Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: nodal

62 In Vitro Morphogenic Response of the Alginate Encapsulated Nodal Segment and Antioxidative Enzymes Analysis during Acclimatization of Cassia Angustifolia Vahl

Authors: Iram Siddique

Abstract:

Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2. 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 µM) + indole -3- acetic acid (1.0 µM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 µM indole -3- butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

Keywords: biochemical studies, nodal segments, rooting, synthetic seeds, thidiazuron

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61 Telephonic Communication in Palliative Care for Better Management of Terminal Cancer Patients in Rural India: An NGO Based Approach

Authors: Aditya Manna, L. K. Khanra, S. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Aim: Due to financial incapability and the absence of manpower-poor families often fail to carry their advanced cancer patients to the nodal centers. This pilot study will explore whether communication by mobile phone can lessen this burden. Method: Initially a plan was generated regarding management of an advanced cancer patient in a nodal center at District Head Quarter. Subsequently every two week a trained social worker attached to the nodal center will follow up and give necessary advice and emotional support to the patients and their families through their registered mobile phone number. Patient’s family were also encouraged to communicate with the team by phone in case of fresh complain and urgency in between. Results: Since initiation in January 2013, 193 cancer patients were contacted by mobile phone every two weeks to enquire about their difficulties. In 76% of the situation trained social workers could give necessary advice by phone regarding management of their physical symptoms. Moreover, patient’s family was really overwhelmed by the emotional support offered by the team over the phone. Only 24% of cancer patients have to attend the nodal center for expert advice from Palliative Care specialists. Conclusion: This novel approach helped: (a) In providing regular physical and emotional support to the patients and their families. (b) In significantly reducing the financial and manpower problems of carrying patients to the nodal units. (c) In improving the quality of life of patients by continuous guidance. More and more team members can take help of this new strategy for better communication and uninterrupted care.

Keywords: palliative care, terminal care, home based palliative care, rural india

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60 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Act, 2013 in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality: Case Study of Apel Nodal Point

Authors: Hlabishi Peter Ntloana

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the effectiveness of the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, in addressing key spatial challenges in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality, mainly focusing on Apel nodal point. Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, popularly known as SPLUMA, aimed at addressing emerging and existing spatial planning and land use management challenges in South Africa. There are critical key spatial challenges that are continuously encountered in Apel Nodal Point, which include dispersed rural settlement mainly in a communal settlement. The spatial patterns and rural settlements development patterns are a challenge, and such results in uncoordinated human settlements. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the spatial planning of Apel nodal points and determine the effectiveness of the SPLUMA policy. Key Informant interviews were conducted with 20 participants, and also the municipal Spatial Development Framework was considered to explore more challenges and proposed recommendations. The results divulged that there is a huge gap in addressing spatial planning, mainly in rural areas, and correlation with the findings of the Municipal Spatial Development framework. In conclusion, spatial planning remains a critical dilemma in most rural settlements, and there must be programmes and strategies to balance the effectiveness of spatial planning in urban and rural settlements.

Keywords: land use management, rural settlement, spatial development framework, spatial planning

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59 In vitro Plant Regeneration of Gonystylus Bancanus (Miq) Kurz. Through Direct Organogenesis

Authors: Grippin Akeng, Suresh Kumar Muniandy, Nor Aini Ab Shukor

Abstract:

Plant regeneration was achieved from shoot tip and nodal segment of Gonystylus bancanus (Miq) Kurz. cultured in Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The most optimum concentration of BAP for shoot initiation is 10.0 mgl⁻¹ with approximately 10% of shoot tip and 15% of nodal segment produced single shoot after 28 and 15 days of culture incubation respectively. Rooting was achieved when shoots were transferred into MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mgl⁻¹ Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Synthesizing results developed through this research can be a starting point for the upscalling and optimization process in future.

