Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 335

Search results for: Alec Wells

335 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: Olu Ale, Olugbenga Aribisala, Sanmi Awopetu

Abstract:

Groundwater (Wells) is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells) and five hand dug wells (shallow wells). The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations, thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

Keywords: bacteriological, physicochemical, quality, wells, Ado Ekiti

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
334 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
333 Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season

Authors: R. Kandiah, K. Miyamoto

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.

Keywords: accessible volume, consumption volume, inflow rate, water budget

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
332 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
331 Petrology and Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Distribution of Wells LA-9D and LA-10D in Aluto Geothermal Field, Ethiopia

Authors: Dereje Moges Azbite

Abstract:

Laboratory analysis of igneous rocks is performed with the help of the main oxide plots. The lithology of the two wells was identified using the main oxides obtained using the XRF method. Twenty-four (24) cutting samples with different degrees of alteration were analyzed to determine and identify the rock types by plotting these well samples on special diagrams and correlating with the regional rocks. The results for the analysis of the main oxides and trace elements of 24 samples are presented. Alteration analysis in the two well samples was conducted for 21 samples from two wells for identifying clay minerals. Bulk sample analysis indicated quartz, illite & micas, calcite, cristobalite, smectite, pyrite, epidote, alunite, chlorite, wairakite, diaspore and kaolin minerals present in both wells. Hydrothermal clay minerals such as illite, chlorite, smectite and kaoline minerals were identified in both wells by X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: auto geothermal field, igneous rocks, major oxides, tracer elements, XRF, XRD, alteration minerals

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
330 Characteristics of Photoluminescence in Resonant Quasiperiodic Double-period Quantum Wells

Authors: C. H. Chang, R. Z. Qiu, C. W. Tsao, Y. H. Cheng, C. H. Chen, W. J. Hsueh

Abstract:

Characteristics of photoluminescence (PL) in a resonant quasi-periodic double-period quantum wells (DPQW) are demonstrated. The maximum PL intensity in the DPQW is remarkably greater than that in a traditional periodic QW (PQW) under the Bragg or anti-Bragg conditions. The optimal PL spectrum in the DPQW has an asymmetrical form instead of the symmetrical form in the PQW. Moreover, there are two large values of PL intensity in the DPQW, which also differs from the PQW.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, quantum wells, quasiperiodic structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 629
329 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: direct voice input, risk, security, technology, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
328 Economic Evaluation of Bowland Shale Gas Wells Development in the UK

Authors: Elijah Acquah-Andoh

Abstract:

The UK has had its fair share of the shale gas revolutionary waves blowing across the global oil and gas industry at present. Although, its exploitation is widely agreed to have been delayed, shale gas was looked upon favorably by the UK Parliament when they recognized it as genuine energy source and granted licenses to industry to search and extract the resource. This, although a significant progress by industry, there yet remains another test the UK fracking resource must pass in order to render shale gas extraction feasible – it must be economically extractible and sustainably so. Developing unconventional resources is much more expensive and risky, and for shale gas wells, producing in commercial volumes is conditional upon drilling horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing, techniques which increase CAPEX. Meanwhile, investment in shale gas development projects is sensitive to gas price and technical and geological risks. Using a Two-Factor Model, the economics of the Bowland shale wells were analyzed and the operational conditions under which fracking is profitable in the UK was characterized. We find that there is a great degree of flexibility about Opex spending; hence Opex does not pose much threat to the fracking industry in the UK. However, we discover Bowland shale gas wells fail to add value at gas price of $8/ Mmbtu. A minimum gas price of $12/Mmbtu at Opex of no more than $2/ Mcf and no more than $14.95M Capex are required to create value within the present petroleum tax regime, in the UK fracking industry.

Keywords: capex, economical, investment, profitability, shale gas development, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 519
327 Application of Decline Curve Analysis to Depleted Wells in a Cluster and then Predicting the Performance of Currently Flowing Wells

Authors: Satish Kumar Pappu

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The most common questions which are frequently asked in oil and gas industry are how much is the current production rate from a particular well and what is the approximate predicted life of that well. These questions can be answered through forecasting of important realistic data like flowing tubing hole pressures FTHP, Production decline curves which are used predict the future performance of a well in a reservoir. With the advent of directional drilling, cluster well drilling has gained much importance and in-fact has even revolutionized the whole world of oil and gas industry. An oil or gas reservoir can generally be described as a collection of several overlying, producing and potentially producing sands in to which a number of wells are drilled depending upon the in-place volume and several other important factors both technical and economical in nature, in some sands only one well is drilled and in some, more than one. The aim of this study is to derive important information from the data collected over a period of time at regular intervals on a depleted well in a reservoir sand and apply this information to predict the performance of other wells in that reservoir sand. The depleted wells are the most common observations when an oil or gas field is being visited, w the application of this study more realistic in nature.

