Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: containment

74 Containment/Penetration Analysis for the Protection of Aircraft Engine External Configuration and Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Adrian Mistreanu


The authors have studied a method for analyzing containment and penetration using an explicit nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. This method may be used in the stage of concept design for the protection of external configurations or components of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures. This paper consists of the modeling method, the results obtained from the method and the comparison of the results with those calculated from simple analytical method. It shows that the containment capability obtained by proposed method matches well with analytically calculated containment capability.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, containment analysis, finite element analysis, impact analysis, penetration analysis

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73 Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor

Authors: M. Hossain, A. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar


Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.

Keywords: PWR, concrete containment, finite element approach, neutron attenuation, Von Mises stress

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72 Financial Markets Performance: From COVID-19 Crisis to Hopes of Recovery with the Containment Polices

Authors: Engy Eissa, Dina M. Yousri


COVID-19 has hit massively the world economy, financial markets and even societies’ livelihood. The infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus was claimed responsible for a shrink in the global economy by 4.4% in 2020. Shortly after the first case in Wuhan was identified, a quick surge in the number of confirmed cases in China was evident and a vast spread worldwide is recorded with cases surpassing the 500,000 cases. Irrespective of the disease’s trajectory in each country, a call for immediate action and prompt government intervention was needed. Given that there is no one-size-fits-all approach across the world, a number of containment and adoption policies were embraced. It was starting by enforcing complete lockdown like China to even stricter policies targeted containing the spread of the virus, augmenting the efficiency of health systems, and controlling the economic outcomes arising from this crisis. Hence, this paper has three folds; first, it examines the impact of containment policies taken by governments on controlling the number of cases and deaths in the given countries. Second, to assess the ramifications of COVID-19 on financial markets measured by stock returns. Third, to study the impact of containment policies measured by the government response index, the stringency index, the containment health index, and the economic support index on financial markets performance. Using a sample of daily data covering the period 31st of January 2020 to 15th of April 2021 for the 10 most hit countries in wave one by COVID-19 namely; Brazil, India, Turkey, Russia, UK, USA, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. The aforementioned relationships were tested using Panel VAR Regression. The preliminary results showed that the number of daily deaths had an impact on the stock returns; moreover, the health containment policies and the economic support provided by the governments had a significant effect on lowering the impact of COVID-19 on stock returns.

Keywords: COVID-19, government policies, stock returns, VAR

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71 Phase Detection Using Infrared Spectroscopy: A Build up to Inline Gas–Liquid Flow Characterization

Authors: Kwame Sarkodie, William Cheung, Andrew R. Fergursson


The characterization of multiphase flow has gained enormous attention for most petroleum and chemical industrial processes. In order to fully characterize fluid phases in a stream or containment, there needs to be a profound knowledge of the existing composition of fluids present. This introduces a problem for real-time monitoring of fluid dynamics such as fluid distributions, and phase fractions. This work presents a simple technique of correlating absorbance spectrums of water, oil and air bubble present in containment. These spectra absorption outputs are derived by using an Fourier Infrared spectrometer. During the testing, air bubbles were introduced into static water column and oil containment and with light absorbed in the infrared regions of specific wavelength ranges. Attenuation coefficients are derived for various combinations of water, gas and oil which reveal the presence of each phase in the samples. The results from this work are preliminary and viewed as a build up to the design of a multiphase flow rig which has an infrared sensor pair to be used for multiphase flow characterization.

Keywords: attenuation, infrared, multiphase, spectroscopy

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70 Acoustic Modeling of a Data Center with a Hot Aisle Containment System

Authors: Arshad Alfoqaha, Seth Bard, Dustin Demetriou


A new multi-physics acoustic modeling approach using ANSYS Mechanical FEA and FLUENT CFD methods is developed for modeling servers mounted to racks, such as IBM Z and IBM Power Systems, in data centers. This new approach allows users to determine the thermal and acoustic conditions that people are exposed to within the data center. The sound pressure level (SPL) exposure for a human working inside a hot aisle containment system inside the data center is studied. The SPL is analyzed at the noise source, at the human body, on the rack walls, on the containment walls, and on the ceiling and flooring plenum walls. In the acoustic CFD simulation, it is assumed that a four-inch diameter sphere with monopole acoustic radiation, placed in the middle of each rack, provides a single-source representation of all noise sources within the rack. Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FWH) acoustic model is employed. The target frequency is 1000 Hz, and the total simulation time for the transient analysis is 1.4 seconds, with a very small time step of 3e-5 seconds and 10 iterations to ensure convergence and accuracy. A User Defined Function (UDF) is developed to accurately simulate the acoustic noise source, and a Dynamic Mesh is applied to ensure acoustic wave propagation. Initial validation of the acoustic CFD simulation using a closed-form solution for the spherical propagation of an acoustic point source is performed.

