Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Justin Nwabanne

33 An Analysis of Conversation Structure of Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber Utterances on The Oprah Winfrey Show

Authors: Najib Khumaidillah


A conversation needs skills to create the good flow of it. The skills also need to be paid attention by a host like Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber as an artist. This study is aimed at describing turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs used by the speakers. The data are from one segment of The Oprah Winfrey Show’s transcription with Justin Bieber. Those are analyzed by Stenstorm’s turn taking theories and adjacency pairs theories. From the analysis, it was found that both speakers use various turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs. These findings are hoped to be an example for non-native English speaker in doing English conversation and advance people’s comprehension of how to organize good conversation structure.

Keywords: adjacency pairs, conversation structure, the Oprah Winfrey show, turn taking

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
32 Effects of Aerodynamic on Suspended Cables Using Non-Linear Finite Element Approach

Authors: Justin Nwabanne, Sam Omenyi, Jeremiah Chukwuneke


This work presents structural nonlinear static analysis of a horizontal taut cable using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The FEA was performed analytically to determine the tensions at each nodal point and subsequently, performed based on finite element displacement method computationally using the FEA software, ANSYS 14.0 to determine their behaviour under the influence of aerodynamic forces imposed on the cable. The convergence procedure is adapted into the method to prevent excessive displacements through the computations. The work compared the two FEA cases by examining the effectiveness of the analytical model in describing the response with few degrees of freedom and the ability of the nonlinear finite element procedure adopted to capture the complex features of cable dynamics with reference to the aerodynamic external influence. Results obtained from this work explain that the analytic FEM results without aerodynamic influence show a parabolic response with an optimum deflection at nodal points 12 and 13 with the cable weight at nodes 12 and 13 having the value -1.002936N while for the cable tension shows an optimum deflection value for nodes 12 and 13 at -189396.97kg/km. The maximum displacement for the cable system was obtained from ANSYS 14.0 as 4483.83 mm for X, Y and Z components of displacements at node number 2 while the maximum displacement obtained is 4218.75mm for all the directional components. The dynamic behaviour of a taut cable investigated has application in a typical power transmission line. Aerodynamic influences on the cables were considered using FEA approach by employing ANSYS 14.0 showed a complex modal behaviour as expected.

Keywords: aerodynamics, cable tension and weight, finite element analysis, nodal, non-linear model, optimum deflection, suspended cable, transmission line

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
31 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors

Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill


Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.

Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
30 Technology Enabled Bullying and Adolescent Reporting Response Behaviours

Authors: Regina Connolly, Justin Connolly


Despite the benefits which they confer, Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) also have the potential to be used negatively. This paper focuses on one of those negative social effects - adolescent cyberbullying. Although early research in this field has pointed to the fact that the successful intervention and resolution of bullying incidents is to a large degree dependent on such incidents being reported to an adult caregiver, the literature consistently shows that adolescents who have been bullied tend not to inform others of their experiences. However, the reasons underlying such reluctance to seek adult intervention remain undetermined. Similarly, the degree to which gender, age or other variables apply in the case of adolescents’ resistance to report cyberbullying experiences has yet to be established. Understanding the factors that influence this resistance to communicate on the part of adolescents will assist caregivers, teachers and those involved in the formulation of school anti-bullying policies in their attempts to counter the cyberbullying phenomenon.

Keywords: information and Communication technologies, technology-enabled bullying, cyberbullying

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29 The Optimisation of Salt Impregnated Matrices as Potential Thermochemical Storage Materials

Authors: Robert J. Sutton, Jon Elvins, Sean Casey, Eifion Jewell, Justin R. Searle


Thermochemical storage utilises chemical salts which store and release energy a fully reversible endo/exothermic chemical reaction. Highly porous vermiculite impregnated with CaCl2, LiNO3 and MgSO4 (SIMs – Salt In Matrices) are proposed as potential materials for long-term thermochemical storage. The behavior of these materials during typical hydration and dehydration cycles is investigated. A simple moisture experiment represents the hydration, whilst thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) represents the dehydration. Further experiments to approximate the energy density and to determine the peak output temperatures of the SIMs are conducted. The CaCl2 SIM is deemed the best performing SIM across most experiments, whilst the results of MgSO4 SIM indicate difficulty associated with energy recovery.