Keywords: decline curve analysis, estimation of future gas reserves, reservoir sands, reservoir risk profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
326 Optimum Dewatering Network Design Using Firefly Optimization Algorithm

Authors: S. M. Javad Davoodi, Mojtaba Shourian

Abstract:

Groundwater table close to the ground surface causes major problems in construction and mining operation. One of the methods to control groundwater in such cases is using pumping wells. These pumping wells remove excess water from the site project and lower the water table to a desirable value. Although the efficiency of this method is acceptable, it needs high expenses to apply. It means even small improvement in a design of pumping wells can lead to substantial cost savings. In order to minimize the total cost in the method of pumping wells, a simulation-optimization approach is applied. The proposed model integrates MODFLOW as the simulation model with Firefly as the optimization algorithm. In fact, MODFLOW computes the drawdown due to pumping in an aquifer and the Firefly algorithm defines the optimum value of design parameters which are numbers, pumping rates and layout of the designing wells. The developed Firefly-MODFLOW model is applied to minimize the cost of the dewatering project for the ancient mosque of Kerman city in Iran. Repetitive runs of the Firefly-MODFLOW model indicates that drilling two wells with the total rate of pumping 5503 m3/day is the result of the minimization problem. Results show that implementing the proposed solution leads to at least 1.5 m drawdown in the aquifer beneath mosque region. Also, the subsidence due to groundwater depletion is less than 80 mm. Sensitivity analyses indicate that desirable groundwater depletion has an enormous impact on total cost of the project. Besides, in a hypothetical aquifer decreasing the hydraulic conductivity contributes to decrease in total water extraction for dewatering.

Keywords: groundwater dewatering, pumping wells, simulation-optimization, MODFLOW, firefly algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
325 Deep Injection Wells for Flood Prevention and Groundwater Management

Authors: Mohammad R. Jafari, Francois G. Bernardeau

Abstract:

With its arid climate, Qatar experiences low annual rainfall, intense storms, and high evaporation rates. However, the fast-paced rate of infrastructure development in the capital city of Doha has led to recurring instances of surface water flooding as well as rising groundwater levels. Public Work Authority (PWA/ASHGHAL) has implemented an approach to collect and discharge the flood water into a) positive gravity systems; b) Emergency Flooding Area (EFA) – Evaporation, Infiltration or Storage off-site using tankers; and c) Discharge to deep injection wells. As part of the flood prevention scheme, 21 deep injection wells have been constructed to discharge the collected surface and groundwater table in Doha city. These injection wells function as an alternative in localities that do not possess either positive gravity systems or downstream networks that can accommodate additional loads. These injection wells are 400-m deep and are constructed in a complex karstic subsurface condition with large cavities. The injection well system will discharge collected groundwater and storm surface runoff into the permeable Umm Er Radhuma Formation, which is an aquifer present throughout the Persian Gulf Region. The Umm Er Radhuma formation contains saline water that is not being used for water supply. The injection zone is separated by an impervious gypsum formation which acts as a barrier between upper and lower aquifer. State of the art drilling, grouting, and geophysical techniques have been implemented in construction of the wells to assure that the shallow aquifer would not be contaminated and impacted by injected water. Injection and pumping tests were performed to evaluate injection well functionality (injectability). The results of these tests indicated that majority of the wells can accept injection rate of 200 to 300 m3 /h (56 to 83 l/s) under gravity with average value of 250 m3 /h (70 l/s) compared to design value of 50 l/s. This paper presents design and construction process and issues associated with these injection wells, performing injection/pumping tests to determine capacity and effectiveness of the injection wells, the detailed design of collection system and conveying system into the injection wells, and the operation and maintenance process. This system is completed now and is under operation, and therefore, construction of injection wells is an effective option for flood control.

