Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: cyberbullying

23 Cyber Victimization: School Experience of Malaysian Cyberbullied Teenagers

Authors: Shireen Simon

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Cyberbullying among schoolchildren and teenagers became a hot issue discussed by Malaysian society. Cyberbullying is a new age of bullying because it uses the modern digital technology intentionally to hurt and degrade someone in the cyber world. Cyberbullying is a problem affecting many teenagers as they embrace online communication and interaction whereby virtual world with no borders. By adopting a qualitative approach, this study has captured 8 cyberbullied victims’ school experience. Even years after leaving school, these 8 cyberbullied victims remember how it feels to be bullied in the cyber world. The principal investigator also tries to identify the possibility factors that contribute to cyberbullying among these 8 victims. The result shows that these victims were bullied differently in cyber world. This study not just primarily focuses on cyberbullying issues among schoolchildren and teenagers; it also addresses the motives and causes of cyberbullying. Lastly, this article will be served as guidance for school teachers, parents and teenagers to prepare to tackle cyberbullying together. Cyberbullying is no laughing matter in our community, and it is time to spread the seeds of peace inspires others to do the same.

Keywords: cyberbullying, cyber victimization, internet, school experience, teenagers

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22 A Framework for Protecting Teenagers from Cyber Crimes and Cyberbullying

Authors: Sultan Alanazi, Adwan Alanazi

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Social applications consist of powerful tools that allow people to connect and interact with each other. However, its negative use cannot be ignored. Cyberbullying is a new and serious Internet problem. Cyberbullying is one of the most common risks for teenagers to go online. More than half of young people report that they do not tell their parents when this will occur, which can have significant physiological consequences. Cyberbullying involves the deliberate use of digital media on the Internet to convey false or embarrassing information about others. Therefore, this article provides a way to detect cyber-bullying in social media applications for parents. The purpose of our work is to develop an architectural model for identifying and measuring the state of Cyberbullying faced by children on social media applications. For parents, this will be a good tool for monitoring their children without invading their privacy. Finally, some interesting open-ended questions were raised, suggesting promising ideas for starting new research in this new field.

Keywords: cyberbullying, cyber bullying, internet crimes, social media security, E-crimes

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21 Factors Influencing Accidental Cyberbullying on Social Media: Healthcare Industry Perspective

Authors: Iram Malik, Mahrukh Shaukat, Abeer Malik, Hafiz Mushtaq Ahmad

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There has been a lot of research on cyberbullying but there is limited research on the topic of accidental cyberbullying on social media with a special focus on healthcare industry. This study emphasizes to uncover the factors that contribute to accidental cyberbullying on social media and how it affects individuals, professionals’ and organizations in health care sector. Nowadays social media is becoming a necessary part of our daily life; there is a need to look into how it is shaping our social life and behaviors displayed online. Instances of cyber bullying can have long-term repercussions due to over-sharing of information. The study used simple random sampling and the instrument of data collection was survey. A sample size of 250 healthcare professionals was chosen from the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan to examine the relationship between their attitude towards internet use, psychological distress, verbal aggression, envy, frustration, self-compassion, personality traits and accidental cyberbullying on social media. The results of the study have been encouraging. The findings show that psychological distress, aggression, envy, frustration and personality traits had direct effect on accidental cyberbullying whereas compassion, altruism lessened the effect of accidental cyberbullying behavior. It is our intent that the findings of this study could help raise awareness regarding fair use of social media, help policy makers in developing appropriate policies for avoiding cyberbullying in future.

Keywords: accidental cyberbullying, aggression, cyberbullying, frustration, social media

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20 The Relationship Between Cyberbullying Victimization, Parent and Peer Attachment and Unconditional Self-Acceptance