Keywords: hydrated states, inter-seasonal heat storage, moisture sorption, salt in matrix

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28 Spherical Harmonic Based Monostatic Anisotropic Point Scatterer Model for RADAR Applications

Authors: Eric Huang, Coleman DeLude, Justin Romberg, Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Madhavan Swaminathan


High performance computing (HPC) based emulators can be used to model the scattering from multiple stationary and moving targets for RADAR applications. These emulators rely on the RADAR Cross Section (RCS) of the targets being available in complex scenarios. Representing the RCS using tables generated from electromagnetic (EM) simulations is often times cumbersome leading to large storage requirement. This paper proposed a spherical harmonic based anisotropic scatterer model to represent the RCS of complex targets. The problem of finding the locations and reflection profiles of all scatterers can be formulated as a linear least square problem with a special sparsity constraint. This paper solves this problem using a modified Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. The results show that the spherical harmonic based scatterer model can effectively represent the RCS data of complex targets.

Keywords: RADAR, RCS, high performance computing, point scatterer model

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
27 The Techno-Pedagogical Pivot: Designing and Implementing a Digital Writing Tool

Authors: Justin D. Olmanson, Katrina S. Kennett, Bill Cope


In the field of education technology, innovation is often tightly coupled to recent technological inventions and emerging technologies. Despite this, some scholars have argued that using established technologies in new pedagogical or curricular ways recasts them and places them once more under the umbrella of emerging education technologies. In this study, we trace how an innovative education technology design emerged, not from a technological breakthrough, but rather via a techno-pedagogical pivot. We describe the design and impact of a digital writing tool created to scaffold student self-evaluation of academic texts. We theorize about and trace how innovation can also emerge from a pivot, namely how leveraging existing practices in new ways can create pedagogically and experientially innovative learning opportunities. After describing the design of Info Writer, we unpack the results of a study based on an implementation the tool, and then theorize and reflect on the way the design process and study findings suggest that pivoting an existing practice can lead to innovative education technology designs.

Keywords: design, education, revision, technology, writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
26 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown


The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: direct voice input, risk, security, technology, trust

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25 Integration of Climatic Factors in the Meta-Population Modelling of the Dynamic of Malaria Transmission, Case of Douala and Yaoundé, Two Cities of Cameroon

Authors: Justin-Herve Noubissi, Jean Claude Kamgang, Eric Ramat, Januarius Asongu, Christophe Cambier


The goal of our study is to analyse the impact of climatic factors in malaria transmission taking into account migration between Douala and Yaoundé, two cities of Cameroon country. We show how variations of climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity affect the malaria spread. We propose a meta-population model of the dynamic transmission of malaria that evolves in space and time and that takes into account temperature and relative humidity and the migration between Douala and Yaoundé. We also integrate the variation of environmental factors as events also called mathematical impulsion that can disrupt the model evolution at any time. Our modelling has been done using the Discrete EVents System Specification (DEVS) formalism. Our implementation has been done on Virtual Laboratory Environment (VLE) that uses DEVS formalism and abstract simulators for coupling models by integrating the concept of DEVS.

Keywords: compartmental models, DEVS, discrete events, meta-population model, VLE

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24 Bipolar Reduction and Lithic Miniaturization: Experimental Results and Archaeological Implications

Authors: Justin Pargeter, Metin Eren


Lithic miniaturization, the systematic production and use of small tools from small cores, was a consequential development in Pleistocene lithic technology. The bipolar reduction is an important, but often overlooked and misidentified, strategy for lithic miniaturization. This experiment addresses the role of axial bipolar reduction in processes of lithic miniaturization. The experiments answer two questions: what benefits does axial bipolar reduction provide, and can we distinguish axial bipolar reduction from freehand reduction? Our experiments demonstrate the numerous advantages of bipolar reduction in contexts of lithic miniaturization. Bipolar reduction produces more cutting edge per gram and is more economical than freehand reduction. Our cutting edge to mass values exceeds even those obtained with pressure blade production on high-quality obsidian. The experimental results show that bipolar reduction produces cutting edge quicker and is more efficient than freehand reduction. We show that bipolar reduction can be distinguished from freehand reduction with a high degree of confidence using the quantitative criteria in these experiments. These observations overturn long-held perceptions about bipolar reduction. We conclude by discussing the role of bipolar reduction in lithic miniaturization and Stone Age economics more broadly.

Keywords: lithic miniaturization, bipolar reduction, late Pleistocene, Southern Africa

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23 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash


Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

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22 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock

Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash


A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.

Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
21 Automated Human Balance Assessment Using Contactless Sensors

Authors: Justin Tang


Balance tests are frequently used to diagnose concussions on the sidelines of sporting events. Manual scoring, however, is labor intensive and subjective, and many concussions go undetected. This study institutes a novel approach to conducting the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) more quantitatively using Microsoft’s gaming system Kinect, which uses a contactless sensor and several cameras to receive data and estimate body limb positions. Using a machine learning approach, Visual Gesture Builder, and a deterministic approach, MATLAB, we tested whether the Kinect can differentiate between “correct” and erroneous stances of the BESS. We created the two separate solutions by recording test videos to teach the Kinect correct stances and by developing a code using Java. Twenty-two subjects were asked to perform a series of BESS tests while the Kinect was collecting data. The Kinect recorded the subjects and mapped key joints onto their bodies to obtain angles and measurements that are interpreted by the software. Through VGB and MATLAB, the videos are analyzed to enumerate the number of errors committed during testing. The resulting statistics demonstrate a high correlation between manual scoring and the Kinect approaches, indicating the viability of the use of remote tracking devices in conducting concussion tests.

Keywords: automated, concussion detection, contactless sensors, microsoft kinect

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20 Effect of Climate Variability on Honeybee's Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Justin Orimisan Ijigbade


The study was conducted to assess the effect of climate variability on honeybee’s production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 60 beekeepers across six Local Government Areas in Ondo State. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression model analyses. The results showed that 93.33% of the respondents were male with 80% above 40 years of age. Majority of the respondents (96.67%) had formal education and 90% produced honey for commercial purpose. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents admitted that low temperature as a result of long hours/period of rainfall affected the foraging efficiency of the worker bees, 73.33% claimed that long period of low humidity resulted in low level of nectar flow, while 70% submitted that high temperature resulted in improper composition of workers, dunes and queen in the hive colony. The result of multiple regression showed that beekeepers’ experience, educational level, access to climate information, temperature and rainfall were the main factors affecting honey bees production in the study area. Therefore, beekeepers should be given more education on climate variability and its adaptive strategies towards ensuring better honeybees production in the study area.

Keywords: climate variability, honeybees production, humidity, rainfall and temperature

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19 An Analysis of a Relational Frame Skills Training Intervention to Increase General Intelligence in Early Childhood

Authors: Ian M. Grey, Bryan Roche, Anna Dillon, Justin Thomas, Sarah Cassidy, Dylan Colbert, Ian Stewart


This paper presents findings from a study conducted in two schools in Abu Dhabi. The hypothesis is that teaching young children to derive various relations between stimuli leads to increases in full-scale IQ scores of typically developing children. In the experimental group, sixteen 6-7-year-old children were exposed over six weeks to an intensive training intervention designed specifically for their age group. This training intervention, presented on a tablet, aimed to improve their understanding of the relations Same, Opposite, Different, contextual control over the concept of Sameness and Difference, and purely arbitrary derived relational responding for Sameness and Difference. In the control group, sixteen 6-7-year-old children interacted with KIBO robotics over six weeks. KIBO purports to improve cognitive skills through engagement with STEAM activities. Increases in full-scale IQ were recorded for most children in the experimental group, while no increases in full-scale IQ were recorded for the control group. These findings support the hypothesis that relational skills underlie many aspects of general cognitive ability.

Keywords: early childhood, derived relational responding, intelligence, relational frame theory, relational skills

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18 A Comprehensive Analysis of the Phylogenetic Signal in Ramp Sequences in 211 Vertebrates

Authors: Lauren M. McKinnon, Justin B. Miller, Michael F. Whiting, John S. K. Kauwe, Perry G. Ridge


Background: Ramp sequences increase translational speed and accuracy when rare, slowly-translated codons are found at the beginnings of genes. Here, the results of the first analysis of ramp sequences in a phylogenetic construct are presented. Methods: Ramp sequences were compared from 211 vertebrates (110 Mammalian and 101 non-mammalian). The presence and absence of ramp sequences were analyzed as a binary character in a parsimony and maximum likelihood framework. Additionally, ramp sequences were mapped to the Open Tree of Life taxonomy to determine the number of parallelisms and reversals that occurred, and these results were compared to what would be expected due to random chance. Lastly, aligned nucleotides in ramp sequences were compared to the rest of the sequence in order to examine possible differences in phylogenetic signal between these regions of the gene. Results: Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the presence/absence of ramp sequences recovered phylogenies that are highly congruent with established phylogenies. Additionally, the retention index of ramp sequences is significantly higher than would be expected due to random chance (p-value = 0). A chi-square analysis of completely orthologous ramp sequences resulted in a p-value of approximately zero as compared to random chance. Discussion: Ramp sequences recover comparable phylogenies as other phylogenomic methods. Although not all ramp sequences appear to have a phylogenetic signal, more ramp sequences track speciation than expected by random chance. Therefore, ramp sequences may be used in conjunction with other phylogenomic approaches.