Keywords: data centers, FLUENT, acoustics, sound pressure level, SPL, hot aisle containment, IBM

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69 Predicting Loss of Containment in Surface Pipeline using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Supervised Machine Learning Model to Improve Process Safety in Oil and Gas Operations

Authors: Muhammmad Riandhy Anindika Yudhy, Harry Patria, Ramadhani Santoso


Loss of containment is the primary hazard that process safety management is concerned within the oil and gas industry. Escalation to more serious consequences all begins with the loss of containment, starting with oil and gas release from leakage or spillage from primary containment resulting in pool fire, jet fire and even explosion when reacted with various ignition sources in the operations. Therefore, the heart of process safety management is avoiding loss of containment and mitigating its impact through the implementation of safeguards. The most effective safeguard for the case is an early detection system to alert Operations to take action prior to a potential case of loss of containment. The detection system value increases when applied to a long surface pipeline that is naturally difficult to monitor at all times and is exposed to multiple causes of loss of containment, from natural corrosion to illegal tapping. Based on prior researches and studies, detecting loss of containment accurately in the surface pipeline is difficult. The trade-off between cost-effectiveness and high accuracy has been the main issue when selecting the traditional detection method. The current best-performing method, Real-Time Transient Model (RTTM), requires analysis of closely positioned pressure, flow and temperature (PVT) points in the pipeline to be accurate. Having multiple adjacent PVT sensors along the pipeline is expensive, hence generally not a viable alternative from an economic standpoint.A conceptual approach to combine mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics and a supervised machine learning model has shown promising results to predict leakage in the pipeline. Mathematical modeling is used to generate simulation data where this data is used to train the leak detection and localization models. Mathematical models and simulation software have also been shown to provide comparable results with experimental data with very high levels of accuracy. While the supervised machine learning model requires a large training dataset for the development of accurate models, mathematical modeling has been shown to be able to generate the required datasets to justify the application of data analytics for the development of model-based leak detection systems for petroleum pipelines. This paper presents a review of key leak detection strategies for oil and gas pipelines, with a specific focus on crude oil applications, and presents the opportunities for the use of data analytics tools and mathematical modeling for the development of robust real-time leak detection and localization system for surface pipelines. A case study is also presented.

Keywords: pipeline, leakage, detection, AI

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68 Activated Carbon Content Influence in Mineral Barrier Performance

Authors: Raul Guerrero, Sandro Machado, Miriam Carvalho


Soil and aquifer pollution, caused by hydrocarbon liquid spilling, is induced by misguided operational practices and inefficient safety guidelines. According to the Environmental Brazilian Institute (IBAMA), during 2013 alone, over 472.13 m3 of diesel oil leaked into the environment nationwide for those reported cases only. Regarding the aforementioned information, there’s an indisputable need to adopt appropriate environmental safeguards specially in those areas intended for the production, treatment, transportation and storage of hydrocarbon fluids. According to Brazilian norm, ABNT-NBR 7505-1:2000, compacted soil or mineral barriers used in structural contingency levees, such as storage tanks, are required to present a maximum water permeability coefficient, k, of 1x10-6 cm/s. However, as discussed by several authors, water can not be adopted as the reference fluid to determine the site’s containment performance against organic fluids. Mainly, due to the great discrepancy observed in polarity values (dielectric constant) between water and most organic fluids. Previous studies, within this same research group, proposed an optimal range of values for the soil’s index properties for mineral barrier composition focused on organic fluid containment. Unfortunately, in some circumstances, it is not possible to encounter a type of soil with the required geotechnical characteristics near the containment site, increasing prevention and construction costs, as well as environmental risks. For these specific cases, the use of an organic product or material as an additive to enhance mineral-barrier containment performance may be an attractive geotechnical solution. This paper evaluates the effect of activated carbon (AC) content additions into a clayey soil towards hydrocarbon fluid permeability. Variables such as compaction energy, carbon texture and addition content (0%, 10% and 20%) were analyzed through laboratory falling-head permeability tests using distilled water and commercial diesel as percolating fluids. The obtained results showed that the AC with smaller particle-size reduced k values significantly against diesel, indicating a direct relationship between particle-size reduction (surface area increase) of the organic product and organic fluid containment.

Keywords: activated carbon, clayey soils, permeability, surface area

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67 Geosynthetic Containment Systems for Coastal Protection: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Tom Elias, Kiran G. Shirlal


Coastal erosion is one of the major issue faced by maritime countries, globally. More than 1200 km stretch of Indian coastline is marked eroding. There have been numerous attempts to impede the erosion rate and to attain equilibrium beach profiles. High cost and unavailability of natural rocks forced coastal engineers to find alternatives for conventional hard options like seawalls and groynes. Geosynthetic containment systems, emerged in the mid 20th century proved promising in catering coastal protection in countries like Australia, Germany and United States. The present study aims at reviewing Indian timeline of protection works that uses geosynthetic containment systems. Indian exploration regarding geosynthetic containment system dates back to early 2000s. Generally, protection structures use geosynthetics in the form of Geotubes, Geocontainers, and Geobags with Geotubes being most widely used in the form of submerged reefs, seawalls, groynes and breakwaters. Sand and dredged waste are used to fill these containment systems with calculated sand fill ratio. Reviewing the prominent protection works constructed in the east and west coast of India provides an insight into benefits and the difficulties faced by the practical installation. Initially, geosynthetic structures were considered as a temporary protection method prior to the construction of some other hard structure. Later Dahanu, Hamala and Pentha experiences helped in establishing geotubes as an alternative to conventional structures. Nearshore geotubes reefs aimed to attain equilibrium beach served its purpose in Hamala and Dahanu, Maharashtra, while reef constructed at Candolim, Goa underwent serious damage due to Toe Scour. In situ filling by pumping of sand slurry as in case of Shankarpur Seawall, West Bengal remains as a major concern. Geosynthetic systems supplemented by gabions and rock armours improves the wave dissipation, stability and reflection characteristics as implied in Pentha Coast, Odisha, Hazira, Gujarat and Uppada, Andhra Pradesh. Keeping improper design and deliberate destruction by vandals apart, geosynthetic containment systems offer a cost-effective alternative to conventional coastal protection methods in India. Additionally, geosynthetics supports marine growth in its surface which enhances its demand as an eco-friendly material and encourages usage.

