher decides what form of presentation to prefer). Thirdly, the students have to design the visual aids, speech samples (functional phrases, introductory words, keywords, synonyms, opposites, attributive constructions) and then after checking, discussing and correcting with a teacher via the means of Moodle present it in front of the audience. And finally, we introduce the phase of self-reflection that aims to awake the inner desire of students to improve their verbal activity in a foreign language. As a result, by implementing the project activity into the e-platform and project activity, we try to widen the frameworks of a traditional lesson of foreign languages through tapping the potential of personal traits and attitudes of students.

Keywords: active methods, e-learning, improving verbal activity in foreign languages, personal traits and attitudes

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1638 The Communicative Nature of Linguistic Interference in Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages

Authors: Kseniia Fedorova

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The article is devoted to interlinguistic homonymy and enantiosemy analysis. These phenomena belong to the process of linguistic interference, which leads to violation of the communicative utterances integrity and causes misunderstanding between foreign interlocutors - native speakers of different Slavic languages. More attention is paid to investigation of non-typical speech situations, which occurred spontaneously or created by somebody intentionally being based on described phenomenon mechanism. The classification of typical students' mistakes connected with the paradox of interference is being represented in the article. The survey contributes to speech act theory, contemporary linguodidactics, translation science and comparative lexicology of Slavonic languages.

Keywords: adherent enantiosemy, interference, interslavonic homonymy, speech act

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1637 The Attitudes towards English Relative to Other Languages in Indonesia: Discrepancies between Policy and Usage

Authors: Rani Silvia

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English has surpassed other languages to become the most widely taught and studied foreign language in Indonesia. This reflects the tendency of the Indonesian public to participate in global mainstream culture, which is longstanding but has been greatly facilitated by the widespread availability of television, the traditional media, and more recently the Internet and social media. However, despite increasing exposure and a history of teaching and study, mastery of English remains low, even as interest and perceived importance continue to increase. This along with Indonesia’s extremely complex linguistic environment has increased the status and value associated with the use of English and is changing the dynamic of language use nationwide. This study investigates the use of English in public settings in Indonesia as well as the attitudes of Indonesian speakers towards English. A case study was developed to explicate this phenomenon in a major Indonesian city. Fifty individuals, including both professionals and lay people, were interviewed about their language preferences as well as their perceptions about English as compared to other languages, such as the local language, Indonesian as the national language, and other foreign languages. Observations on the use of language in the public environment in advertising, signs, and other forms of public expression were analyzed to identify language preferences at this level and their relationship to current language policy. This study has three major findings. First, Indonesian speakers have more positive attitudes towards English than other languages; second, English has encroached on domains in which Indonesian should be used; and third, perceived awareness of the importance of Indonesian as an introduced national language seems to be declining to suggest a failure of policy. The study includes several recommendations for the future development of language planning in determining and directing language use in a public context in Indonesia.

Keywords: English, Indonesia, language attitudes, language policy

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1636 An Investigation of Migrants' Attitudes towards Their Ethnic Languages: A Study of Angolan Migrants in Namibia

Authors: Julia Indongo - Haiduwa

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The study looks at the attitudes of Angolan migrants in the informal sectors towards their ethnic languages. The assumption is most Angolan migrants speak Portuguese instead of their ethnic languages as they lack interest in their ethnic languages. The study was qualitative in nature, and 20 Angolan migrants who are operating in the informal sector where purposively selected for the semistructured interviews. The study revealed that many Angolan has negative attitudes towards their ethnic language because even prior to their migration to Namibia, they use Portuguese to communicate as opposed to their ethnic languages. The ethnic languages are associated with old people and the ethnic languages do not offer the migrants any economic benefits. The study recommends that there is a need for the revitalization of Angolan ethnic languages in Namibia in order to maintain the language and prevent them from dying.

Keywords: ethnic languages language attitude, language, choice, language maintenance, multilingualism

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1635 Impacts of Exchange Rate and Inflation Rate on Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

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The study identifies the impact of inflation and foreign exchange rate on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. Inflation and exchange rates are used as independent variables and foreign direct investment is taken as dependent variable. Discreet time series data has been used from the period of 1999 to 2009. The results of regression analysis reveal that high inflation has negative impact on foreign direct investment and higher exchange rates has positive impact on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. The inflation and foreign exchange rates both are insignificant in the analysis.