Keywords: codon usage bias, phylogenetics, phylogenomics, ramp sequence

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17 A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program to Optimally Pace and Fuel Ultramarathons

Authors: Kristopher A. Pruitt, Justin M. Hill


The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. The model formulation consists of a two-phase optimization. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete. The second-phase MINLP determines the minimum total carbohydrate intake required for the athlete to achieve the completion time prescribed by the first phase, subject to the flow of carbohydrates through the stomach, liver, and muscles. Consequently, the second phase model provides the optimal pacing and nutrition strategies for a particular athlete for each kilometer of a particular race. Validation of the model results over a wide range of athlete parameters against completion times for real competitive events suggests strong agreement. Additionally, the kilometer-by-kilometer pacing and nutrition strategies, the model prescribes for a particular athlete suggest unconventional approaches could result in lower completion times. Thus, the MINLP provides prescriptive guidance that athletes can leverage when developing pacing and nutrition strategies prior to competing in ultramarathon races. Given the highly-variable topographical characteristics common to many ultramarathon courses and the potential inexperience of many athletes with such courses, the model provides valuable insight to competitors who might otherwise fail to complete the event due to exhaustion or carbohydrate depletion.

Keywords: nutrition, optimization, pacing, ultramarathons

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
16 Cold Tomato Paste as an Alternative Therapy for Elderly Clients with Exacerbation of Arthritis

Authors: Mary Therese G. Caluna, Mark Justin B. Campanero, Erlin Maris T. Cantiller, Claudine Mae A. Cantillo, Nerissa L. Caño


Objective: The study determined the effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain caused by exacerbation of arthritis in the elderly, specifically on clients 60 years old and above. The study focused on alternative, cost-effective and non-pharmacological techniques in relieving pain experienced by the older people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Using purposive non-probability sampling, the researchers gathered a total number of 40 subjects that passed the inclusion criteria provided by the researchers. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental group (20 subjects) and control groups (20 subjects). The Numeric Rating 11-point Scale (NRS-11) was utilized to assess the pain level of the subject prior the application of the treatment and after the application of the treatment. Key findings: There is a significant difference in the pain levels of the experimental group before and after the application of cold tomato paste. This indicates that that the application of cold tomato paste alleviates the pain experienced by elderly clients with exacerbation of arthritis. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain experienced by elderly clients who are in exacerbation of arthritis was proven to be evidence-based. The cold tomato paste application has significant impact in the field of nursing and therefore, can be used in both clinical trials and practices. The effectiveness of cold tomato application promotes innovation in the field of nursing, thus encouraging further researches regarding other uses of tomato and other herbal interventions to relieve the pain caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: alternative therapy, arthritis, cold tomato paste, elderly clients, exacerbation

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15 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt


Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: explosives, mining, nitrification, water

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14 The Effect of Torsional Angle on Reversible Electron Transfer in Donor: Acceptor Frameworks Using Bis(Imino)Pyridines as Proxy

Authors: Ryan Brisbin, Hassan Harb, Justin Debow, Hrant Hratchian, Ryan Baxter


Donor-Acceptor (DA) frameworks are crucial parts of any technology requiring charge transport. This type of behavior is ubiquitous across technologies from semi conductors to solar panels. Currently, most DA systems involve metallic components, but progressive research is being pursued to design fully organic DA systems to be used as both organic semi-conductors and light emitting diodes. These systems are currently comprised of conductive polymers and salts. However, little is known about the effect of various physical aspects (size, torsional angle, electron density) have on the act of reversible charge transfer. Herein, the effect of torsional angle on reductive stability in bis(imino)pyridines is analyzed using a combination of single crystal analysis and electro-chemical peak current ratios from cyclic voltammetry. The computed free energies of reduction and electron attachment points were also investigated through density functional theory and natural ionization orbital theory to gain greater understanding of the global effect torsional angles have on electron transfer in bis(imino)pyridines. Findings indicated that torsional angles are a multi-variable parameter affected by both local steric constraints and resonant electronic contributions. Local steric impacted torsional angles demonstrated a negligible effect on electrochemical reversibility, while resonant affected torsional angles were observed to significantly alter the electrochemical reversibility.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, bis(imino)pyridines, structure-activity relationship, torsional angles

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13 The Effect of Kelp Ecklonia maxima Inclusion in Formulated Feed on Growth, Feed Utilization and the Gut Microbiota of South African Abalone Haliotis Midae