Keywords: coastal protection, geotubes, geobags, geocontainers

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66 Mechanical Simulation with Electrical and Dimensional Tests for AISHa Containment Chamber

Authors: F. Noto, G. Costa, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi


At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (INFN-LNS), a broad experience in the design, construction and commissioning of ECR and microwave ion sources is available. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations, which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadron therapy facility using heavy ions. In this paper, we analyzed the dimensional test and electrical test about an innovative solution for the containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems.

Keywords: FEM analysis, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, dielectrical measurement, hadron therapy

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65 The Main Steamline Break Transient Analysis for Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes

Authors: H. C. Chang, J. R. Wang, A. L. Ho, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, C. Shih, L. C. Wang


To confirm the reactor and containment integrity of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), we perform the analysis of main steamline break (MSLB) transient by using the TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. The process of the research has four steps. First, the ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) model is developed by using the above codes. Second, the steady state analysis is performed by using this model. Third, the ABWR model is used to run the analysis of MSLB transient. Fourth, the predictions of TRACE and PARCS are compared with the data of FSAR. The results of TRACE/PARCS and FSAR are similar. According to the TRACE/PARCS results, the reactor and containment integrity of ABWR can be maintained in a safe condition for MSLB.

Keywords: advanced boiling water reactor, TRACE, PARCS, SNAP

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64 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu


This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

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63 Considering Aerosol Processes in Nuclear Transport Package Containment Safety Cases

Authors: Andrew Cummings, Rhianne Boag, Sarah Bryson, Gordon Turner


Packages designed for transport of radioactive material must satisfy rigorous safety regulations specified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Higher Activity Waste (HAW) transport packages have to maintain containment of their contents during normal and accident conditions of transport (NCT and ACT). To ensure containment criteria is satisfied these packages are required to be leak-tight in all transport conditions to meet allowable activity release rates. Package design safety reports are the safety cases that provide the claims, evidence and arguments to demonstrate that packages meet the regulations and once approved by the competent authority (in the UK this is the Office for Nuclear Regulation) a licence to transport radioactive material is issued for the package(s). The standard approach to demonstrating containment in the RWM transport safety case is set out in BS EN ISO 12807. In this document a method for measuring a leak rate from the package is explained by way of a small interspace test volume situated between two O-ring seals on the underside of the package lid. The interspace volume is pressurised and a pressure drop measured. A small interspace test volume makes the method more sensitive enabling the measurement of smaller leak rates. By ascertaining the activity of the contents, identifying a releasable fraction of material and by treating that fraction of material as a gas, allowable leak rates for NCT and ACT are calculated. The adherence to basic safety principles in ISO12807 is very pessimistic and current practice in the demonstration of transport safety, which is accepted by the UK regulator. It is UK government policy that management of HAW will be through geological disposal. It is proposed that the intermediate level waste be transported to the geological disposal facility (GDF) in large cuboid packages. This poses a challenge for containment demonstration because such packages will have long seals and therefore large interspace test volumes. There is also uncertainty on the releasable fraction of material within the package ullage space. This is because the waste may be in many different forms which makes it difficult to define the fraction of material released by the waste package. Additionally because of the large interspace test volume, measuring the calculated leak rates may not be achievable. For this reason a justification for a lower releasable fraction of material is sought. This paper considers the use of aerosol processes to reduce the releasable fraction for both NCT and ACT. It reviews the basic coagulation and removal processes and applies the dynamic aerosol balance equation. The proposed solution includes only the most well understood physical processes namely; Brownian coagulation and gravitational settling. Other processes have been eliminated either on the basis that they would serve to reduce the release to the environment further (pessimistically in keeping with the essence of nuclear transport safety cases) or that they are not credible in the conditions of transport considered.