Keywords: gonystylus bancanus, organogenesis, shoot initiation, shoot tip

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58 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari

Abstract:

Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, crack, torsional loading, meshless method

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57 Features of the Functional and Spatial Organization of Railway Hubs as a Part of the Urban Nodal Area

Authors: Khayrullina Yulia Sergeevna, Tokareva Goulsine Shavkatovna

Abstract:

The article analyzes the modern major railway hubs as a main part of the Urban Nodal Area (UNA). The term was introduced into the theory of urban planning at the end of the XX century. Tokareva G.S. jointly with Gutnov A.E. investigated the structure-forming elements of the city. UNA is the basic unit, the "cell" of the city structure. Specialization is depending on the position in the frame or the fabric of the city. This is related to feature of its organization. Spatial and functional features of UNA proposed to investigate in this paper. The base object for researching are railway hubs as connective nodes of inner and extern-city communications. Research used a stratified sampling type with the selection of typical objects. Research is being conducted on the 14 railway hubs of the native and foreign experience of the largest cities with a population over 1 million people located in one and close to the Russian climate zones. Features of the organization identified in the complex research of functional and spatial characteristics based on the hypothesis of the existence of dual characteristics of the organization of urban nodes. According to the analysis, there is using the approximation method that enable general conclusions of a representative selection of the entire population of railway hubs and it development’s area. Results of the research show specific ratio of functional and spatial organization of UNA based on railway hubs. Based on it there proposed typology of spaces and urban nodal areas. Identification of spatial diversity and functional organization’s features of the greatest railway hubs and it development’s area gives an indication of the different evolutionary stages of formation approaches. It help to identify new patterns for the complex and effective design as a prediction of the native hub’s development direction.

Keywords: urban nodal area, railway hubs, features of structural, functional organization

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56 Thermo-Aeraulic Studies of a Multizone Building Influence of the Compactness Index

Authors: S. M. A. Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, M. K. Cherier, M. Hamdani, M. R. Yaiche, N. Benamrane

Abstract:

Most codes of building energy simulation neglect the humidity or well represent it with a very simplified method. It is for this reason that we have developed a new approach to the description and modeling of multizone buildings in Saharan climate. The thermal nodal method was used to apprehend thermoaeraulic behavior of air subjected to varied solicitations. In this contribution, analyzing the building geometry introduced the concept of index compactness as "quotient of external walls area and volume of the building". Physical phenomena that we have described in this paper, allow to build the model of the coupled thermoaeraulic behavior. The comparison shows that the found results are to some extent satisfactory. The result proves that temperature and specific humidity depending on compactness and geometric shape. Proper use of compactness index and building geometry parameters will noticeably minimize building energy.

Keywords: multizone model, nodal method, compactness index, specific humidity, temperature

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55 Effects of Aerodynamic on Suspended Cables Using Non-Linear Finite Element Approach

Authors: Justin Nwabanne, Sam Omenyi, Jeremiah Chukwuneke

Abstract:

This work presents structural nonlinear static analysis of a horizontal taut cable using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The FEA was performed analytically to determine the tensions at each nodal point and subsequently, performed based on finite element displacement method computationally using the FEA software, ANSYS 14.0 to determine their behaviour under the influence of aerodynamic forces imposed on the cable. The convergence procedure is adapted into the method to prevent excessive displacements through the computations. The work compared the two FEA cases by examining the effectiveness of the analytical model in describing the response with few degrees of freedom and the ability of the nonlinear finite element procedure adopted to capture the complex features of cable dynamics with reference to the aerodynamic external influence. Results obtained from this work explain that the analytic FEM results without aerodynamic influence show a parabolic response with an optimum deflection at nodal points 12 and 13 with the cable weight at nodes 12 and 13 having the value -1.002936N while for the cable tension shows an optimum deflection value for nodes 12 and 13 at -189396.97kg/km. The maximum displacement for the cable system was obtained from ANSYS 14.0 as 4483.83 mm for X, Y and Z components of displacements at node number 2 while the maximum displacement obtained is 4218.75mm for all the directional components. The dynamic behaviour of a taut cable investigated has application in a typical power transmission line. Aerodynamic influences on the cables were considered using FEA approach by employing ANSYS 14.0 showed a complex modal behaviour as expected.