Authors: Aldi Nel, Cliff L. W. Jones, Justin O. G. Kemp, Peter J. Britz


Kelp Ecklonia maxima is included in formulated abalone feeds in South Africa, but its effect on abalone growth, feed utilisation efficiency and gut-bacterial communities has not previously been investigated. An eight-month on-farm growth trial with sub-adult Haliotis midae (~43 mm shell length) fed graded levels of kelp in formulated feeds was conducted. Kelp inclusion (0.44–3.54 % of pellet dry mass) promoted faster growth (65.7 – 74.5 % total mass gain), with better feed and protein conversions (FCR: 1.4 – 1.8; PER 2.3 – 2.7), compared to abalone fed the non-supplemented feed (52.3% total mass gain; FCR: 2.1; PER 1.9; p < 0.001). The gut-bacterial communities of abalone fed kelp-supplemented feed (0.88 % of pellet dry mass) were subsequently compared with that of abalone fed a non-supplemented control diet. Abalone gut-bacterial DNA was sequenced using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97 % similarity level. A supplementary 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was conducted. The dominant OTUs differed in terms of their relative abundances, with that of an autochthonous Mollicutes strain being significantly higher (p = 0.03) in the guts of abalone fed kelp-supplemented feed. The DGGE band patterns displayed a higher within-group variability of dominant bacterial strains for abalone fed the control diet, suggesting that dietary inclusion of kelp, which is rich in fermentable polysaccharides, promotes a balanced gut-bacterial community. This may contribute to the better feed utilisation and growth in abalone fed kelp-supplemented feeds.

Keywords: abfeed, digestion, macroalgae, mariculture

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12 [Keynote Talk]: Caught in the Tractorbeam of Larger Influences: The Filtration of Innovation in Education Technology Design

Authors: Justin D. Olmanson, Fitsum Abebe, Valerie Jones, Eric Kyle, Xianquan Liu, Katherine Robbins, Guieswende Rouamba


The history of education technology--and designing, adapting, and adopting technologies for use in educational spaces--is nuanced, complex, and dynamic. Yet, despite a range of continually emerging technologies, the design and development process often yields results that appear quite similar in terms of affordances and interactions. Through this study we (1) verify the extent to which designs have been constrained, (2) consider what might account for it, and (3) offer a way forward in terms of how we might identify and strategically sidestep these influences--thereby increasing the diversity of our designs with a given technology or within a particular learning domain. We begin our inquiry from the perspective that a host of co-influencing elements, fields, and meta narratives converge on the education technology design process to exert a tangible, often homogenizing effect on the resultant designs. We identify several elements that influence design in often implicit or unquestioned ways (e.g. curriculum, learning theory, economics, learning context, pedagogy), we describe our methodology for identifying the elemental positionality embedded in a design, we direct our analysis to a particular subset of technologies in the field of literacy, and unpack our findings. Our early analysis suggests that the majority of education technologies designed for use/used in US public schools are heavily influenced by a handful of mainstream theories and meta narratives. These findings have implications for how we approach the education technology design process--which we use to suggest alternative methods for designing/ developing with emerging technologies. Our analytical process and re conceptualized design process hold the potential to diversify the ways emerging and established technologies get incorporated into our designs.

Keywords: curriculum, design, innovation, meta narratives

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11 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida


The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: adaptation, assessment, conceptual, climate, change, framework, vulnerability

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10 Stroke Rehabilitation via Electroencephalogram Sensors and an Articulated Robot

Authors: Winncy Du, Jeremy Nguyen, Harpinder Dhillon, Reinardus Justin Halim, Clayton Haske, Trent Hughes, Marissa Ortiz, Rozy Saini


Stroke often causes death or cerebro-vascular (CV) brain damage. Most patients with CV brain damage lost their motor control on their limbs. This paper focuses on developing a reliable, safe, and non-invasive EEG-based robot-assistant stroke rehabilitation system to help stroke survivors to rapidly restore their motor control functions for their limbs. An electroencephalogram (EEG) recording device (EPOC Headset) and was used to detect a patient’s brain activities. The EEG signals were then processed, classified, and interpreted to the motion intentions, and then converted to a series of robot motion commands. A six-axis articulated robot (AdeptSix 300) was employed to provide the intended motions based on these commends. To ensure the EEG device, the computer, and the robot can communicate to each other, an Arduino microcontroller is used to physically execute the programming codes to a series output pins’ status (HIGH or LOW). Then these “hardware” commends were sent to a 24 V relay to trigger the robot’s motion. A lookup table for various motion intensions and the associated EEG signal patterns were created (through training) and installed in the microcontroller. Thus, the motion intention can be direct determined by comparing the EEG patterns obtaibed from the patient with the look-up table’s EEG patterns; and the corresponding motion commends are sent to the robot to provide the intended motion without going through feature extraction and interpretation each time (a time-consuming process). For safety sake, an extender was designed and attached to the robot’s end effector to ensure the patient is beyond the robot’s workspace. The gripper is also designed to hold the patient’s limb. The test results of this rehabilitation system show that it can accurately interpret the patient’s motion intension and move the patient’s arm to the intended position.