Keywords: aerosol processes, Brownian coagulation, gravitational settling, transport regulations

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62 Strategies by National Health Systems in the Northern Hemisphere Against COVID-19

Authors: Aysha Zahidie, Meesha Iqbal


This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of strategies adopted by national health systems across the globe in different ‘geographical regions’ in the Northern Hemisphere to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Data is included from the first case reported in November 2019 till mid-April 2020. Sources of information are COVID-19 case repositories, official country websites, university research teams’ perspectives, official briefings, and available published research articles to date. We triangulated all data to formulate a comprehensive illustration of COVID-19 situation in each country included. It has been found that the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak experienced in China, Taiwan, and South Korea saw better strategies adopted by leadership to combat COVID-19 pandemic containment as compared to Iran, Italy, and the United States of America. Saudi Arabia has so far been successful in the implementation of containment strategies as there have been no large outbreaks in major cities or confined areas such as prisons. The situation has yet to unfold in India and Pakistan, which exhibit their own weaknesses in policy formulation or implementation in response to health crises.

Keywords: national health systems, COVID-19, prevention, response

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61 Influence of Compactive Efforts on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Bagasse Ash Treated Black Cotton Soil

Authors: T. S. Ijimdiya, K. J. Osinubi


This study examines the influence of compactive efforts on hydraulic conductivity behaviour of compacted black cotton soil treated with bagasse ash which is necessary in assessing the performance of the soil - bagasse ash mixture for use as a suitable barrier material in waste containment application. Black cotton soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash (obtained from burning the fibrous residue from the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane) by dry weight of soil for use in waste containment application. The natural soil classifies as A-7-6 or CH in accordance with the AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System, respectively. The treated soil samples were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2, and +4 % of optimum moisture contents and compacted using four compactive efforts of Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH). The results obtained show that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in bagasse ash content, moulding water content and compaction energy.

Keywords: bagasse ash treatment, black cotton soil, hydraulic conductivity, moulding water contents, compactive efforts

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60 Manifestations of Moral Imagination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Debates of Lithuanian Parliament

Authors: Laima Zakaraite, Vaidas Morkevicius


The COVID-19 pandemic brought important and pressing challenges for politicians around the world. Governments, parliaments, and political leaders had to make quick decisions about containment of the pandemic, usually without clear knowledge about the factual spread of the virus, the possible expected speed of spread, and levels of mortality. Opinions of experts were also divided, as some advocated for ‘herd immunity’ without closing down the economy and public life, and others supported the idea of strict lockdown. The debates about measures of pandemic containment were heated and involved strong moral tensions with regard to the possible outcomes. This paper proposes to study the manifestations of moral imagination in the political debates regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, moral imagination is associated with twofold abilities of a decision-making actor: the ability to discern the moral aspects embedded within a situation and the ability to envision a range of possibilities alternative solutions to the situation from a moral perspective. The concept was most thoroughly investigated in business management studies. However, its relevance for the study of political decision-making is also rather clear. The results of the study show to what extent politicians are able to discern the wide range of moral issues related to a situation (in this case, consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in a country) and how broad (especially, from a moral perspective) are discussions of the possible solutions proposed for solving the problem (situation). Arguably, political discussions and considerations are broader and affected by a wider and more varied range of actors and ideas compared to decision making in the business management sector. However, the debates and ensuing solutions may also be restricted by ideological maxims and advocacy of special interests. Therefore, empirical study of policy proposals and their debates might reveal the actual breadth of moral imagination in political discussions. For this purpose, we carried out the qualitative study of the parliamentary debates related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania during the first wave (containment of which was considered very successful) and at the beginning and consequent acceleration of the second wave (when the spread of the virus became uncontrollable).

Keywords: decision making, moral imagination, political debates, political decision

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59 Interactions between Sodium Aerosols and Fission Products: A Theoretical Chemistry and Experimental Approach

Authors: Ankita Jadon, Sidi Souvi, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez


Safety requirements for Generation IV nuclear reactor designs, especially the new generation sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) require a risk-informed approach to model severe accidents (SA) and their consequences in case of outside release. In SFRs, aerosols are produced during a core disruptive accident when primary system sodium is ejected into the containment and burn in contact with the air; producing sodium aerosols. One of the key aspects of safety evaluation is the in-containment sodium aerosol behavior and their interaction with fission products. The study of the effects of sodium fires is essential for safety evaluation as the fire can both thermally damage the containment vessel and cause an overpressurization risk. Besides, during the fire, airborne fission product first dissolved in the primary sodium can be aerosolized or, as it can be the case for fission products, released under the gaseous form. The objective of this work is to study the interactions between sodium aerosols and fission products (Iodine, toxic and volatile, being the primary concern). Sodium fires resulting from an SA would produce aerosols consisting of sodium peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and bicarbonates. In addition to being toxic (in oxide form), this aerosol will then become radioactive. If such aerosols are leaked into the environment, they can pose a danger to the ecosystem. Depending on the chemical affinity of these chemical forms with fission products, the radiological consequences of an SA leading to containment leak tightness loss will also be affected. This work is split into two phases. Firstly, a method to theoretically understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of the heterogeneous reaction between sodium aerosols and fission products: I2 and HI are proposed. Ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package are carried out to develop an understanding of the surfaces of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) aerosols and hence provide insight on its affinity towards iodine species. A comprehensive study of I2 and HI adsorption, as well as bicarbonate formation on the calculated lowest energy surface of Na2CO3, was performed which provided adsorption energies and description of the optimized configuration of adsorbate on the stable surface. Secondly, the heterogeneous reaction between (I2)g and Na2CO3 aerosols were investigated experimentally. To study this, (I2)g was generated by heating a permeation tube containing solid I2, and, passing it through a reaction chamber containing Na2CO3 aerosol deposit. The concentration of iodine was then measured at the exit of the reaction chamber. Preliminary observations indicate that there is an effective uptake of (I2)g on Na2CO3 surface, as suggested by our theoretical chemistry calculations. This work is the first step in addressing the gaps in knowledge of in-containment and atmospheric source term which are essential aspects of safety evaluation of SFR SA. In particular, this study is aimed to determine and characterize the radiological and chemical source term. These results will then provide useful insights for the developments of new models to be implemented in integrated computer simulation tool to analyze and evaluate SFR safety designs.