Keywords: deep injection well, flood prevention scheme, geophysical tests, pumping and injection tests, wellhead assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
324 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
323 Water-Controlled Fracturing with Fuzzy-Ball Fluid in Tight Gas Reservoirs of Deep Coal Measures in Sulige

Authors: Xiangchun Wang, Lihui Zheng, Maozong Gan, Peng Zhang, Tong Wu, An Chang

Abstract:

The deep coal measure tight gas reservoir in Sulige is usually reformed by fracturing, because the reservoir thickness is small, the water layers can be easily communicated during fracturing, which will lead to water production of gas wells and lower production of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to control water during fracturing in deep coal measure tight gas reservoir. Using fuzzy-ball fluid to control water fracturing can not only increase the output but also reduce the water output. The fuzzy-ball fluid was prepared indoors to carry out evaluation experiments. The fuzzy ball fluid was mixed in equal volume with the pre-fluid and formation water to test its compatibility. The core displacement device was used to test the gas and water breaking through the matrix and fractured cores blocked by fuzzy-ball fluid. The breakthrough pressure of the plunger tests its water blocking performance. The experimental results show that there is no precipitation after the fuzzy-ball fluid is mixed with the pad fluid and the formation water, respectively. The breakthrough pressure gradients of gas and water after the fuzzy-ball fluid plugged the cracks were 0.02MPa/cm and 0.04MPa/cm, respectively, and the breakthrough pressure gradients of gas and water after the matrix was plugged were 0.03MPa/cm and 0.2MPa/cm, respectively, which meet the requirements of field operation. Two wells A and B in the Sulige Gas Field were used on site to implement water control fracturing. After the pre-fluid was injected into the two wells, 50m3 of fuzzy-ball fluid was pumped to plug the water. The construction went smoothly. After water control and fracturing, the average daily output in 161 days was increased by 13.71% and 6.99% compared with that of adjacent wells in the same layer. The adjacent wells were bubbled for 3 times and 63 times respectively, while there was no effusion in A and B construction wells. The results show that fuzzy-ball fluid is a water plugging material suitable for water control fracturing in tight gas wells, and its water control mechanism can also provide a new idea for the development of water control fracturing materials.

Keywords: coal seam, deep layer, fracking, fuzzy-ball fluid, reservoir reconstruction

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322 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
321 Gas Lift Optimization Using Smart Gas Lift Valve

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, M. Babaie

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Gas lift is one of the most common forms of artificial lift, particularly for offshore wells because of its relative down hole simplicity, flexibility, reliability, and ability to operate over a large range of rates and occupy very little space at the well head. Presently, petroleum industry is investing in exploration and development fields in offshore locations where oil and gas wells are being drilled thousands of feet below the ocean in high pressure and temperature conditions. Therefore, gas-lifted oil wells are capable of failure through gas lift valves which are considered as the heart of the gas lift system for controlling the amount of the gas inside the tubing string. The gas injection rate through gas lift valve must be controlled to be sufficient to obtain and maintain critical flow, also, gas lift valves must be designed not only to allow gas passage through it and prevent oil passage, but also for gas injection into wells to be started and stopped when needed. In this paper, smart gas lift valve has been used to investigate the effect of the valve port size, depth of injection and vertical lift performance on well productivity; all these aspects have been investigated using PROSPER simulator program coupled with experimental data. The results show that by using smart gas lift valve, the gas injection rate can be controlled which leads to improved flow performance.

Keywords: Effect of gas lift valve port size, effect water cut, vertical flow performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
320 The Effect of Finding and Development Costs and Gas Price on Basins in the Barnett Shale

Authors: Michael Kenomore, Mohamed Hassan, Amjad Shah, Hom Dhakal

Abstract:

Shale gas reservoirs have been of greater importance compared to shale oil reservoirs since 2009 and with the current nature of the oil market, understanding the technical and economic performance of shale gas reservoirs is of importance. Using the Barnett shale as a case study, an economic model was developed to quantify the effect of finding and development costs and gas prices on the basins in the Barnett shale using net present value as an evaluation parameter. A rate of return of 20% and a payback period of 60 months or less was used as the investment hurdle in the model. The Barnett was split into four basins (Strawn Basin, Ouachita Folded Belt, Forth-worth Syncline and Bend-arch Basin) with analysis conducted on each of the basin to provide a holistic outlook. The dataset consisted of only horizontal wells that started production from 2008 to at most 2015 with 1835 wells coming from the strawn basin, 137 wells from the Ouachita folded belt, 55 wells from the bend-arch basin and 724 wells from the forth-worth syncline. The data was analyzed initially on Microsoft Excel to determine the estimated ultimate recoverable (EUR). The range of EUR from each basin were loaded in the Palisade Risk software and a log normal distribution typical of Barnett shale wells was fitted to the dataset. Monte Carlo simulation was then carried out over a 1000 iterations to obtain a cumulative distribution plot showing the probabilistic distribution of EUR for each basin. From the cumulative distribution plot, the P10, P50 and P90 EUR values for each basin were used in the economic model. Gas production from an individual well with a EUR similar to the calculated EUR was chosen and rescaled to fit the calculated EUR values for each basin at the respective percentiles i.e. P10, P50 and P90. The rescaled production was entered into the economic model to determine the effect of the finding and development cost and gas price on the net present value (10% discount rate/year) as well as also determine the scenario that satisfied the proposed investment hurdle. The finding and development costs used in this paper (assumed to consist only of the drilling and completion costs) were £1 million, £2 million and £4 million while the gas price was varied from $2/MCF-$13/MCF based on Henry Hub spot prices from 2008-2015. One of the major findings in this study was that wells in the bend-arch basin were least economic, higher gas prices are needed in basins containing non-core counties and 90% of the Barnet shale wells were not economic at all finding and development costs irrespective of the gas price in all the basins. This study helps to determine the percentage of wells that are economic at different range of costs and gas prices, determine the basins that are most economic and the wells that satisfy the investment hurdle.