Keywords: inflation rate, foreign exchange rate, foreign direct investment, foreign assets

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1634 Behavioral and EEG Reactions in Native Turkic-Speaking Inhabitants of Siberia and Siberian Russians during Recognition of Syntactic Errors in Sentences in Native and Foreign Languages

Authors: Tatiana N. Astakhova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatyana A. Golovko, Alexander N. Savostyanov, Mikhail S. Vlasov, Natalia V. Borisova, Alexandera G. Karpova, Urana N. Kavai-ool, Elena D. Mokur-ool, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Lubomir I. Aftanas

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to compare behaviorally and EEG reactions in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians during the recognition of syntax errors in native and foreign languages. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All participants completed a linguistic task, in which they had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. Russian participants completed the task in Russian and in English. Tuvinian and Yakut participants completed the task in Russian, English, and Tuvinian or Yakut, respectively. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of tasks. For Russian participants, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels. The electrodes were placed according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using ‘Neuroscan (USA)’ amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering, sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. Response speed and the accuracy of recognition error were used as parameters of behavioral reactions. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The accuracy of solving tasks and response speed in Russians were higher for Russian than for English. The P300 amplitudes in Russians were higher for English; the P600 amplitudes in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages (Tuvinian and Yakut). However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. With Tuvinians, there were no differences in the P300 and P600 amplitudes and in cortical topology for Russian and Tuvinian, but there was a difference for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference and were reflected foreign language comprehension -while the Russian language comprehension was reflected native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.

Keywords: EEG, language comprehension, native and foreign languages, Siberian inhabitants

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1633 The Phenomena of False Cognates and Deceptive Cognates: Issues to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching Methodology Based on Set Theory

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

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The aim of this study is to establish differences between the terms ‘false cognates’, ‘false friends’ and ‘deceptive cognates’, usually considered to be synonyms. It will be shown they are not synonyms, since they do not designate the same linguistic process or phenomenon. Despite their differences in meaning, many pairs of formally similar words in two (or more) different languages are true cognates, although they are usually known as ‘false’ cognates – such as, for instance, the English and Italian lexical items ‘assist x assistere’; ‘attend x attendere’; ‘argument x argomento’; ‘apology x apologia’; ‘camera x camera’; ‘cucumber x cocomero’; ‘fabric x fabbrica’; ‘factory x fattoria’; ‘firm x firma’; ‘journal x giornale’; ‘library x libreria’; ‘magazine x magazzino’; ‘parent x parente’; ‘preservative x preservativo’; ‘pretend x pretendere’; ‘vacancy x vacanza’, to name but a few examples. Thus, one of the theoretical objectives of this paper is firstly to elaborate definitions establishing a distinction between the words that are definitely ‘false cognates’ (derived from different etyma) and those that are just ‘deceptive cognates’ (derived from the same etymon). Secondly, based on Set Theory and on the concepts of equal sets, subsets, intersection of sets and disjoint sets, this study is intended to elaborate some theoretical and practical questions that will be useful in identifying more precisely similarities and differences between cognate words of different languages, and according to graphic interpretation of sets it will be possible to classify them and provide discernment about the processes of semantic changes. Therefore, these issues might be helpful not only to the Learning of Second and Foreign Languages, but they could also give insights into Foreign and Second Language Teaching Methodology. Acknowledgements: FAPESP – São Paulo State Research Support Foundation – the financial support offered (proc. n° 2017/02064-7).

Keywords: deceptive cognates, false cognates, foreign language learning, teaching methodology

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1632 Iranian Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Mehrnoush Tajnia, Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction. Comparing students’ and teachers’ beliefs and finding the mismatches between them can increase L2 students’ satisfaction. Few studies have taken into account the beliefs of both students and teachers on different aspects of pedagogy and the effect of learners’ level of education and contexts on effective foreign language teacher practices. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions on effective foreign language teaching. A sample of 303 learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. A questionnaire was developed to elicit participants’ beliefs on effective foreign language teaching and learning. The analysis of the results revealed that: a) there is significant difference between the students’ beliefs about effective teacher practices and teachers’ belief, b) Class level influences students’ perception of effective foreign language teacher, d) There is a significant difference of opinion between those learners who study foreign languages at university and those who study foreign language in private institutes with respect to effective teacher practices. The present paper concludes that finding the gap between students’ and teachers’ beliefs would help both of the groups to enhance their learning and teaching.

Keywords: effective teacher, effective teaching, students’ beliefs, teachers’ beliefs

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1631 Learners' Perceptions about Teacher Written Feedback in the School of Foreign Languages, Anadolu University

Authors: Gaye Senbag

Abstract:

In English language teaching, feedback is considered as one of the main components of writing instruction. Teachers put a lot of time and effort in order to provide learners with written feedback for effective language learning. At Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages (AUSFL) students are given written feedback for their each piece of writing through online platforms such as Edmodo and Turnitin, and traditional methods. However, little is known regarding how learners value and respond to teacher-provided feedback. As the perceptions of the students remarkably affect their learning, this study examines how they perceive the effectiveness of feedback provided by the teacher. Aiming to analyse it, 30 intermediate level (B1+ CEFR level) students were given a questionnaire, which includes Likert scale questions. The results will be discussed in detail.