Keywords: iodine adsorption, sodium aerosols, sodium cooled reactor, DFT calculations, sodium carbonate

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58 How to Break an Outbreak: Containment Measures of a Salmonella Outbreak Associated with Egg Consumption

Authors: Gal Zagron, Nitza Abramson, Deena R. Zimmerman, Chen Stein-Zamir


Background: Salmonella enteritidis is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks, primarily associated with poultry eggs. S. enteritidis This is the only Salmonella type that is found inside the eggshell. A rise in Salmonella enteritidis notifications was noted in spring 2017. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological investigation of the outbreak in the Jerusalem district, along with the containment measures taken. Methods: This study is a population-based epidemiological study with a description of environmental control activities. Results: During the months May - July, 2017 848 salmonellosis cases were reported to the Jerusalem district health office compared to 294 cases May - July 2016. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated in 58% of reported cases. Clusters and outbreaks ( > 2 cases) were reported among nursery schools, nursing homes, persons residing in one kibbutz and several cases in different food service establishments in the Jerusalem district. Epidemiological investigations revealed eggs consumption as a common feature among the cases (uncooked or undercooked eggs in most cases). A national investigation among egg suppliers revealed that most cases consumed eggs provided by a single provider with isolation of Salmonella enteritidis at the source as well. Containment measures were taken to control the epidemic including distributing information via electronic and written media to the public, searching for all egg distribution centers, informing local authorities, the poultry council and food stores. The eggs originating from the provider were recalled and extinguished. Written instructions to all food preparation facilities in the district were distributed regarding the proper storage and preparation of eggs. The number of reported cases declined and the outbreak vanished during correlating months of 2018. Conclusions: The investigation of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks should include epidemiological and laboratory investigations, tracing the source of the eggs and testing the eggs and the source of eggs. Health education activities are essential as to the proper handling of eggs and egg products aiming to minimize susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

Keywords: epidemiological investigation, food-borne disease, food safety, Salmonella enteritidis

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57 Risk Assessment of Radiation Hazard for a Typical WWER1000: Cancer Risk Analysis during a Hypothetical Accident

Authors: R. Gharari, N. Kojouri, R. Hosseini Aghdam, E. Alibeigi, B. Salmasian


In this research, the WWER1000/V446 (a PWR Russian type reactor) is chosen as the case study. It is assumed that radioactive materials that release into the environment are more than allowable limit due to a complete failure of the ventilation system (reactor stack). In the following, the HOTSPOT and the RASCAL computational codes have been used and coupled with a developed program using MATLAB software to evaluate Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and cancer risk according to the BEIR equations for various human organs. In addition, effects of the containment spray system and climate conditions on the TEDE have been investigated. According to the obtained results, there is an inverse correlation between the received dose and the wind speed; the amount of the TEDE for wind speed 2 m/s and is more than wind speed for 14 m/s during the class A of the climate (2.168 and 0.444 mSv, respectively). Also, containment spray system can effect and reduce the amount of the fission products and TEDE. Furthermore, the probability of the cancer risk for women is more than men, and for children is more than adults. In addition, a specific emergency zonal planning is proposed. Results are promising in which the site selection of the WWER1000/V446 were considered safe for the public in this situation.

Keywords: TEDE, total effective dose equivalent, RASCAL and HOTSPOT codes, BEIR equations, cancer risk

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56 Fundamental Study on Reconstruction of 3D Image Using Camera and Ultrasound