Keywords: shale gas, Barnett shale, unconventional gas, estimated ultimate recoverable

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
319 Diagnostic Yield of CT PA and Value of Pre Test Assessments in Predicting the Probability of Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Shanza Akram, Sameen Toor, Heba Harb Abu Alkass, Zainab Abdulsalam Altaha, Sara Taha Abdulla, Saleem Imran

Abstract:

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease and can be fatal. The clinical presentation is variable and nonspecific, making accurate diagnosis difficult. Testing patients with suspected acute PE has increased dramatically. However, the overuse of some tests, particularly CT and D-dimer measurement, may not improve care while potentially leading to patient harm and unnecessary expense. CTPA is the investigation of choice for PE. Its easy availability, accuracy and ability to provide alternative diagnosis has lowered the threshold for performing it, resulting in its overuse. Guidelines have recommended the use of clinical pretest probability tools such as ‘Wells score’ to assess risk of suspected PE. Unfortunately, implementation of guidelines in clinical practice is inconsistent. This has led to low risk patients being subjected to unnecessary imaging, exposure to radiation and possible contrast related complications. Aim: To study the diagnostic yield of CT PA, clinical pretest probability of patients according to wells score and to determine whether or not there was an overuse of CTPA in our service. Methods: CT scans done on patients with suspected P.E in our hospital from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records were reviewed to study demographics, clinical presentation, final diagnosis, and to establish if Wells score and D-Dimer were used correctly in predicting the probability of PE and the need for subsequent CTPA. Results: 100 patients (51male) underwent CT PA in the time period. Mean age was 57 years (24-91 years). Majority of patients presented with shortness of breath (52%). Other presenting symptoms included chest pain 34%, palpitations 6%, collapse 5% and haemoptysis 5%. D Dimer test was done in 69%. Overall Wells score was low (<2) in 28 %, moderate (>2 - < 6) in 47% and high (> 6) in 15% of patients. Wells score was documented in medical notes of only 20% patients. PE was confirmed in 12% (8 male) patients. 4 had bilateral PE’s. In high-risk group (Wells > 6) (n=15), there were 5 diagnosed PEs. In moderate risk group (Wells >2 - < 6) (n=47), there were 6 and in low risk group (Wells <2) (n=28), one case of PE was confirmed. CT scans negative for PE showed pleural effusion in 30, Consolidation in 20, atelactasis in 15 and pulmonary nodule in 4 patients. 31 scans were completely normal. Conclusion: Yield of CT for pulmonary embolism was low in our cohort at 12%. A significant number of our patients who underwent CT PA had low Wells score. This suggests that CT PA is over utilized in our institution. Wells score was poorly documented in medical notes. CT-PA was able to detect alternative pulmonary abnormalities explaining the patient's clinical presentation. CT-PA requires concomitant pretest clinical probability assessment to be an effective diagnostic tool for confirming or excluding PE. . Clinicians should use validated clinical prediction rules to estimate pretest probability in patients in whom acute PE is being considered. Combining Wells scores with clinical and laboratory assessment may reduce the need for CTPA.

Keywords: CT PA, D dimer, pulmonary embolism, wells score

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
318 Multi-Criteria Optimal Management Strategy for in-situ Bioremediation of LNAPL Contaminated Aquifer Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Jahangeer, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Shashi Mathur

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In-situ remediation is a technique which can remediate either surface or groundwater at the site of contamination. In the present study, simulation optimization approach has been used to develop management strategy for remediating LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) contaminated aquifers. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene are the main component of LNAPL contaminant. Collectively, these contaminants are known as BTEX. In in-situ bioremediation process, a set of injection and extraction wells are installed. Injection wells supply oxygen and other nutrient which convert BTEX into carbon dioxide and water with the help of indigenous soil bacteria. On the other hand, extraction wells check the movement of plume along downstream. In this study, optimal design of the system has been done using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm. A comprehensive management strategy for pumping of injection and extraction wells has been done to attain a maximum allowable concentration of 5 ppm and 4.5 ppm. The management strategy comprises determination of pumping rates, the total pumping volume and the total running cost incurred for each potential injection and extraction well. The results indicate a high pumping rate for injection wells during the initial management period since it facilitates the availability of oxygen and other nutrients necessary for biodegradation, however it is low during the third year on account of sufficient oxygen availability. This is because the contaminant is assumed to have biodegraded by the end of the third year when the concentration drops to a permissible level.