Keywords: brain waves, EEG sensor, motion control, robot-assistant stroke rehabilitation

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9 Creating Complementary Bi-Modal Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study Combining Online and Classroom Techniques

Authors: Justin P. Pool, Haruyo Yoshida


This research focuses on the effects of creating an English as a foreign language curriculum that combines online learning and classroom teaching in a complementary manner. Through pre- and post-test results, teacher observation, and learner reflection, it will be shown that learners can benefit from online programs focusing on receptive skills if combined with a communicative classroom environment that encourages learners to develop their productive skills. Much research has lamented the fact that many modern mobile assisted language learning apps do not take advantage of the affordances of modern technology by focusing only on receptive skills rather than inviting learners to interact with one another and develop communities of practice. This research takes into account the realities of the state of such apps and focuses on how to best create a curriculum that complements apps which focus on receptive skills. The research involved 15 adult learners working for a business in Japan simultaneously engaging in 1) a commercial online English language learning application that focused on reading, listening, grammar, and vocabulary and 2) a 15-week class focused on communicative language teaching, presentation skills, and mitigation of error aversion tendencies. Participants of the study experienced large gains on a standardized test, increased motivation and willingness to communicate, and asserted that they felt more confident regarding English communication. Moreover, learners continued to study independently at higher rates after the study than they had before the onset of the program. This paper will include the details of the program, reveal the improvement in test scores, share learner reflections, and critically view current evaluation models for mobile assisted language learning applications.

Keywords: adult learners, communicative language teaching, mobile assisted language learning, motivation

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8 The Accuracy of an 8-Minute Running Field Test to Estimate Lactate Threshold

Authors: Timothy Quinn, Ronald Croce, Aliaksandr Leuchanka, Justin Walker


Many endurance athletes train at or just below an intensity associated with their lactate threshold (LT) and often the heart rate (HR) that these athletes use for their LT are above their true LT-HR measured in a laboratory. Training above their true LT-HR may lead to overtraining and injury. Few athletes have the capability of measuring their LT in a laboratory and rely on perception to guide them, as accurate field tests to determine LT are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if an 8-minute field test could accurately define the HR associated with LT as measured in the laboratory. On Day 1, fifteen male runners (mean±SD; age, 27.8±4.1 years; height, 177.9±7.1 cm; body mass, 72.3±6.2 kg; body fat, 8.3±3.1%) performed a discontinuous treadmill LT/maximal oxygen consumption (LT/VO2max) test using a portable metabolic gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and a lactate analyzer (Analox GL5). The LT (and associated HR) was determined using the 1/+1 method, where blood lactate increased by 1 mMol•L-1 over baseline followed by an additional 1 mMol•L-1 increase. Days 2 and 3 were randomized, and the athletes performed either an 8-minute run on the treadmill (TM) or on a 160-m indoor track (TR) in an effort to cover as much distance as possible while maintaining a high intensity throughout the entire 8 minutes. VO2, HR, ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured using the Cosmed system, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20 scale) was recorded every minute. All variables were averaged over the 8 minutes. The total distance covered over the 8 minutes was measured in both conditions. At the completion of the 8-minute runs, blood lactate was measured. Paired sample t-tests and pairwise Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relationship between variables measured in the field tests versus those obtained in the laboratory at LT. An alpha level of <0.05 was required for statistical significance. The HR (mean +SD) during the TM (167+9 bpm) and TR (172+9 bpm) tests were strongly correlated to the HR measured during the laboratory LT (169+11 bpm) test (r=0.68; p<0.03 and r=0.88; p<0.001, respectively). Blood lactate values during the TM and TR tests were not different from each other but were strongly correlated with the laboratory LT (r=0.73; p<0.04 and r=0.66; p<0.05, respectively). VE (Lmin-1) was significantly greater during the TR (134.8+11.4 Lmin-1) as compared to the TM (123.3+16.2 Lmin-1) with moderately strong correlations to the laboratory threshold values (r=0.38; p=0.27 and r=0.58; p=0.06, respectively). VO2 was higher during TR (51.4 mlkg-1min-1) compared to TM (47.4 mlkg-1min-1) with correlations of 0.33 (p=0.35) and 0.48 (p=0.13), respectively to threshold values. Total distance run was significantly greater during the TR (2331.6+180.9 m) as compared to the TM (2177.0+232.6 m), but they were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.82; p<0.002). These results suggest that an 8-minute running field test can accurately predict the HR associated with the LT and may be a simple test that athletes and coaches could implement to aid in training techniques.