Authors: Takaaki Miyabe, Hideharu Takahashi, Hiroshige Kikura


The Government of Japan and Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Incorporated (TEPCO) are struggling with the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants, especially fuel debris retrieval. In fuel debris retrieval, amount of fuel debris, location, characteristics, and distribution information are important. Recently, a survey was conducted using a robot with a small camera. Progress report in remote robot and camera research has speculated that fuel debris is present both at the bottom of the Pressure Containment Vessel (PCV) and inside the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The investigation found a 'tie plate' at the bottom of the containment, this is handles on the fuel rod. As a result, it is assumed that a hole large enough to allow the tie plate to fall is opened at the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefore, exploring the existence of holes that lead to inside the RCV is also an issue. Investigations of the lower part of the RPV are currently underway, but no investigations have been made inside or above the PCV. Therefore, a survey must be conducted for future fuel debris retrieval. The environment inside of the RPV cannot be imagined due to the effect of the melted fuel. To do this, we need a way to accurately check the internal situation. What we propose here is the adaptation of a technology called 'Structure from Motion' that reconstructs a 3D image from multiple photos taken by a single camera. The plan is to mount a monocular camera on the tip of long-arm robot, reach it to the upper part of the PCV, and to taking video. Now, we are making long-arm robot that has long-arm and used at high level radiation environment. However, the environment above the pressure vessel is not known exactly. Also, fog may be generated by the cooling water of fuel debris, and the radiation level in the environment may be high. Since camera alone cannot provide sufficient sensing in these environments, we will further propose using ultrasonic measurement technology in addition to cameras. Ultrasonic sensor can be resistant to environmental changes such as fog, and environments with high radiation dose. these systems can be used for a long time. The purpose is to develop a system adapted to the inside of the containment vessel by combining a camera and an ultrasound. Therefore, in this research, we performed a basic experiment on 3D image reconstruction using a camera and ultrasound. In this report, we select the good and bad condition of each sensing, and propose the reconstruction and detection method. The results revealed the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

Keywords: camera, image processing, reconstruction, ultrasound

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55 Performance of Pilot Test of Geotextile Tube Filled with Lightly Cemented Clay

Authors: S. H. Chew, Z. X. Eng, K. E. Chuah, T. Y. Lim, H. M. A. Yim


In recent years, geotextile tube has been widely used in the hydraulic engineering and dewatering industry. To construct a stable containment bund with geotextile tubes, the sand slurry is always the preference infilling material. However, the shortage of sand supply posts a problem in Singapore to adopt this construction method in the actual construction of long containment bund. Hence, utilizing the soft dredged clay or the excavated soft clay as the infilling material of geotextile tubes has a great economic benefit. There are any technical issues with using this soft clayey material as infilling material, especially on the excessive settlement and stability concerns. To minimize the shape deformation and settlement of geotextile tube associated with the use of this soft clay infilling material, a modified innovative infilling material is proposed – lightly cemented soft clay. The preliminary laboratory studies have shown that the dewatering mechanism via geotextile material of the tube skin, and the introduction of cementitious chemical action of the lightly cemented soft clay will accelerate the consolidation and improve the shear strength of infill material. This study aims to extend the study by conducting a pilot test of the geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay. This study consists of testing on a series of miniature geo-tubes and two full-size geotextile tube. In the miniature geo-tube tests, a number of small scaled-down size of geotextile tubes were filled with cemented clay (at water content of 150%) with cement content of 0% to 8% (by weight). The shear strength development of the lightly cemented clay under dewatering mechanism was evaluated using a modified in-situ Cone Penetration Test (CPT) at 0 days, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the infilling. The undisturbed soil samples of lightly cemented infilled clay were also extracted at 3-days and 7-days for triaxial tests and evaluation of final water content. The results suggested that the geotextile tubes filled with un-cemented soft clay experienced very significant shape change over the days (as control test). However, geotextile mini-tubes filled with lightly cemented clay experienced only marginal shape changed, even that the strength development of this lightly cemented clay inside the tube may not show significant strength gain at the early stage. The shape stability is believed to be due to the confinement effect of the geotextile tube with clay at non-slurry state. Subsequently, a full-scale instrumented geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay was performed. The extensive results of strain gauges and pressure transducers installed on this full-size geotextile tube demonstrated a substantial mobilization of tensile forces on the geotextile skin corresponding to the filling activity and the subsequent dewatering stage. Shape change and the in-fill material strength development was also monitored. In summary, the construction of containment bund with geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay is found to be technically feasible and stable with the use of the sufficiently strong (i.e. adequate tensile strength) geotextile tube, the adequate control on the dosage of cement content, and suitable water content of infilling soft clay material.

Keywords: cemented clay, containment bund, dewatering, geotextile tube

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54 Study of Composite Materials for Aisha Containment Chamber

Authors: G. Costa, F. Noto, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi


The ion sources for accelerators devoted to medical applications must provide intense ion beams, with high reproducibility, stability and brightness. AISHa (Advanced Ion Source for Hadron-therapy) is a compact ECRIS whose hybrid magnetic system consists of a permanent Halbach-type hexapole magnet and a set of independently energized superconducting coils. These coils will be enclosed in a compact cryostat with two cryocoolers for LHe-free operation. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadrontherapy center using heavy ions. In the paper, we designed an innovative solution for the plasma containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems. We analyzed the materials chosen for our aim (glass fibers and carbon fibers) and we illustrated the all process (spinning, curing and machining) of the assembly of our chamber. The glass fibers and carbon fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices and give rise to structural composites and composites by molding.