Keywords: aerodynamics, cable tension and weight, finite element analysis, nodal, non-linear model, optimum deflection, suspended cable, transmission line

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54 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie

Abstract:

It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: crack path, fatigue crack, fatigue live, FCG-system, virtual crack closure technique

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53 Reintroduction and in vitro Propagation of Declapeis arayalpathra: A Critically Endangered Plant of Western Ghats, India

Authors: Zishan Ahmad, Anwar Shahzad

Abstract:

The present studies describe a protocol for high frequency in vitro propagation through nodal segments and shoot tips in D. arayalpathra, a critically endangered medicinal liana of the Western Ghats, India. Nodal segments were more responsive than shoot tips in terms of shoot multiplication. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2.5 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) was optimum for shoot induction through both the explants. Among different combinations of plant growth regulator (PGRs) and growth additive screened, MS medium supplemented with BA (2.5 µM) + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.25 µM) + adenine sulphate (ADS) (10.0 µM) induced a maximum of 9.0 shoots per nodal segment and 3.9 shoots per shoot tip with mean shoot length of 8.5 and 3.9 cm respectively. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (2.5 µM) was the best for in vitro root induction. After successful acclimatization in SoilriteTM, 92 % plantlets were survived in field conditions. Acclimatized plantlets were studied for chlorophyll and carotenoid content, net photosynthetic rate (PN) and related attributes such as stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate during subsequent days of acclimatization. The rise and fall of different biochemical enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) were also studies during successful days of acclimatization. Moreover, the effect of acclimatization on the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB) was also studied in relation to the biomass production. Maximum fresh weight (2.8 gm/plant), dry weight (0.35 gm/plant) of roots and 2H4MB content (8.5 µg/ ml of root extract) were recorded after 8 weeks of acclimatization. The screening of in vitro raised plantlet root was also carried out by using GC-MS analysis which witnessed more than 25 compounds. The regenerated plantlets were also screened for homogeneity by using RAPD and ISSR. The proposed protocol surely can be used for the conservation and commercial production of the plant.

Keywords: 6-benzyladenine, PGRs, RAPD, 2H4MB

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52 An Engineering Application of the H-P Version of the Finite Element Method on Vibration Behavior of Rotors

Authors: Hadjoui Abdelhamid, Saimi Ahmed

Abstract:

The hybrid h-p finite element method for the dynamic behavior of nonlinear rotors is described in this paper. The standard h-version method of discretizing the problem is retained, but modified to allow the use of polynomially-enriched beam elements. A hierarchically enriching element will thus not affect the nodal displacement and rotation, but will influence the values of the nodal bending moment and shear force is used. The deterministic movements of rotation and translation of the support which are coupled to the excitations due to unbalance are also taken into account. We study also the geometric dissymmetry of the shaft and the disc, thus the equations of motion of the rotor contain variable parametric coefficients over time that can lead to a lateral dynamic instability. The effects of movements combined support for bearings are analyzed and discussed through Campbell diagrams and spectral analyses. A program is made in Matlab. After validation of the program, several examples are studied. The influence of physical and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies of the shaft is determined through the study of these examples. Among these parameters, we include the variation in the diameter and the thickness of the rotor, the position of the disc.

Keywords: Campbell diagram, critical speeds, nonlinear rotor, version h-p of FEM

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51 Saline Water Transgression into Fresh Coastal Groundwater in the Confined Aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Adebo, Adedeji Adetoyinbo

Abstract:

Groundwater is an important constituent of the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in augmenting water supply to meet the ever-increasing needs of people for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, this important resource has in most cases been contaminated due to the advancement of seawater into the fresh groundwater. This is due to the high volume of water being abstracted in these areas as a result of a high population of coastal dwellers. The knowledge of salinity level and intrusion of saltwater into the freshwater aquifer is, therefore, necessary for groundwater monitoring and prediction in the coastal areas. In this work, an advection-dispersion saltwater intrusion model is used to study and simulate saltwater intrusion in a typical coastal aquifer. The aquifer portion was divided into a grid with elements and nodes. Map of the study area indicating well locations were overlain on the grid system such that these locations coincide with the nodes. Chlorides at these well were considered as initial nodal salinities. Results showed a highest and lowest increase in simulated chloride of 37.89 mg/L and 0.8 mg/L respectively. It also revealed that the chloride concentration of most of the considered well might climb unacceptable level in the next few years, if the current abstraction rate continues unabated.

Keywords: saltwater intrusion, coastal aquifer, nodal salinity, chloride concentration

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50 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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49 Altered L-Type Calcium Channel Activity in Atrioventricular Nodal Myocytes from Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Kathryn H. Yull, Lina T. Al Kury, Frank Christopher Howarth

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in patients with Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. In the present study, using streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of Type-1 DM, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current (ICaL). A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. ICaL also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident. These findings demonstrate that experimentally–induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. The changes in ion channel activity may underlie the abnormalities in the cardiac electrical function that contribute to the high mortality levels in patients with DM.