Keywords: blood lactate, heart rate, running, training

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7 Virtual Engineers on Wheels: Transitioning from Mobile to Online Outreach

Authors: Kauser Jahan, Jason Halvorsen, Kara Banks, Kara Natoli, Elizabeth McWeeney, Brittany LeMasney, Nicole Caramanna, Justin Hillman, Christopher Hauske, Meghan Sparks


The Virtual Engineers on Wheels (ViEW) is a revised version of our established mobile K-12 outreach program Engineers on Wheels in order to address the pandemic. The Virtual Engineers on Wheels' (VIEW) goal has stayed the same as in prior years: to provide K-12 students and educators with the necessary resources to peak interest in the expanding fields of engineering. With these trying times, the Virtual Engineers on Wheels outreach has adapted its medium of instruction to be more seamless with the online approach to teaching and outreach. In the midst of COVID-19, providing a safe transfer of information has become a constraint for research. The focus has become how to uphold a level of quality instruction without diminishing the safety of those involved by promoting proper health practices and giving hope to students as well as their families. Furthermore, ViEW has created resources on effective strategies that minimize risk factors of COVID-19 and inform families that there is still a promising future ahead. To obtain these goals while still maintaining true to the hands-on learning that is so crucial to young minds, the approach is online video lectures followed by experiments within different engineering disciplines. ViEW has created a comprehensive website that students can leverage to explore the different fields of study. One of the experiments entails teaching about drone usage and how it might play a factor in the future of unmanned deliveries. Some of the other experiments focus on the differences in mask materials and their effectiveness, as well as their environmental outlook. Having students perform from home enables them a safe environment to learn at their own pace while still providing quality instruction that would normally be achieved in the classroom. Contact information is readily available on the website to provide interested parties with a means to ask their inquiries. As it currently stands, the interest in engineering/STEM-related fields is underrepresented from women and certain minority groups. So alongside the desire to grow interest, helping balance the scales is one of the main priorities of VIEW. In previous years, VIEW surveyed students before and after instruction to see if their perception of engineering has changed. In general, it is the understanding that being exposed to engineering/STEM at a young age increases the chances that it will be pursued later in life.

Keywords: STEM, engineering outreach, teaching pedagogy, pandemic

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6 Analytical Validity Of A Tech Transfer Solution To Internalize Genetic Testing

Authors: Lesley Northrop, Justin DeGrazia, Jessica Greenwood


ASPIRA Labs now offers an en-suit and ready-to-implement technology transfer solution to enable labs and hospitals that lack the resources to build it themselves to offer in-house genetic testing. This unique platform employs a patented Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology that combines the specificity of a hybrid capture protocol with the ease of an amplicon-based protocol and utilizes an advanced bioinformatics analysis pipeline based on machine learning. To demonstrate its efficacy, two independent genetic tests were validated on this technology transfer platform: expanded carrier screening (ECS) and hereditary cancer testing (HC). The analytical performance of ECS and HC was validated separately in a blinded manner for calling three different types of variants: SNVs, short indels (typically, <50 bp), and large indels/CNVs defined as multi-exonic del/dup events. The reference set was constructed using samples from Coriell Institute, an external clinical genetic testing laboratory, Maine Molecular Quality Controls Inc. (MMQCI), SeraCare and GIAB Consortium. Overall, the analytical performance showed a sensitivity and specificity of >99.4% for both ECS and HC in detecting SNVs. For indels, both tests reported specificity of 100%, and ECS demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, whereas HC exhibited a sensitivity of 96.5%. The bioinformatics pipeline also correctly called all reference CNV events resulting in a sensitivity of 100% for both tests. No additional calls were made in the HC panel, leading to a perfect performance (specificity and F-measure of 100%). In the carrier panel, however, three additional positive calls were made outside the reference set. Two of these calls were confirmed using an orthogonal method and were re-classified as true positives leaving only one false positive. The pipeline also correctly identified all challenging carrier statuses, such as positive cases for spinal muscular atrophy and alpha-thalassemia, resulting in 100% sensitivity. After confirmation of additional positive calls via long-range PCR and MLPA, specificity for such cases was estimated at 99%. These performance metrics demonstrate that this tech-transfer solution can be confidently internalized by clinical labs and hospitals to offer mainstream ECS and HC as part of their test catalog, substantially increasing access to quality germline genetic testing for labs of all sizes and resources levels.