Keywords: hadron-therapy, carbon fiber, glass fiber, vacuum-bag, ECR, ion source

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53 Efficiency of Maritime Simulator Training in Oil Spill Response Competence Development

Authors: Antti Lanki, Justiina Halonen, Juuso Punnonen, Emmi Rantavuo


Marine oil spill response operation requires extensive vessel maneuvering and navigation skills. At-sea oil containment and recovery include both single vessel and multi-vessel operations. Towing long oil containment booms that are several hundreds of meters in length, is a challenge in itself. Boom deployment and towing in multi-vessel configurations is an added challenge that requires precise coordination and control of the vessels. Efficient communication, as a prerequisite for shared situational awareness, is needed in order to execute the response task effectively. To gain and maintain adequate maritime skills, practical training is needed. Field exercises are the most effective way of learning, but especially the related vessel operations are resource-intensive and costly. Field exercises may also be affected by environmental limitations such as high sea-state or other adverse weather conditions. In Finland, the seasonal ice-coverage also limits the training period to summer seasons only. In addition, environmental sensitiveness of the sea area restricts the use of real oil or other target substances. This paper examines, whether maritime simulator training can offer a complementary method to overcome the training challenges related to field exercises. The objective is to assess the efficiency and the learning impact of simulator training, and the specific skills that can be trained most effectively in simulators. This paper provides an overview of learning results from two oil spill response pilot courses, in which maritime navigational bridge simulators were used to train the oil spill response authorities. The simulators were equipped with an oil spill functionality module. The courses were targeted at coastal Fire and Rescue Services responsible for near shore oil spill response in Finland. The competence levels of the participants were surveyed before and after the course in order to measure potential shifts in competencies due to the simulator training. In addition to the quantitative analysis, the efficiency of the simulator training is evaluated qualitatively through feedback from the participants. The results indicate that simulator training is a valid and effective method for developing marine oil spill response competencies that complement traditional field exercises. Simulator training provides a safe environment for assessing various oil containment and recovery tactics. One of the main benefits of the simulator training was found to be the immediate feedback the spill modelling software provides on the oil spill behaviour as a reaction to response measures.

Keywords: maritime training, oil spill response, simulation, vessel manoeuvring

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52 Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles (MIP NPs) as Non-Animal Antibodies Substitutes for Detection of Viruses

Authors: Alessandro Poma, Kal Karim, Sergey Piletsky, Giuseppe Battaglia


The recent increasing emergency threat to public health of infectious influenza diseases has prompted interest in the detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 in humans as well as animals. A variety of technologies for diagnosing AIV infection have been developed. However, various disadvantages (costs, lengthy analyses, and need for high-containment facilities) make these methods less than ideal in their practical application. Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric Nanoparticles (MIP NPs) are suitable to overcome these limitations by having high affinity, selectivity, versatility, scalability and cost-effectiveness with the versatility of post-modification (labeling – fluorescent, magnetic, optical) opening the way to the potential introduction of improved diagnostic tests capable of providing rapid differential diagnosis. Here we present our first results in the production and testing of MIP NPs for the detection of AIV H5N1. Recent developments in the solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs mean that for the first time a reliable supply of ‘soluble’ synthetic antibodies can be made available for testing as potential biological or diagnostic active molecules. The MIP NPs have the potential to detect viruses that are widely circulating in farm animals and indeed humans. Early and accurate identification of the infectious agent will expedite appropriate control measures. Thus, diagnosis at an early stage of infection of a herd or flock or individual maximizes the efficiency with which containment, prevention and possibly treatment strategies can be implemented. More importantly, substantiating the practicability’s of these novel reagents should lead to an initial reduction and eventually to a potential total replacement of animals, both large and small, to raise such specific serological materials.

Keywords: influenza virus, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles, polymers

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51 Sweden’s SARS-CoV-2 Mitigation Failure as a Science and Solutions Principle Case Study

Authors: Dany I. Doughan, Nizam S. Najd


Different governments in today’s global pandemic are approaching the challenging and complex issue of mitigating the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus differently while simultaneously considering their national economic and operational bottom lines. One of the most notable successes has been Taiwan's multifaceted virus containment approach, which resulted in a substantially lower incidence rate compared to Sweden’s chief mitigation tactic of herd immunity. From a classic Swiss Cheese Model perspective, integrating more fail-safe layers of defense against the virus in Taiwan’s approach compared to Sweden’s meant that in Taiwan, the government did not have to resort to extreme measures like the national lockdown Sweden is currently contemplating. From an optimized virus spread mitigation solution development standpoint using the Solutions Principle, the Taiwanese and Swedish solutions were desirable economically by businesses that remained open and non-economically or socially by individuals who enjoyed fewer disruptions from what they considered normal before the pandemic. Out of the two, the Taiwanese approach was more feasible long-term from a workforce management and quality control perspective for healthcare facilities and their professionals who were able to provide better, longer, more attentive care to the fewer new positive COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, the Taiwanese approach was more applicable as an overall model to emulate thanks in part to its short-term and long-term multilayered approach, which allows for the kind of flexibility needed by other governments to fully or partially adapt or adopt said, model. The Swedish approach, on the other hand, ignored the biochemical nature of the virus and relied heavily on short-term personal behavioral adjustments and conduct modifications, which are not as reliable as establishing required societal norms and awareness programs. The available international data on COVID-19 cases and the published governmental approaches to control the spread of the coronavirus support a better fit into the Solutions Principle of Taiwan’s Swiss Cheese Model success story compared to Sweden’s.