Keywords: groundwater, in-situ bioremediation, light non-aqueous phase liquid, BTEX, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
317 Improving Recovery Reuse and Irrigation Scheme Efficiency – North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Project as Case Study

Authors: Yaser S. Kishawi, Sadi R. Ali

Abstract:

Part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million inhabitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely cover the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is finding non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to cover agricultural requirements and serve the population. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, only phase A is functioning. Nearly 23 Mm3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated into the aquifer. Phase B and phase C witnessed many delays and this forced a reassessment of the RRS original design. An Environmental Management Plan was conducted from Jul 2013 to Jun 2014 on 13 existing monitoring wells surrounding the project location. This is to measure the efficiency of the SAT system and the spread of the contamination plume with relation to the efficiency of the proposed RRS. Along with the proposed location of the 27 recovery wells as part of the proposed RRS. The results of monitored wells were assessed compared with PWA baseline data. This was put into a groundwater model to simulate the plume to propose the best suitable solution to the delays. The redesign mainly manipulated the pumping rate of wells, proposed locations and functioning schedules (including wells groupings). The proposed simulations were examined using visual MODFLOW V4.2 to simulate the results. The results of monitored wells were assessed based on the location of the monitoring wells related to the proposed recovery wells locations (200m, 500m and 750m away from the IBs). Near the 500m line (the first row of proposed recovery wells), an increase of nitrate (from 30 to 70mg/L) compare to a decrease in Chloride (1500 to below 900mg/L) was found during the monitoring period which indicated an expansion of plume to this distance. On this rate with the required time to construct the recovery scheme, keeping the original design the RRS will fail to capture the plume. Based on that many simulations were conducted leading into three main scenarios. The scenarios manipulated the starting dates, the pumping rate and the locations of recovery wells. A simulation of plume expansion and path-lines were extracted from the model monitoring how to prevent the expansion towards the nearby municipal wells. It was concluded that the location is the most important factor in determining the RRS efficiency. Scenario III was adopted and showed an effective results even with a reduced pumping rates. This scenario proposed adding two additional recovery wells in a location beyond the 750m line to compensate the delays and effectively capture the plume. A continuous monitoring program for current and future monitoring wells should be in place to support the proposed scenario and ensure maximum protection.

Keywords: soil aquifer treatment, recovery and reuse scheme, infiltration basins, north gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
316 The Assessment of Infiltrated Wastewater on the Efficiency of Recovery Reuse and Irrigation Scheme: North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Project as a Case Study

Authors: Yaser S. Kishawi, Sadi R. Ali

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Part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely covers the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is finding non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to cover agricultural requirements and serve the population. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line and infiltration basins-IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme–RRS– to capture the spreading plume). Currently, only phase A is functioning. Nearly 23 Mm3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated into the aquifer. Phase B and phase C witnessed many delays and this forced a reassessment of the RRS original design. An Environmental Management Plan was conducted from Jul 2013 to Jun 2014 on 13 existing monitoring wells surrounding the project location. This is to measure the efficiency of the SAT system and the spread of the contamination plume with relation to the efficiency of the proposed RRS. Along with the proposed location of the 27 recovery wells as part of the proposed RRS. The results of monitored wells were assessed compared with PWA baseline data. This was put into a groundwater model to simulate the plume to propose the best suitable solution to the delays. The redesign mainly manipulated the pumping rate of wells, proposed locations and functioning schedules (including wells groupings). The proposed simulations were examined using visual MODFLOW V4.2 to simulate the results. The results of monitored wells were assessed based on the location of the monitoring wells related to the proposed recovery wells locations (200m, 500m, and 750m away from the IBs). Near the 500m line (the first row of proposed recovery wells), an increase of nitrate (from 30 to 70mg/L) compare to a decrease in Chloride (1500 to below 900mg/L) was found during the monitoring period which indicated an expansion of plume to this distance. On this rate with the required time to construct the recovery scheme, keeping the original design the RRS will fail to capture the plume. Based on that many simulations were conducted leading into three main scenarios. The scenarios manipulated the starting dates, the pumping rate and the locations of recovery wells. A simulation of plume expansion and path-lines were extracted from the model monitoring how to prevent the expansion towards the nearby municipal wells. It was concluded that the location is the most important factor in determining the RRS efficiency. Scenario III was adopted and showed effective results even with a reduced pumping rates. This scenario proposed adding two additional recovery wells in a location beyond the 750m line to compensate the delays and effectively capture the plume. A continuous monitoring program for current and future monitoring wells should be in place to support the proposed scenario and ensure maximum protection.