Keywords: clinical genetics, genetic testing, molecular genetics, technology transfer

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5 Dynamic EEG Desynchronization in Response to Vicarious Pain

Authors: Justin Durham, Chanda Rooney, Robert Mather, Mickie Vanhoy


The psychological construct of empathy is to understand a person’s cognitive perspective and experience the other person’s emotional state. Deciphering emotional states is conducive for interpreting vicarious pain. Observing others' physical pain activates neural networks related to the actual experience of pain itself. The study addresses empathy as a nonlinear dynamic process of simulation for individuals to understand the mental states of others and experience vicarious pain, exhibiting self-organized criticality. Such criticality follows from a combination of neural networks with an excitatory feedback loop generating bistability to resonate permutated empathy. Cortical networks exhibit diverse patterns of activity, including oscillations, synchrony and waves, however, the temporal dynamics of neurophysiological activities underlying empathic processes remain poorly understood. Mu rhythms are EEG oscillations with dominant frequencies of 8-13 Hz becoming synchronized when the body is relaxed with eyes open and when the sensorimotor system is in idle, thus, mu rhythm synchrony is expected to be highest in baseline conditions. When the sensorimotor system is activated either by performing or simulating action, mu rhythms become suppressed or desynchronize, thus, should be suppressed while observing video clips of painful injuries if previous research on mirror system activation holds. Twelve undergraduates contributed EEG data and survey responses to empathy and psychopathy scales in addition to watching consecutive video clips of sports injuries. Participants watched a blank, black image on a computer monitor before and after observing a video of consecutive sports injuries incidents. Each video condition lasted five-minutes long. A BIOPAC MP150 recorded EEG signals from sensorimotor and thalamocortical regions related to a complex neural network called the ‘pain matrix’. Physical and social pain are activated in this network to resonate vicarious pain responses to processing empathy. Five EEG single electrode locations were applied to regions measuring sensorimotor electrical activity in microvolts (μV) to monitor mu rhythms. EEG signals were sampled at a rate of 200 Hz. Mu rhythm desynchronization was measured via 8-13 Hz at electrode sites (F3 & F4). Data for each participant’s mu rhythms were analyzed via Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and multifractal time series analysis.

Keywords: desynchronization, dynamical systems theory, electroencephalography (EEG), empathy, multifractal time series analysis, mu waveform, neurophysiology, pain simulation, social cognition

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4 An Adiabatic Quantum Optimization Approach for the Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming Problem

Authors: Maxwell Henderson, Tristan Cook, Justin Chan Jin Le, Mark Hodson, YoungJung Chang, John Novak, Daniel Padilha, Nishan Kulatilaka, Ansu Bagchi, Sanjoy Ray, John Kelly


We present a method of using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) to solve a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem instance. The MINLP problem is a general form of a set of NP-hard optimization problems that are critical to many business applications. It requires optimizing a set of discrete and continuous variables with nonlinear and potentially nonconvex constraints. Obtaining an exact, optimal solution for MINLP problem instances of non-trivial size using classical computation methods is currently intractable. Current leading algorithms leverage heuristic and divide-and-conquer methods to determine approximate solutions. Creating more accurate and efficient algorithms is an active area of research. Quantum computing (QC) has several theoretical benefits compared to classical computing, through which QC algorithms could obtain MINLP solutions that are superior to current algorithms. AQO is a particular form of QC that could offer more near-term benefits compared to other forms of QC, as hardware development is in a more mature state and devices are currently commercially available from D-Wave Systems Inc. It is also designed for optimization problems: it uses an effect called quantum tunneling to explore all lowest points of an energy landscape where classical approaches could become stuck in local minima. Our work used a novel algorithm formulated for AQO to solve a special type of MINLP problem. The research focused on determining: 1) if the problem is possible to solve using AQO, 2) if it can be solved by current hardware, 3) what the currently achievable performance is, 4) what the performance will be on projected future hardware, and 5) when AQO is likely to provide a benefit over classical computing methods. Two different methods, integer range and 1-hot encoding, were investigated for transforming the MINLP problem instance constraints into a mathematical structure that can be embedded directly onto the current D-Wave architecture. For testing and validation a D-Wave 2X device was used, as well as QxBranch’s QxLib software library, which includes a QC simulator based on simulated annealing. Our results indicate that it is mathematically possible to formulate the MINLP problem for AQO, but that currently available hardware is unable to solve problems of useful size. Classical general-purpose simulated annealing is currently able to solve larger problem sizes, but does not scale well and such methods would likely be outperformed in the future by improved AQO hardware with higher qubit connectivity and lower temperatures. If larger AQO devices are able to show improvements that trend in this direction, commercially viable solutions to the MINLP for particular applications could be implemented on hardware projected to be available in 5-10 years. Continued investigation into optimal AQO hardware architectures and novel methods for embedding MINLP problem constraints on to those architectures is needed to realize those commercial benefits.

Keywords: adiabatic quantum optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, quantum computing, NP-hard

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