Authors: Florina Magdalena Anichitoae, Anca Dobrean, Ionut Stelian Florean

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Due to the fact that cyberbullying victimization is an increasing problem nowadays, affecting more and more children and adolescents around the world, we wanted to take a step forward analyzing this phenomenon. So, we took a look at some variables which haven't been studied together before, trying to develop another way to view cyberbullying victimization. We wanted to test the effects of the mother, father, and peer attachment on adolescent involvement in cyberbullying as victims through unconditional self acceptance. Furthermore, we analyzed each subscale of the IPPA-R, the instrument we have used for parents and peer attachment measurement, in regards to cyberbullying victimization through unconditional self acceptance. We have also analyzed if gender and age could be taken into consideration as moderators in this model. The analysis has been performed on 653 adolescents aged 11-17 years old from Romania. We used structural equation modeling, working in R program. For the fidelity analysis of the IPPA-R subscales, USAQ, and Cyberbullying Test, we have calculated the internal consistency index, which varies between .68-.91. We have created 2 models: the first model including peer alienation, peer trust, peer communication, self acceptance and cyberbullying victimization, having CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.02, 90%CI [0.02, 0.03] and SRMR=0.07, and the second model including parental alienation, parental trust, parental communication, self acceptance and cyberbullying victimization and had CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.02, 90%CI [0.02, 0.03] and SRMR=0.07. Our results were interesting: on one hand, cyberbullying victimization is predicted by peer alienation and peer communication through unconditional self acceptance. Peer trust directly, significantly, and negatively predicted the implication in cyberbullying. In this regard, considering gender and age as moderators, we found that the relationship between unconditional self acceptance and cyberbullying victimization is stronger in girls, but age does not moderate the relationship between unconditional self acceptance and cyberbullying victimization. On the other hand, regarding the degree of cyberbullying victimization as being predicted through unconditional self acceptance by parental alienation, parental communication, and parental trust, this hypothesis was not supported. Still, we could identify a direct path to positively predict victimization through parental alienation and negatively through parental trust. There are also some limitations to this study, which we've discussed in the end.

Keywords: adolescent, attachment, cyberbullying victimization, parents, peers, unconditional self-acceptance

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19 Exploring the Relationships between Cyberbullying Perceptions and Facebook Attitudes of Turkish Students

Authors: Yavuz Erdoğan, Hidayet Çiftçi

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Cyberbullying, a phenomenon among adolescents, is defined as actions that use information and communication technologies such as social media to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual or group. With the advancement in communication and information technology, cyberbullying has expanded its boundaries among students in schools. Thus, parents, psychologists, educators, and lawmakers must become aware of the potential risks of this phenomenon. In the light of these perspectives, this study aims to investigate the relationships between cyberbullying perception and Facebook attitudes of Turkish students. A survey method was used for the study and the data were collected by “Cyberbullying Perception Scale”, “Facebook Attitude Scale” and “Personal Information Form”. For this purpose, study has been conducted during 2014-2015 academic year, with a total of 748 students with 493 male (%65.9) and 255 female (%34.1) from randomly selected high schools. In the analysis of data Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc test has been used. At the end of the study, the results displayed a negative correlation between Turkish students’ Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception (r=-.210; p<0.05). In order to identify the predictors of students’ cyberbullying perception, multiple regression analysis was used. As a result, significant relations were detected between cyberbullying perception and independent variables (F=5.102; p<0.05). Independent variables together explain 11.0% of the total variance in cyberbullying scores. The variables that significantly predict the students’ cyberbullying perception are Facebook attitudes (t=-5.875; p<0.05), and gender (t=3.035; p<0.05). In order to calculate the effects of independent variables on students’ Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception MANOVA was conducted. The results of the MANOVA indicate that the Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception were significantly differed according to students’ gender, age, educational attainment of the mother, educational attainment of the father, income of the family and daily usage of internet.

Keywords: facebook, cyberbullying, attitude, internet usage

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18 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

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Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

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17 Using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Parental Mediation Theory to Examine Cyberbullying Perpetration among Children and Adolescents