Keywords: soil aquifer treatment, recovery reuse scheme, infiltration basins, North Gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
315 Aerodynamic Devices Development for Model Aircraft Control and Wind-Driven Bicycle

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

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Several aerodynamic devices currently attract engineers and research students. The plasma actuator is one of them, and it is very effective to control the flow. The actuator recovers a separated flow to an attached one. The actuator is also inversely applied to a spoiler. The model aircraft might be controlled by this actuator. We develop a model aircraft with the plasma actuator. Another interesting device is the Wells turbine which rotates in one direction. The present authors propose a bicycle with the Wells turbine in the wheels. Power reduction is measured when the turbine is driven by an electric motor at the exit of a wind tunnel. Several Watts power reduction might be possible. This means that the torque of the bike can be augmented by the turbine in the cross wind. These devices are tested in the wind tunnel with a three-component balance and the aerodynamic forces and moment are obtained. In this paper, we introduce these devices and their aerodynamic characteristics. The control force and moment of the plasma actuator are clarified and the power reduction of the bicycle is quantified.

Keywords: aerodynamics, model aircraft, plasma actuator, Wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
314 Investigation the Polluting Effect of Heavy Elements on Underground Water in Behbahan Plain, South West Zagros

Authors: Zohreh Marbooti, Rezvan Khavari

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Groundwater as an essential part of natural resources seems to be an important issue in environmental engineering, so preservation and purification of it can have a critical value for any community. This paper investigates the concentration of elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se. For ground water in Behbahan (a city on south west of Iran), to this purpose a group of 30 wells were studied to examine the concentration of the elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se, and also to determine PH, EC, TDS, temperature and the ions of HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ for the wells. Results of the analyses show that the concentration of the elements of Pb, As and, Cd in 33,13,56 percent of the wells respectively and Se in all the samples were greater than normal range of WHO. Since there is a low correlation between Pb and major ions of (HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) it can be revealed that Pb overconcentration caused by human contamination. Relative great correlation between Se and the ions showed that Se derived from Gypsum and Dolomit. The big correlation between As and major cations and onions, imply that As can originate from dissolution and liquidation of mineral evaporation in the zone. The high rate of Cadmium concentration in urban sewagewater is due to the small industries, workshops and, mills wastewater.

Keywords: heavy elements, underground water, pollution, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
313 Recommendations for Environmental Impact Assessment of Geothermal Projects on Mature Oil Fields

Authors: Daria Karasalihovic Sedlar, Lucija Jukic, Ivan Smajla, Marija Macenic

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This paper analyses possible geothermal energy production from a mature oil reservoir based on exploitation of underlying aquifer thermal energy for the purpose of heating public buildings. Research was conducted based on the case study of the City of Ivanic-Grad public buildings energy demand and Ivanic oil filed that is situated in the same area. Since the City of Ivanic is one of the few cities in the EU where hydrocarbon exploitation has been taking place for decades almost entirely in urban area, decommissioning of oil wells is inevitable; therefore, the research goal was to investigate how to extend the life-time of the reservoir by exploiting geothermal brine beneath the oil reservoir in an environmental friendly manner. This kind of a project is extremely complex in all segments, from documentation preparation, implementation of technological solutions, and providing ecological measures for environmentally acceptable geothermal energy production and utilization. New mining activities that will be needed for the development of geothermal project at the observed Hydrocarbon Exploitation Field Ivanic will be carried out in order to prepare wells for increasing geothermal brine production. These operations involve the conversion of existing wells (well completion for conversion of the observation wells to production ones) along with workover activities, installation of new heat exchangers, and pipelines. Since the wells are in the urban area of the City of Ivanic-Grad in high density populated area, the inhabitants will be exposed to the different environmental impacts during preparation phase of the project. For the purpose of performing workovers, it will be necessary to secure access to wellheads of existing wells. This paper gives guidelines for describing potential impacts on environment components that could occur during geothermal production preparation on existing mature oil filed, recommends possible protection measures to mitigate these impacts, and gives recommendations for environmental monitoring.