Keywords: cardiac, ion-channel, diabetes, atrioventricular node, calcium channel

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48 Positron Emission Tomography Parameters as Predictors of Pathologic Response and Nodal Clearance in Patients with Stage IIIA NSCLC Receiving Trimodality Therapy

Authors: Andrea L. Arnett, Ann T. Packard, Yolanda I. Garces, Kenneth W. Merrell

Abstract:

Objective: Pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) has been associated with improved overall survival (OS). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the pathologic predictive value of positron emission tomography (PET) response in patients with stage III lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between post-treatment PET response and pathologic response utilizing novel FDG-PET parameters. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with non-metastatic, stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC cancer treated with CRT followed by resection. All patients underwent PET prior to and after neoadjuvant CRT. Univariate analysis was utilized to assess correlations between PET response, nodal clearance, pCR, and near-complete pathologic response (defined as the microscopic residual disease or less). Maximal standard uptake value (SUV), standard uptake ratio (SUR) [normalized independently to the liver (SUR-L) and blood pool (SUR-BP)], metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured pre- and post-chemoradiation. Results: A total of 44 patients were included for review. Median age was 61.9 years, and median follow-up was 2.6 years. Histologic subtypes included adenocarcinoma (72.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (22.7%), and the majority of patients had the T2 disease (59.1%). The rate of pCR and near-complete pathologic response within the primary lesion was 28.9% and 44.4%, respectively. The average reduction in SUVmₐₓ was 9.2 units (range -1.9-32.8), and the majority of patients demonstrated some degree of favorable treatment response. SUR-BP and SUR-L showed a mean reduction of 4.7 units (range -0.1-17.3) and 3.5 units (range –1.7-12.6), respectively. Variation in PET response was not significantly associated with histologic subtype, concurrent chemotherapy type, stage, or radiation dose. No significant correlation was found between pathologic response and absolute change in MTV or TLG. Reduction in SUVmₐₓ and SUR were associated with increased rate of pathologic response (p ≤ 0.02). This correlation was not impacted by normalization of SUR to liver versus mediastinal blood pool. A threshold of > 75% decrease in SUR-L correlated with near-complete response, with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 85.7%, as well as positive and negative predictive values of 78.6% and 69.2%, respectively (diagnostic odds ratio [DOR]: 5.6, p=0.02). A threshold of >50% decrease in SUR was also significantly associated pathologic response (DOR 12.9, p=0.2), but specificity was substantially lower when utilizing this threshold value. No significant association was found between nodal PET parameters and pathologic nodal clearance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment response to neoadjuvant therapy as assessed on PET imaging can be a predictor of pathologic response when evaluated via SUV and SUR. SUR parameters were associated with higher diagnostic odds ratios, suggesting improved predictive utility compared to SUVmₐₓ. MTV and TLG did not prove to be significant predictors of pathologic response but may warrant further investigation in a larger cohort of patients.

Keywords: lung cancer, positron emission tomography (PET), standard uptake ratio (SUR), standard uptake value (SUV)

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47 Calculating Asphaltenes Precipitation Onset Pressure by Using Cardanol as Precipitation Inhibitor: A Strategy to Increment the Oil Well Production

Authors: Camilo A. Guerrero-Martin, Erik Montes Paez, Marcia C. K. Oliveira, Jonathan Campos, Elizabete F. Lucas

Abstract:

Asphaltenes precipitation is considered as a formation damage problem, which can reduce the oil recovery factor. It fouls piping and surface installations, as well as cause serious flow assurance complications and decline oil well production. Therefore, researchers have shown an interest in chemical treatments to control this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to assess the asphaltenes precipitation onset of crude oils in the presence of cardanol, by titrating the crude with n-heptane. Moreover, based on this results obtained at atmosphere pressure, the asphaltenes precipitation onset pressure were calculated to predict asphaltenes precipitation in the reservoir, by using differential liberation and refractive index data of the oils. The influence of cardanol concentrations in the asphaltenes stabilization of three Brazilian crude oils samples (with similar API densities) was studied. Therefore, four formulations of cardanol in toluene were prepared: 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 m/m%. The formulations were added to the crude at 2:98 ratio. The petroleum samples were characterized by API density, elemental analysis and differential liberation test. The asphaltenes precipitation onset (APO) was determined by titrating with n-heptane and monitoring with near-infrared (NIR). UV-Vis spectroscopy experiments were also done to assess the precipitate asphaltenes content. The asphaltenes precipitation envelopes (APE) were also determined by numerical simulation (Multiflash). In addition, the adequate artificial lift systems (ALS) for the oils were selected. It was based on the downhole well profile and a screening methodology. Finally, the oil flowrates were modelling by NODAL analysis production system in the PIPESIM software. The results of this study show that the asphaltenes precipitation onset of the crude oils were 2.2, 2.3 and 6.0 mL of n-heptane/g of oil. The cardanol was an effective inhibitor of asphaltenes precipitation for the crude oils used in this study, since it displaces the precipitation pressure of the oil to lower values. This indicates that cardanol can increase the oil wells productivity.

Keywords: asphaltenes, NODAL analysis production system, precipitation pressure onset, inhibitory molecule

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46 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Frédéric Kuznik, Joseph Virgone

Abstract:

The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing

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45 Determination of Optimal Stress Locations in 2D–9 Noded Element in Finite Element Technique

Authors: Nishant Shrivastava, D. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

In Finite Element Technique nodal stresses are calculated through displacement as nodes. In this process, the displacement calculated at nodes is sufficiently good enough but stresses calculated at nodes are not sufficiently accurate. Therefore, the accuracy in the stress computation in FEM models based on the displacement technique is obviously matter of concern for computational time in shape optimization of engineering problems. In the present work same is focused to find out unique points within the element as well as the boundary of the element so, that good accuracy in stress computation can be achieved. Generally, major optimal stress points are located in domain of the element some points have been also located at boundary of the element where stresses are fairly accurate as compared to nodal values. Then, it is subsequently concluded that there is an existence of unique points within the element, where stresses have higher accuracy than other points in the elements. Therefore, it is main aim is to evolve a generalized procedure for the determination of the optimal stress location inside the element as well as at the boundaries of the element and verify the same with results from numerical experimentation. The results of quadratic 9 noded serendipity elements are presented and the location of distinct optimal stress points is determined inside the element, as well as at the boundaries. The theoretical results indicate various optimal stress locations are in local coordinates at origin and at a distance of 0.577 in both directions from origin. Also, at the boundaries optimal stress locations are at the midpoints of the element boundary and the locations are at a distance of 0.577 from the origin in both directions. The above findings were verified through experimentation and findings were authenticated. For numerical experimentation five engineering problems were identified and the numerical results of 9-noded element were compared to those obtained by using the same order of 25-noded quadratic Lagrangian elements, which are considered as standard. Then root mean square errors are plotted with respect to various locations within the elements as well as the boundaries and conclusions were drawn. After numerical verification it is noted that in a 9-noded element, origin and locations at a distance of 0.577 from origin in both directions are the best sampling points for the stresses. It was also noted that stresses calculated within line at boundary enclosed by 0.577 midpoints are also very good and the error found is very less. When sampling points move away from these points, then it causes line zone error to increase rapidly. Thus, it is established that there are unique points at boundary of element where stresses are accurate, which can be utilized in solving various engineering problems and are also useful in shape optimizations.

Keywords: finite elements, Lagrangian, optimal stress location, serendipity

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44 Micropropagation of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L’Her., Using Petiole and Leaf Explants

Authors: Mohammad Ali Aazami Mavaloo, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Intact leaves, leaf segments and petiole sections derived from nodal explants in vitro were employed for the optimization of Pelargonium odoratissimum micropropagation. MS and ½ MS media enriched with BAP (1, 1.5, 2 and 4.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.1, 1 and 1.5 mg/l) were the treatment combinations used for. With leaf segments, the lowest browning incidence, the greatest callogenesis and the highest number of shoots were obtained with the media containing 1.5 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA. Two mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA hold the same results for petiole explants. Intact leaves showed the best results for the three before-mentioned traits with 1 mg/L BAP + 1 mg/L NAA. 0.2 mg/L NAA caused the highest rooting percentage and the greatest mean data for the number and length of the roots. Rooted plantlets were transferred to the pots containing 1:1 peat-moss and perlite. Acclimatization of the plantlets was followed by 90 percent of survival rate in the greenhouse.