Authors: Shirley S. Ho

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The advancement and development of social media have inadvertently brought about a new form of bullying – cyberbullying – that transcends across physical boundaries of space. Although extensive research has been conducted in the field of cyberbullying, most of these studies have taken an overwhelmingly empirical angle. Theories guiding cyberbullying research are few. Furthermore, very few studies have explored the association between parental mediation and cyberbullying, with majority of existing studies focusing on cyberbullying victimization rather than perpetration. Therefore, this present study investigates cyberbullying perpetration from a theoretical angle, with a focus on the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Parental Mediation Theory. More specifically, this study examines the direct effects of attitude, subjective norms, descriptive norms, injunctive norms and active mediation and restrictive mediation on cyberbullying perpetration on social media among children and adolescents in Singapore. Furthermore, the moderating role of age on the relationship between parental mediation and cyberbullying perpetration on social media are examined. A self-administered paper-and-pencil nationally-representative survey was conducted. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was used to ensure that schools from all the four (North, South, East, and West) regions of Singapore were equally represented in the sample used for the survey. In all 607 upper primary school children (i.e., Primary 4 to 6 students) and 782 secondary school adolescents participated in our survey. The total average response rates were 69.6% for student participation. An ordinary least squares hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses and research questions. The results revealed that attitude and subjective norms were positively associated with cyberbullying perpetration on social media. Descriptive norms and injunctive norms were not found to be significantly associated with cyberbullying perpetration. The results also showed that both parental mediation strategies were negatively associated with cyberbullying perpetration on social media. Age was a significant moderator of both parental mediation strategies and cyberbullying perpetration. The negative relationship between active mediation and cyberbullying perpetration was found to be greater in the case of children than adolescents. Children who received high restrictive parental mediation were less likely to perform cyberbullying behaviors, while adolescents who received high restrictive parental mediation were more likely to be engaged in cyberbullying perpetration. The study reveals that parents should apply active mediation and restrictive mediation in different ways for children and adolescents when trying to prevent cyberbullying perpetration. The effectiveness of active parental mediation for reducing cyberbullying perpetration was more in the case of children than for adolescents. Younger children were found to be more likely to respond more positively toward restrictive parental mediation strategies, but in the case of adolescents, overly restrictive control was found to increase cyberbullying perpetration. Adolescents exhibited less cyberbullying behaviors when under low restrictive strategies. Findings highlight that the Theory of Reasoned Action and Parental Mediation Theory are promising frameworks to apply in the examination of cyberbullying perpetration. The findings that different parental mediation strategies had differing effectiveness, based on the children’s age, bring about several practical implications that may benefit educators and parents when addressing their children’s online risk.

Keywords: cyberbullying perpetration, theory of reasoned action, parental mediation, social media, Singapore

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16 The Consequences of Cyberbullying and School Violence: Risk and Protective Factors

Authors: Ifigenia Stylianou

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As more than three-quarters of students going online daily via computers, tablets, and smartphones, the phenomenon of cyberbullying is growing rapidly. Knowing that victims of online bullying are often also victims of traditional bullying and that traditional bullying is considered as an extension of cyberbullying. In this study, we aim to identify (1) whether cyberbullying lead to more intense forms of school bullying, and (2) whether some biological and environmental factors mediate between this relation, and act protectively to bullying and inappropriate behaviour in school. To answer this questions, a sample of X students, aged X, were asked to complete eight questionnaires (Personal Experiences Checklist, Inventory of Peers Attachment, Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction, School Climate Survey for Bullying, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Form, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) in X time periods. Results can provide us important information to improve understanding the factors that are related to bullying. In addition, the results can assist in developing intervention programs to tangle the issue of bullying at schools. All data have been collected and are currently being processed for statistical analyses.

Keywords: cyberbullying, bullying, school climate, psychopathy traits, attachment, mediation factors

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15 Technology Enabled Bullying and Adolescent Reporting Response Behaviours

Authors: Regina Connolly, Justin Connolly

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Despite the benefits which they confer, Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) also have the potential to be used negatively. This paper focuses on one of those negative social effects - adolescent cyberbullying. Although early research in this field has pointed to the fact that the successful intervention and resolution of bullying incidents is to a large degree dependent on such incidents being reported to an adult caregiver, the literature consistently shows that adolescents who have been bullied tend not to inform others of their experiences. However, the reasons underlying such reluctance to seek adult intervention remain undetermined. Similarly, the degree to which gender, age or other variables apply in the case of adolescents’ resistance to report cyberbullying experiences has yet to be established. Understanding the factors that influence this resistance to communicate on the part of adolescents will assist caregivers, teachers and those involved in the formulation of school anti-bullying policies in their attempts to counter the cyberbullying phenomenon.