Keywords: geothermal energy production, mature oil filed, environmental impact assessment, underlying aquifer thermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
312 Application of Multilinear Regression Analysis for Prediction of Synthetic Shear Wave Velocity Logs in Upper Assam Basin

Authors: Triveni Gogoi, Rima Chatterjee

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Shear wave velocity (Vs) estimation is an important approach in the seismic exploration and characterization of a hydrocarbon reservoir. There are varying methods for prediction of S-wave velocity, if recorded S-wave log is not available. But all the available methods for Vs prediction are empirical mathematical models. Shear wave velocity can be estimated using P-wave velocity by applying Castagna’s equation, which is the most common approach. The constants used in Castagna’s equation vary for different lithologies and geological set-ups. In this study, multiple regression analysis has been used for estimation of S-wave velocity. The EMERGE module from Hampson-Russel software has been used here for generation of S-wave log. Both single attribute and multi attributes analysis have been carried out for generation of synthetic S-wave log in Upper Assam basin. Upper Assam basin situated in North Eastern India is one of the most important petroleum provinces of India. The present study was carried out using four wells of the study area. Out of these wells, S-wave velocity was available for three wells. The main objective of the present study is a prediction of shear wave velocities for wells where S-wave velocity information is not available. The three wells having S-wave velocity were first used to test the reliability of the method and the generated S-wave log was compared with actual S-wave log. Single attribute analysis has been carried out for these three wells within the depth range 1700-2100m, which corresponds to Barail group of Oligocene age. The Barail Group is the main target zone in this study, which is the primary producing reservoir of the basin. A system generated list of attributes with varying degrees of correlation appeared and the attribute with the highest correlation was concerned for the single attribute analysis. Crossplot between the attributes shows the variation of points from line of best fit. The final result of the analysis was compared with the available S-wave log, which shows a good visual fit with a correlation of 72%. Next multi-attribute analysis has been carried out for the same data using all the wells within the same analysis window. A high correlation of 85% has been observed between the output log from the analysis and the recorded S-wave. The almost perfect fit between the synthetic S-wave and the recorded S-wave log validates the reliability of the method. For further authentication, the generated S-wave data from the wells have been tied to the seismic and correlated them. Synthetic share wave log has been generated for the well M2 where S-wave is not available and it shows a good correlation with the seismic. Neutron porosity, density, AI and P-wave velocity are proved to be the most significant variables in this statistical method for S-wave generation. Multilinear regression method thus can be considered as a reliable technique for generation of shear wave velocity log in this study.

Keywords: Castagna's equation, multi linear regression, multi attribute analysis, shear wave logs

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
311 Gas Flotation Unit in Kuwait Oil Company Operations

Authors: Homoud Bourisli, Haitham Safar

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Oil is one of main resources of energy in the world. As conventional oil is drying out, oil recovery is crucial to maintain the same level of oil production. Since water injection is one of the commonly used methods to increase and maintain pressure in oil wells, oil-water separation processes of the water associated with oil production for water injection oil recovery is very essential. Therefore, Gas Flotation Units are used for oil-water separation to be able to re-inject the treated water back into the wells to increase pressure.

Keywords: Kuwait oil company, dissolved gas flotation unit, induced gas flotation unit, oil-water separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
310 Liquid Unloading of Wells with Scaled Perforation via Batch Foamers

Authors: Erwin Chan, Aravind Subramaniyan, Siti Abdullah Fatehah, Steve Lian Kuling

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Foam assisted lift technology is proven across the industry to provide efficient deliquification in gas wells. Such deliquification is typically achieved by delivering the foamer chemical downhole via capillary strings. In highly liquid loaded wells where capillary strings are not readily available, foamer can be delivered via batch injection or bull-heading. The latter techniques differ from the former in that cap strings allow for liquid to be unloaded continuously, whereas foamer batches require that periodic batching be conducted for the liquid to be unloaded. Although batch injection allows for liquid to be unloaded in wells with suitable water to gas (WGR) ratio and condensate to gas (CGR) ratio without well intervention for capillary string installation, this technique comes with its own set of challenges - for foamer to de-liquify liquids, the chemical needs to reach perforation locations where gas bubbling is observed. In highly scaled perforation zones in certain wells, foamer delivered in batches is unable to reach the gas bubbling zone, thus achieving poor lift efficiency. This paper aims to discuss the techniques and challenges for unloading liquid via batch injection in scaled perforation wells X and Y, whose WGR is 6bbl/MMscf, whose scale build-up is observed at the bottom of perforation interval, whose water column is 400 feet, and whose ‘bubbling zone’ is less than 100 feet. Variables such as foamer Z dosage, batching technique, and well flow control valve opening times are manipulated during the duration of the trial to achieve maximum liquid unloading and gas rates. During the field trial, the team has found optimal values between the three aforementioned parameters for best unloading results, in which each cycle’s gas and liquid rates are compared with baselines with similar flowing tubing head pressures (FTHP). It is discovered that amongst other factors, a good agitation technique is a primary determinant for efficient liquid unloading. An average increment of 2MMscf/d against an average production of 4MMscf/d at stable FTHP is recorded during the trial.