Keywords: feedback, perceptions, writing, English Language Teaching (ELT)

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1630 True and False Cognates of Japanese, Chinese and Philippine Languages: A Contrastive Analysis

Authors: Jose Marie E. Ocdenaria, Riceli C. Mendoza

Abstract:

Culturally, languages meet, merge, share, exchange, appropriate, donate, and divide in and to and from each other. Further, this type of recurrence manifests in East Asian cultures, where language influence diffuses across geographical proximities. Historically, China has notable impacts on Japan’s culture. For instance, Japanese borrowed words from China and their way of reading and writing. This qualitative and descriptive employing contrastive analysis study addressed the true and false cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages. It involved a rich collection of data from various sources like textual pieces of evidence or corpora to gain a deeper understanding of true and false cognates between L1 and L2. Cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages were analyzed contrastively according to orthography, phonology, and semantics. The words presented were the roots; however, derivatives, reduplications, and variants of stress were included when they shed emphases on the comparison. The basis of grouping the cognates was its phonetic-semantic resemblance. Based on the analysis, it revealed that there are words which may have several types of lexical relationship. Further, the study revealed that the Japanese language has more false cognates in the Philippine languages, particularly in Tagalog and Cebuano. On the other hand, there are more true cognates of Chinese in Tagalog. It is the hope of this study to provide a significant contribution to a diverse audience. These include the teachers and learners of foreign languages such as Japanese and Chinese, future researchers and investigators, applied linguists, curricular theorists, community, and publishers.

Keywords: Contrastive Analysis, Japanese, Chinese and Philippine languages, Qualitative and descriptive study, True and False Cognates

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1629 Raising Multilingual Awareness towards Plurilingual Competence Development: Through Which Approach and Which Pedagogical Material-A Case Study in the Greek Primary Education

Authors: Eftychia Damaskou

Abstract:

This article intends to place the question of the adequate approach for teaching multilingualism within the public education. Linguistic education, as it is defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for the Languages, is no longer the proficiency in one or two languages. It’s about the development of a linguistic repertoire, where all linguistic skills find their place. In fact, the linguistic theories that frame the development of plurilingual competence point out the affective and intercultural aspect of such a process, insisting on an awareness of linguistic diversification, rather than an acquisition of communicative competence in many languages. In this spirit, our article attempts to go beyond a mere plurilingual awareness, present a research based on an experience in class, within 115 pupils, aiming at the development of plurilingual competence in five unknown foreign languages. This experience was held through a teaching unit personally conceived and applied, and consisted of a series of 6 activities based on a cross-linguistic content approach. The data analysis proves to be very interesting, as it reveals the development of plurilingual competences, as well as positive attitudes towards less common languages by the majority of our sample.

Keywords: multilingual awareness, multilingual teaching material, plurilingual competence

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1628 Attitudes towards Bilingualism: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Patricia W. Ngassa

Abstract:

Language attitude is an area arousing the interest of linguists who are continuously discovering new methods of detecting attitudes. This paper problematizes Cameroonians’ alleged tendency of neglecting home languages and considering Bilingualism in borrowed languages as more important. 30 questionnaires were used to know attitudes of parents towards bilingualism and our home languages. Results revealed that our borrowed official languages are considered more important than home languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, mother tongue, Cameroon, official language

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1627 The Analysis of Language Shift, Accommodation, Attrition and Effects On Minority Languages In Pakistan

Authors: Afsheen Kashifa, Muhammad Saad Khan

Abstract:

The present study examines the linguistic use of English as a permanent part of the regional languages of Pakistan. This research has delimited its investigation to the language used by the students of English language who speak different regional languages. It deals with the attitudes, causes, and effects of the language shift from regional and minority languages to English. It further gets insights from the feedback provided by the students as respondents that English is replacing the minority languages for being the language of prestige, convenience, and rich vocabulary. These concepts have been achieved through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The findings of this research exhibit that the respondents speak English because of its vocabulary and easy way of communication; therefore, they enjoy a high place in society. This research also shows that the speakers of the regional languages are encouraged by their parents to speak English. Eventually, the words and expressions of English, the dominant language, have become a permanent part of the minority languages. Therefore, the minority languages are becoming endangered languages.

Keywords: language shift, language accommodation, language attrition, effects on minority languages

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1626 Comparative Study of Urdu and Hindko Language

Authors: Tahseen Bibi

Abstract:

Language is a source of communicating the ideas, emotions and feelings to others. Languages are different from one another on the basis of symbols and articulation. Regional languages play a role of unification in any country. National language of any country gives strength to its masses as it evaporates the mutual indifferences. There are various regional languages in Pakistan like Sindhi, Pushto, Hindko and Balochi. Hindko language dates back to the ancient times and the Hindko speakers can also easily understand and speak Urdu language. Urdu language is an amalgam of various languages. These languages are interconnected. Thus we can draw an analogy between the two languages under discussion on the basis of the pronunciation. The research will show that there are so many words in both the languages which have the similar pronunciation. It will further tell that the roots of Urdu language lie in Hindko. The reason behind this resemblance is that Urdu has got extracted from Hindko and other languages. Hindko language has played a prominent role in the development of Urdu language. Thus the role of Hindko language in the emergence and development of Urdu cannot be denied. This article will use the qualitative and comparative study as methodology. The research will highlight that there is close resemblance in both the languages on the basis of pronunciation, signifying that Urdu language has been extracted from Hindkon language.

Keywords: Hindko, Urdu, regional languages, vocabulary

Procedia PDF Downloads 191