Keywords: information and Communication technologies, technology-enabled bullying, cyberbullying

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14 Cyberbullying among College Students: Prevalence and Effects on Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Jeyaseelan Maria Michael

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This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among college female students and its effects on their psychological well-being. The respondents were from the age group of 17 and 18, doing the first-year college in Tamilnadu, India. In this study, 110 participants were selected through simple random sampling. The standardized questionnaire of David Alvare-Garcia’s Cybervictimization Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYVIC) and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB) were administered for data collection. CYVIC has four subdomains namely, impersonation, visual-sexual cybervictimization, written-verbal cybervictimization, online exclusion. Ryff’s PWB has six domains namely, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self- acceptance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS v.23. The results indicate that cyberbullying prevails among college female students (M=1.24, SD= .21). Among the participants, 17 are scored one standard deviation above the mean (1.45). Among the subdomains of the CYVIC, the respondents have the highest score (M=1.40, SD= .38) in written-verbal cybervictimization. Cyber victimization has a significant correlation at the 0.01 level with psychological well-being.

Keywords: college students, cyberbullying, cyber victimization, psychological well-being

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13 Detecting Hate Speech And Cyberbullying Using Natural Language Processing

Authors: Nádia Pereira, Paula Ferreira, Sofia Francisco, Sofia Oliveira, Sidclay Souza, Paula Paulino, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão

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Social media has progressed into a platform for hate speech among its users, and thus, there is an increasing need to develop automatic detection classifiers of offense and conflicts to help decrease the prevalence of such incidents. Online communication can be used to intentionally harm someone, which is why such classifiers could be essential in social networks. A possible application of these classifiers is the automatic detection of cyberbullying. Even though identifying the aggressive language used in online interactions could be important to build cyberbullying datasets, there are other criteria that must be considered. Being able to capture the language, which is indicative of the intent to harm others in a specific context of online interaction is fundamental. Offense and hate speech may be the foundation of online conflicts, which have become commonly used in social media and are an emergent research focus in machine learning and natural language processing. This study presents two Portuguese language offense-related datasets which serve as examples for future research and extend the study of the topic. The first is similar to other offense detection related datasets and is entitled Aggressiveness dataset. The second is a novelty because of the use of the history of the interaction between users and is entitled the Conflicts/Attacks dataset. Both datasets were developed in different phases. Firstly, we performed a content analysis of verbal aggression witnessed by adolescents in situations of cyberbullying. Secondly, we computed frequency analyses from the previous phase to gather lexical and linguistic cues used to identify potentially aggressive conflicts and attacks which were posted on Twitter. Thirdly, thorough annotation of real tweets was performed byindependent postgraduate educational psychologists with experience in cyberbullying research. Lastly, we benchmarked these datasets with other machine learning classifiers.

Keywords: aggression, classifiers, cyberbullying, datasets, hate speech, machine learning

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12 A Qualitative Study on Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying among Taiwanese High School Students

Authors: Chia-Wen Wang, Patou Masika Musumari, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S. Pilar Suguimoto, Chang-Chuan Chan, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara

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Background: In recent years, a particular form of bullying, referred to as 'cyberbullying' has emerged along with the rapid expansion of the Internet, social network services (SNSs) and smart phones. Many Asian countries, including Taiwan, are faced with both the cyberbullying and the traditional form of bullying. This study aims to explore Taiwanese adolescents’ experiences, perceptions and opinions regarding cyberbullying and traditional bullying through the perspective of victim, perpetrator, or witness. Method: This is a qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire among high school students -aged 16 to 18 years- in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were recruited through convenience sampling from five high schools between June and November 2016. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Results: Forty-eight participants were recruited, of which, 14 (29.2%) reported had ever experienced bullying. Specifically, 7 participants (14.6%) reported had ever been victims of cyberbullying, 1 (2%) had been victims of traditional bullying, and 6 (12.5%) had been victims of both cyber and traditional bullying. The majority (70.8%) reported had ever witnessed acts of bullying; however, none of the participants recognized had ever been a perpetrator of bullying. Cyberbullying mostly happens on social media (Facebook and Instagram) or LINE instant messaging application, and included upload and sharing of degrading pictures and videos of victims, as well as gossip and mean messages by the perpetrators. The anonymous and public nature of social media groups in schools made it easier to perpetrate bullying. The victim of traditional bullying reported being the target of verbal attack because of his physical appearance. Regardless of the type of bullying, victims reported feeling bad, angry, or depressed as a result of being bullied. Witnesses of both cyber- and traditional bullying cited physical appearance (e.g. having the big/flat bust or big butt, or overweight or obese) and disability as the most reasons of being a bullying victim. Conclusion: Both cyberbullying and traditional bullying had negative emotional and psychological impacts on victims. This study warrants further research to assess the extent of this phenomenon and understand the characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and witnesses to inform the design of tailored interventions using appropriate channels of dissemination.