Keywords: foam, foamer, gas lift, liquid unloading, scale, batch injection

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309 Effect of Multi-Stage Fractured Patterns on Production Improvement of Horizontal Wells

Authors: Armin Shirbazo, Mohammad Vahab, Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Jalal Fahimpour

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One of the most effective ways for increasing production in wells that are faced with problems such as pressure depletion and low rate is hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is creating a high permeable path through the reservoir and simulated area around the wellbore. This is very important for low permeability reservoirs, which their production is uneconomical. In this study, the influence of the fracturing pattern in multi-stage fractured horizontal wells is analyzed for a tight, heavy oil reservoir to explore the impact of fracturing patterns on improving oil recovery. The horizontal well has five transverse fractures with the same fracture length, width, height, and conductivity properties. The fracture patterns are divided into four distinct shapes: uniform shape, diamond shape, U shape, and W shape. The results show that different fracturing patterns produce various cumulative production after ten years, and the best pattern can be selected based on the most cumulative production. The result also illustrates that optimum design in fracturing can boost the production up to 3% through the permeability distribution around the wellbore and reservoir.

Keywords: multi-stage fracturing, horizontal well, fracture patterns, fracture length, number of stages

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
308 Risk Prediction Based on Heavy Metal Distribution in Groundwater

Authors: Rama Bhattacharyya, S. N. Ojha, Umesh K. Singh

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Anthropogenic control on groundwater chemistry has emerged as a critical concern now-a-days, especially in the industrial areas. In view of this, a comprehensive study on the distribution of the heavy metal in the groundwater was conducted to investigate the impact of urbanization in the aquatic media. Water samples either from well or borehole from Fourty different sites in and around, Durgapur, West Bengal were collected for this purpose. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Calcium (Ca), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Sodium (Na), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) content and the levels were compared with WHO specified maximum contaminant level as well as permissible limits given by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The result obtained from the present study indicates a significant risk to the population of this important emerging ‘smart city’ of eastern India. Because of the toxicity of these metals and the fact that for many tube-wells, dug-wells and bore-wells are the only sources of the water supply for a major fraction of the population in this environment. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop metal contamination risk map.

Keywords: heavy metals, ground water, maximum contamination level, ICP-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
307 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

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The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

Procedia PDF Downloads 656
306 Well Log Sequences Stratigraphy and Potential Reservoirs of Wells KF-1and KF-2; Kribi Oil Field, Douala-Kribi-Campo Basin, Cameroon

Authors: Nkwanyang L. Takem, Christopher M. Agyingi

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Background and aim: An integrated interpretation of wireline logs and lithology of two selected wells (KF-1 and KF-2) of Kribi oil field within the southeastern offshore Douala/Kribi Campo Basin was carried out for sequence stratigraphic analysis of sediments penetrated by the wells. Methods: The stratigraphic units within the wells were subdivided into depositional sequences using characteristic well log patterns that were deposited between Tertiary Miocene to lower Cretaceous. Results: Nine (9) and eight (8) depositional sequences were identified respectively for KF-1 and KF-2. The sequences comprise LST (progradational packages), TSTs (retrogradational packages) and HSTs (aggradational packages), which reflect depositional systems deposited during different phases of base-level changes. The (LST) consists of Basin Floor Fans (BFF), Slope Fans and Channel Sands deposited when sea level was low and accommodation space lower than rate of sediment influx. TST consists of retrogradational marine shales deposited during high relative sea levels and when accommodation space was higher than rate of sediment influx. HST consisted of shoreface sands displaying mostly aggradational to progradational stacking patterns. Conclusion: The rapid facies changes between successive systems tracts provide potential stratigraphic traps. Reservoir stratification and continuity vary greatly between systems tracts and this enhanced development of stratigraphic traps in the area. Basin floor fans comprise sandstone of good reservoir quality, thus huge accumulation of HC can be trapped in this reservoirs.

Keywords: Douala-Kribi-Campo Basin, reservoirs, sequence strastigraphyy, system tracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 442