Keywords: coronavirus containment and mitigation, solutions principle, Swiss Cheese Model, viral mutation

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50 The Analysis and Simulation of TRACE in the Ultimate Response Guideline for Chinshan BWR/4 Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, S. C. Chiang, C. C. Liu


In this research, TRACE model of Chinshan BWR/4 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been developed for the simulation and analysis of Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are the depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to verify the URG efficiency under Fukushima-like conditions. Trace analysis results show that the URG can keep the PCT below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions. It indicated that Chinshan NPP was safe.

Keywords: BWR, trace, safety analysis, URG

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49 A CM-Based Model for 802.11 Networks Security Policies Enforcement

Authors: Karl Mabiala Dondia, Jing Ma


In recent years, networks based on the 802.11 standards have gained a prolific deployment. The reason for this massive acceptance of the technology by both home users and corporations is assuredly due to the "plug-and-play" nature of the technology and the mobility. The lack of physical containment due to inherent nature of the wireless medium makes maintenance very challenging from a security standpoint. This study examines via continuous monitoring various predictable threats that 802.11 networks can face, how they are executed, where each attack may be executed and how to effectively defend against them. The key goal is to identify the key components of an effective wireless security policy.

Keywords: wireless LAN, IEEE 802.11 standards, continuous monitoring, security policy

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48 Study of Durability of Porous Polymer Materials, Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyurethane Foam (R-PUF) in MarkIII Containment Membrane System

Authors: Florent Cerdan, Anne-Gaëlle Denay, Annette Roy, Jean-Claude Grandidier, Éric Laine


The insulation of MarkIII membrane of the Liquid Natural Gas Carriers (LNGC) consists of a load- bearing system made of panels in reinforced polyurethane foam (R-PUF). During the shipping, the cargo containment shall be potentially subject to risk events which can be water leakage through the wall ballast tank. The aim of these present works is to further develop understanding of water transfer mechanisms and water effect on properties of R-PUF. This multi-scale approach contributes to improve the durability. Macroscale / Mesoscale Firstly, the use of the gravimetric technique has allowed to define, at room temperature, the water transfer mechanisms and kinetic diffusion, in the R-PUF. The solubility follows a first kinetic fast growing connected to the water absorption by the micro-porosity, and then evolves linearly slowly, this second stage is connected to molecular diffusion and dissolution of water in the dense membranes polyurethane. Secondly, in the purpose of improving the understanding of the transfer mechanism, the study of the evolution of the buoyant force has been established. It allowed to identify the effect of the balance of total and partial pressure of mixture gas contained in pores surface. Mesoscale / Microscale The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), have been used to investigate the hydration of the hard and soft segments of the polyurethane matrix. The purpose was to identify the sensitivity of these two phases. It been shown that the glass transition temperatures shifts towards the low temperatures when the solubility of the water increases. These observations permit to conclude to a plasticization of the polymer matrix. Microscale The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study has been used to investigate the characterization of functional groups on the edge, the center and mid-way of the sample according the duration of submersion. More water there is in the material, more the water fix themselves on the urethanes groups and more specifically on amide groups. The pic of C=O urethane shifts at lower frequencies quickly before 24 hours of submersion then grows slowly. The intensity of the pic decreases more flatly after that.

Keywords: porous materials, water sorption, glass transition temperature, DSC, DMA, FTIR, transfer mechanisms

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47 Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube

Authors: Shengjun Zhang, Xu Cheng, Feng Shen


The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.

Keywords: non-condensable gas, condensation, heat transfer coefficient, heat and mass transfer analogy

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46 Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of a Concrete Element

Authors: Douhi Reda Bouabdellah, Khalafi Hamid, Belamri Samir


The desire to improve the safety of nuclear reactor containment has revealed the need for data on the thermo mechanical behavior of concrete in case of accident during which the concrete is exposed to high temperatures. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of high temperature on the behavior of ordinary concrete specimens loaded by an effort of compression. A thermal model is developed by discretization volume elements (CASTEM). The results of different simulations, combined with other findings help to bring a physical phenomenon explanation Thermo mechanical concrete structures, which allowed to obtain the variation of the stresses anywhere in point or node and each subsequent temperature different directions X, Y and Z.

Keywords: concrete, thermic-gradient, fire resistant, simulation by CASTEM, mechanical strength

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45 The Study of Ultimate Response Guideline of Kuosheng BWR/6 Nuclear Power Plant Using TRACE and SNAP

Authors: J. R. Wang, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, S. C. Chiang, T. Y. Yu


In this study of ultimate response guideline (URG), Kuosheng BWR/6 nuclear power plant (NPP) TRACE model was established. The reactor depressurization, low pressure water injection, and containment venting are the main actions of URG. This research focuses to evaluate the efficiency of URG under Fukushima-like conditions. Additionally, the sensitivity study of URG was also performed in this research. The analysis results of TRACE present that URG can keep the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below 1088.7 K (the failure criteria) under Fukushima-like conditions. It implied that Kuosheng NPP was at the safe situation.

Keywords: BWR, TRACE, safety analysis, ultimate response guideline (URG)

Procedia PDF Downloads 399