Keywords: cyberbullying, traditional bullying, social media, adolescents

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11 Machine Learning Techniques to Predict Cyberbullying and Improve Social Work Interventions

Authors: Oscar E. Cariceo, Claudia V. Casal

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Machine learning offers a set of techniques to promote social work interventions and can lead to support decisions of practitioners in order to predict new behaviors based on data produced by the organizations, services agencies, users, clients or individuals. Machine learning techniques include a set of generalizable algorithms that are data-driven, which means that rules and solutions are derived by examining data, based on the patterns that are present within any data set. In other words, the goal of machine learning is teaching computers through 'examples', by training data to test specifics hypothesis and predict what would be a certain outcome, based on a current scenario and improve that experience. Machine learning can be classified into two general categories depending on the nature of the problem that this technique needs to tackle. First, supervised learning involves a dataset that is already known in terms of their output. Supervising learning problems are categorized, into regression problems, which involve a prediction from quantitative variables, using a continuous function; and classification problems, which seek predict results from discrete qualitative variables. For social work research, machine learning generates predictions as a key element to improving social interventions on complex social issues by providing better inference from data and establishing more precise estimated effects, for example in services that seek to improve their outcomes. This paper exposes the results of a classification algorithm to predict cyberbullying among adolescents. Data were retrieved from the National Polyvictimization Survey conducted by the government of Chile in 2017. A logistic regression model was created to predict if an adolescent would experience cyberbullying based on the interaction and behavior of gender, age, grade, type of school, and self-esteem sentiments. The model can predict with an accuracy of 59.8% if an adolescent will suffer cyberbullying. These results can help to promote programs to avoid cyberbullying at schools and improve evidence based practice.

Keywords: cyberbullying, evidence based practice, machine learning, social work research

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10 Commentary on Successful and Emerging Bullying Control Programs: A Comparison between Eighteen Bullying Interventions Applied Worldwide

Authors: Sohni Siddiqui, Anja Schultze-Krumbholz

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Our lives now revolve more around online-related tasks, as the internet has become a necessity. One of the disturbance concerns with high internet usage is the multiplication of cyber-associated risky behaviors such as cyber aggression and/or cyberbullying. Cyber Bullying is an emerging issue that needs immediate attention from many stakeholders such as parents, doctors, school administrators, policymakers, researchers, and others, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic when online learning has been adopted as an instructional strategy, and there is a continuous rise in cyberbullying cases. The aim of the article is to review existing successful and emerging interventions designed to control bullying and cyberbullying by engaging individuals through teachers’ professional development and adopting a whole-school approach. The study identified the strengths and limitations of the programs and suggested improvements to existing interventions. Preparing interventions with a strong theoretical framework, integrating applications of emerging theories in interventions, promoting proactive and reactive strategies in combination, beginning with the baseline needs assessment surveys, reducing digital time and digital divide among parents and children, promoting the concept of lead trainer, peer trainer, and hot spots, focusing on physical activities, use of landmarks are some of the recommendations proposed by authors. In addition to face-to-face intervention, the researchers recommend updating and improving previous intervention programs with games and apps. Especially in the time of pandemic crises, when face-to-face interactions are limited and cyberbullying is triggered, the use of apps, web-based interventions, and games can be an effective way to control electronic perpetration and victimization.

Keywords: anti bullying programs, cyber bullying, individualized trainings, teachers’ professional development, whole school interventions

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9 Kiddo: Design and Prototype of a Useable Mobile Application for Kids to Learn under Parental Control

Authors: Albandary Alamer, Noura Alaskar, Sana Bukhamseen, Jawaher Alkhamis, Enas Alghamdi, Almaha Almulhim, Hina Gull, Rachid Zagrouba, Madeeha Saqib

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A good and healthy seed will always produce a nice fruit, whereas an infected seed will produce an infected fruit. The same concept applies to the children, and the healthier the environment in which the kids grow, the more likely they become valuable members of society. Kiddo project introduces us to a mobile application that focuses on enhancing the sense of responsibility from a young age and makes raising kids fun and easy. The application aims to enhance the communication between parents and their children and to enrich the good habits of the kid. Kiddo Application enables kids to share their accomplishments with their peers in an interactive environment full of enjoyment, followed by parental monitoring to handle what their kids are posting and friends following. Kiddo provides the kids' and parents’ society with a safe platform free of cyberbullying and inappropriate content with parents' fun engagement.

Keywords: kids social media, educational app, child-raising, parental control, cyberbullying, parent-child relationship, good habits

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8 Educational Challenges: Cultural Behaviours, Psychopathology and Psychological Intervention

Authors: Sandra Figueiredo, Alexandra Pereira, Ana Oliveira, Idia Brito, Ivaniltan Jones, Joana Moreira, Madalena Silva, Maria Paraíba, Milene Silva, Tânia Pinho

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In the present society, we are facing behaviours mainly in young individuals that might be considered trends of culture or psychopathology. Both contexts are challenges for Education, Psychology and Health. This paper examines nine case studies specifically in Educational Psychology with the main goal to identify and define phenomena contexts in school culture, the psychopathology involved and to present a psychological intervention for each case. The research was conducted by university students in the period of March 2017-June 2017, in Portugal, and the childhood was focused. The case studies explored the cyberbullying; the bullying - victims and bullies’ perspectives; the obsessive compulsive disorder; perception and inclusion of children from homoparental families; inclusion of foreign students in the higher education system; blindness and the inclusion in physical curricular activities; influence of doc-reality and media in attitudes and self-esteem; and the morningness and eveningness types learning in the same school timetables. The university students were supervised during their research analysis and two methods were available for the intervention research study: the meta-analysis and the empirical study. In the second phase, the pedagogical intervention was designed for the different educational contexts in analysis, especially concerning the school environments. The evidence of literature and the empirical studies showed new trends of school’ behaviours and educational disturbances that require further research and effective (and adequate to age, gender, nationality and culture) pedagogical instruments. Respecting the instruments, on the one hand, to identify behaviors, habits or pathologies and highlight the role and training of teachers, psychologists and health professionals, on the other hand, to promote the early intervention and to enhance healthy child development and orientation of the families. To respond to both milestones, this paper present nine pedagogical techniques and measures that will be discussed on their impact concerning advances for the psychological and educational intervention, centered in the individual and in the new generations of family’ cultures.

Keywords: behaviour, culture trends, educational intervention, psychopathology, obsessive compulsive disorder, cyberbullying, bullying, homoparental families, sleep influence, blindness and sports at school, inclusion of foreign students, media influence in behaviour

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7 The Role of Access Control Techniques in Creating a Safe Cyberspace for Children

Authors: Sara Muslat Alsahali, Nout Mohammed Alqahtani

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Digital technology has changed the world, and with the increasing number of children accessing the Internet, it has now become an integral part of children's lives from their early years. With the rapid development of digital technology, the risks children face on the internet also evolve from cyberbullying to misuse, sexual exploitation, and abuse of their private information over the Internet. Digital technology, with its advantages and disadvantages, is now a fact of our life. Therefore, knowledge of how to reduce its risks and maximize its benefits will help shape the growth and future of a new generation of digital citizens. This paper will discuss access control techniques that help to create secure cyberspace where children can be safe without depriving them of their rights and freedom to use the internet and preventing them from its benefits. Also, it sheds light on its challenges and problems by classifying the methods of parental controlling into two possibilities asynchronous and synchronous techniques and choosing YouTube as a case study of access control techniques.

Keywords: access control, cyber security, kids, parental monitoring

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6 Students’ Perceptions of the Use of Social Media in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omar Alshehri, Vic Lally

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This paper examined the attitudes of using social media tools to support learning at a university in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it investigated the students’ current usage of these tools and examined the barriers they could face during the use of social media tools in the education process. Participants in this study were 42 university students. A web-based survey was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that all of the students were familiar with social media and had used at least one type of social media for learning. It was found out that all students had very positive attitudes towards the use of social media and welcomed using these tools as a supplementary to the curriculum. However, the results indicated that the major barriers to using these tools in learning were distraction, opposing Islamic religious teachings, privacy issues, and cyberbullying. The study recommended that this study could be replicated at other Saudi universities to investigate factors and barriers that might affect Saudi students’ attitudes toward using social media to support learning.

Keywords: barriers to social media use, benefits of social media use, higher education, Saudi Arabia, social media

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5 Effects and Coping Strategies of Cyber Bullying in Pakistan: A Gender Response

Authors: Rabia Qusien

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New media has emerged as a significant force in the society which connects people across the globe. Where new media brought many advantages for its users, there is a darker aspect of new technology in the form of cyberbullying. Researcher has employed survey method to reach to its targeted audience. Sample of 604 respondents was selected from one of metropolitan city of Pakistan Lahore to collect the data. Equal sample from both genders was selected to apply gender analysis. Results of this study indicate that cyber bullying is having significant psychological and educational effects. Females face more cyber bullying incidents as compared to males so they face more severe effects of cyber bullying. A comprehensive analysis of managing strategies depicts that mostly youth tries to handle this issue personally but at times they seek the support of their family and friends when they face severe issues. Due to privacy concerns females get more upset and they are more likely to seek social support from friends and family.

Keywords: cyber bullying, cyber victims, educational impacts, psychological impacts

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4 Bystander Perceived Severity on Traditional versus Cyber Bullying

Authors: C. Smith, T. Goga, T. Hancock

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Bullying has been an increasingly prevalent problem among society for decades. Approximately one out of every four students report being bullied at least once during the school year. Additionally, these instances of bullying are often witnessed but not reported by the bystanders, which could be dependent on the type of bullying situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate any possible perceptual differences which may exist between traditional bullying (i.e., face to face) and cyberbullying from the bystander’s point of view. Undergraduate students were given a bullying scenario to read from either the traditional condition or the cyber condition. They were then asked to rate how severe they perceived this behavior on a Likert based scale. Participants were also asked if they would intervene (yes or no) and what their individual response would be to the witnessed behavior (report/ignore/confront/other). Results indicated that, while there was no significant difference in perceived severity between the two bullying conditions, there was a significant difference in whether or not participants would intervene between the two types of scenarios. A significant effect was also found between the scenarios for response type. Together, these findings suggest that even though individuals may not be aware of how severe they perceive certain bullying behaviors, the responses they exhibit might suggest otherwise.

Keywords: bullying, bystander, cyber, severity, traditional

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3 Analyzing the Place of Technology in Communication: Case Study of Kenya during COVID-19

Authors: Josephine K. Mule, Levi Obonyo

Abstract:

Technology has changed human life over time. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the work set-up, the school system, the shopping experience, church attendance, and even the way athletes train in Kenya. Although the use of technology to communicate and maintain interactions has been on the rise in the last 30 years, the uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented. Traditionally, ‘paid’ work has been considered to take place outside the “home house” but COVID-19 has resulted in what is now being referred to as “the world’s largest work-from-home experiment” with up to 43 percent of employees working at least some of the time remotely. This study was conducted on 90 respondents from across remote work set-ups, school systems, merchants and customers of online shopping, church leaders and congregants and athletes, and their coaches. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews that were conducted online. The data is based on the first three months since the first case of coronavirus was reported in Kenya. This study found that the use of technology is in the center of working remotely with work interactions being propelled on various online platforms including, Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Google Meet, among others. The school system has also integrated the use of technology, including students defending their thesis/dissertations online and university graduations being conducted virtually. Kenya is known for its long-distance runners, due to the directives to reduce interactions; coaches have taken to providing their athletes with guidance on training on social media using applications such as WhatsApp. More local stores are now offering the shopping online option to their customers. Churches have also felt the brunt of the situation, especially because of the restrictions on crowds resulting in online services becoming more popular in 2020 than ever before. Artists, innovatively have started online musical concerts. The findings indicate that one of the outcomes in the Kenyan society that is evident as a result of the COVID-19 period is a population that is using technology more to communicate and get work done. Vices that have thrived in this season where the use of technology has increased, include the spreading of rumors on social media and cyberbullying. The place of technology seems to have been cemented by demand during this period.

Keywords: communication, coronavirus, COVID-19, Kenya, technology

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2 Detecting Elderly Abuse in US Nursing Homes Using Machine Learning and Text Analytics

Authors: Minh Huynh, Aaron Heuser, Luke Patterson, Chris Zhang, Mason Miller, Daniel Wang, Sandeep Shetty, Mike Trinh, Abigail Miller, Adaeze Enekwechi, Tenille Daniels, Lu Huynh

Abstract:

Machine learning and text analytics have been used to analyze child abuse, cyberbullying, domestic abuse and domestic violence, and hate speech. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no research to date has used these methods to study elder abuse in nursing homes or skilled nursing facilities from field inspection reports. We used machine learning and text analytics methods to analyze 356,000 inspection reports, which have been extracted from CMS Form-2567 field inspections of US nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities between 2016 and 2021. Our algorithm detected occurrences of the various types of abuse, including physical abuse, psychological abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, and passive and active neglect. For example, to detect physical abuse, our algorithms search for combinations or phrases and words suggesting willful infliction of damage (hitting, pinching or burning, tethering, tying), or consciously ignoring an emergency. To detect occurrences of elder neglect, our algorithm looks for combinations or phrases and words suggesting both passive neglect (neglecting vital needs, allowing malnutrition and dehydration, allowing decubiti, deprivation of information, limitation of freedom, negligence toward safety precautions) and active neglect (intimidation and name-calling, tying the victim up to prevent falls without consent, consciously ignoring an emergency, not calling a physician in spite of indication, stopping important treatments, failure to provide essential care, deprivation of nourishment, leaving a person alone for an inappropriate amount of time, excessive demands in a situation of care). We further compare the prevalence of abuse before and after Covid-19 related restrictions on nursing home visits. We also identified the facilities with the most number of cases of abuse with no abuse facilities within a 25-mile radius as most likely candidates for additional inspections. We also built an interactive display to visualize the location of these facilities.

Keywords: machine learning, text analytics, elder abuse, elder neglect, nursing home abuse

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1 Examination of Relationship between Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying in Adolescents

Authors: Adem Peker, Yüksel Eroğlu, İsmail Ay

Abstract:

As the information and communication technologies have become embedded in everyday life of adolescents, both their possible benefits and risks to adolescents are being identified. The information and communication technologies provide opportunities for adolescents to connect with peers and to access to information. However, as with other social connections, users of information and communication devices have the potential to meet and interact with in harmful ways. One emerging example of such interaction is cyber bullying. Cyber bullying occurs when someone uses the information and communication technologies to harass or embarrass another person. Cyber bullying can take the form of malicious text messages and e-mails, spreading rumours, and excluding people from online groups. Cyber bullying has been linked to psychological problems for cyber bullies and victims. Therefore, it is important to determine how internet addiction contributes to cyber bullying. Building on this question, this study takes a closer look at the relationship between internet addiction and cyber bullying. For this purpose, in this study, based on descriptive relational model, it was hypothesized that loss of control, excessive desire to stay online, and negativity in social relationships, which are dimensions of internet addiction, would be associated positively with cyber bullying and victimization. Participants were 383 high school students (176 girls and 207 boys; mean age, 15.7 years). Internet addiction was measured by using Internet Addiction Scale. The Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale was utilized to measure cyber bullying and victimization. The scales were administered to the students in groups in the classrooms. In this study, stepwise regression analyses were utilized to examine the relationships between dimensions of internet addiction and cyber bullying and victimization. Before applying stepwise regression analysis, assumptions of regression were verified. According to stepwise regression analysis, cyber bullying was predicted by loss of control (β=.26, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.13, p<.001). These variables accounted for 9 % of the total variance, with the loss of control explaining the higher percentage (8 %). On the other hand, cyber victimization was predicted by loss of control (β=.19, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.12, p<.001). These variables altogether accounted for 8 % of the variance in cyber victimization, with the best predictor loss of control (7 % of the total variance). The results of this study demonstrated that, as expected, loss of control and negativity in social relationships predicted cyber bullying and victimization positively. However, excessive desire to stay online did not emerge a significant predictor of both cyberbullying and victimization. Consequently, this study would enhance our understanding of the predictors of cyber bullying and victimization since the results proposed that internet addiction is related with cyber bullying and victimization.

Keywords: cyber bullying, internet addiction, adolescents, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 236