Keywords: Pelargonium odoratissimum, micropropagation, BAP, NAA

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43 Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction

Authors: E. Cesarini, M. Lorenzini, R. Cardarelli, S. Chao, E. Coccia, V. Fafone, Y. Minenkow, I. Nardecchia, I. M. Pinto, A. Rocchi, V. Sequino, C. Taranto

Abstract:

Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti2O/SiO2), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.

Keywords: mechanical measurement, nanomaterials, optical coating, thermal noise

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42 Comparison between the Quadratic and the Cubic Linked Interpolation on the Mindlin Plate Four-Node Quadrilateral Finite Elements

Authors: Dragan Ribarić

Abstract:

We employ the so-called problem-dependent linked interpolation concept to develop two cubic 4-node quadrilateral Mindlin plate finite elements with 12 external degrees of freedom. In the problem-independent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions are independent of any problem material parameters and the rotation fields are not expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. On the contrary, in the problem-dependent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions depend on the material parameters and the rotation fields are expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. Two cubic 4-node quadrilateral plate elements are presented, named Q4-U3 and Q4-U3R5. The first one is modelled with one displacement and two rotation degrees of freedom in every of the four element nodes and the second element has five additional internal degrees of freedom to get polynomial completeness of the cubic form and which can be statically condensed within the element. Both elements are able to pass the constant-bending patch test exactly as well as the non-zero constant-shear patch test on the oriented regular mesh geometry in the case of cylindrical bending. In any mesh shape, the elements have the correct rank and only the three eigenvalues, corresponding to the solid body motions are zero. There are no additional spurious zero modes responsible for instability of the finite element models. In comparison with the problem-independent cubic linked interpolation implemented in Q9-U3, the nine-node plate element, significantly less degrees of freedom are employed in the model while retaining the interpolation conformity between adjacent elements. The presented elements are also compared to the existing problem-independent quadratic linked-interpolation element Q4-U2 and to the other known elements that also use the quadratic or the cubic linked interpolation, by testing them on several benchmark examples. Simple functional upgrading from the quadratic to the cubic linked interpolation, implemented in Q4-U3 element, showed no significant improvement compared to the quadratic linked form of the Q4-U2 element. Only when the additional bubble terms are incorporated in the displacement and rotation function fields, which complete the full cubic linked interpolation form, qualitative improvement is fulfilled in the Q4-U3R5 element. Nevertheless, the locking problem exists even for the both presented elements, like in all pure displacement elements when applied to very thin plates modelled by coarse meshes. But good and even slightly better performance can be noticed for the Q4-U3R5 element when compared with elements from the literature, if the model meshes are moderately dense and the plate thickness not extremely thin. In some cases, it is comparable to or even better than Q9-U3 element which has as many as 12 more external degrees of freedom. A significant improvement can be noticed in particular when modeling very skew plates and models with singularities in the stress fields as well as circular plates with distorted meshes.

Keywords: Mindlin plate theory, problem-independent linked interpolation, problem-dependent interpolation, quadrilateral displacement-based plate finite elements

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41 Determining Factors of Suspended Glass Systems with Pre-Stress Cable Truss

Authors: Cemil Atakara, Hüseyin Eryaman

Abstract:

The use of glass as an envelope of a building has been increasing in the twentieth century. For more transparency and dematerialization new glass facade types have emerged in the past two decades which depends on point fixed glazing system (PFGS). The aim of this study is to analyze of the PFGS systems which are used on the glass curtain wall according to their types, degree, architectural and structural effects. This new system is desired because it enhances the transparency of the façade and it minimizes the component of the frames or of the profiles. This PFGS led to new structural elements which use cables, rods, trusses when designing a glass building facades, this structural element called the suspended glass system with pre-stressed cable truss (SGSPCT) which has been used for the first time in 1980 in Serres building. The twenty glass buildings which are designed in different systems have been analyzed during this study. After these analyses five selected SGSPCT building analyzed deeply and one skeletal frame building selected from Lefkosa redesigned according to the analysis results. These selected buildings have been included of various cable-truss system typologies and degree. The methodology of this study is building analysis method and literature survey with the help of books, articles, magazines, drawings, internet sources and applied connection details of the glass buildings. The selected five glass buildings and case building have been detailed analyzed with their architectural drawings, photographs and details. A gridshell structure can be compared with a shell structure; it consists of discrete members connecting nodal points. As these nodal points lie on the surface of an imaginary shell, their shapes function almost identically. Difference between shell and gridshell structures can be found in the fact that, due to their free-form and thus, due to the presence of bending forces, gridshells are required to resist loading through their cross-section. This research is divided into parts. A general study about the glass building and cable-glass and grid shell system will be done in the first chapters. Structural analyses and detailed analyses with schematic drawings with the plans, sections of the selected buildings will be explained in the second part. The third part it consists of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the SGSPCT and Grid Shell in architecture. The study consists of four chapters including the introduction chapter. The general information of the SGSPCT and glazing system has been mentioned in the first chapter. Structural features, typologies, transparency principle and analytical information on systems have been explained of the selected buildings in the second chapter. The detailed analyses of case building have been done according to their schematic drawings with the plans, sections in the third chapter. After third chapter SGSPCT discussed on to the case building and selected buildings. SGSPCT systems have been compared with their advantages and disadvantages to the other systems. Advantages of cable-truss systems and SGSPCT have been concluded that the use of glass substrates in the last chapter.

Keywords: cable truss, glass, grid shell, transparency

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40 Synchronous Carcinoma Cervix with Vulvar Carcinoma in situ: A Case Report

Authors: Bhushan Bhalgat, Suresh Singh, Phanindra Swain, Kamal Kishore Lakhera

Abstract:

Carcinoma of cervix and carcinoma of vulva have been associated with common predisposing factors like human papillomavirus and smoking. Skip metastases and metachronous appearance of both these tumours have been reported. There is no case report showing synchronous appearance of these tumours in English literature. We herewith report a case report of a middle aged female patient who presented with per vaginal bleeding, and on examination, a cervical mass was palpable. Also, a proliferative growth was seen over her left vulva. Biopsy of both lesions came out to be squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ, respectively. A radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodal dissection was performed along with left simple vulvectomy. This thereby underscores that any lesion over vulva appearing during or after treatment of cervical carcinoma should be biopsied to rule out vulvar carcinoma.

Keywords: carcinoma of cervix, carcinoma of vulva, synchronous tumours, gynecological oncology

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39 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux

Abstract:

The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions.

Keywords: confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots

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38 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

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37 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Classification in RGB Images

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Ahad Salimi, Nazanin Barhemmat, Babak Gholami

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks have gained a lot of interest as empirical models for their powerful representational capacity, multi input and output mapping characteristics. In fact, most feed-forward networks with nonlinear nodal functions have been proved to be universal approximates. In this paper, we propose a new supervised method for color image classification based on self organizing feature maps (SOFM). This algorithm is based on competitive learning. The method partitions the input space using self-organizing feature maps to introduce the concept of local neighborhoods. Our image classification system entered into RGB image. Experiments with simulated data showed that separability of classes increased when increasing training time. In additional, the result shows proposed algorithms are effective for color image classification.

Keywords: classification, SOFM algorithm, neural network, neighborhood, RGB image

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36 A Runge Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Lagrangian Compressible Euler Equations in Two-Dimensions

Authors: Xijun Yu, Zhenzhen Li, Zupeng Jia

Abstract:

This paper presents a new cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for two-dimensional compressible flow. The new scheme uses a semi-Lagrangian form of the Euler equations. The system of equations is discretized by Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method using the Taylor basis in Eulerian space. The vertex velocities and the numerical fluxes through the cell interfaces are computed consistently by a nodal solver. The mesh moves with the fluid flow. The time marching is implemented by a class of the Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. A WENO reconstruction is used as a limiter for the RKDG method. The scheme is conservative for the mass, momentum and total energy. The scheme maintains second-order accuracy and has free parameters. Results of some numerical tests are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the robustness of the scheme.

Keywords: cell-centered Lagrangian scheme, compressible Euler equations, RKDG method

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35 Modeling of Complex Structures: Shear Wall with Openings and Stiffened Shells

Authors: Temami Oussama, Bessais Lakhdar, Hamadi Djamal, Abderrahmani Sifeddine

Abstract:

The analysis of complex structures encourages the engineer to make simplifying assumptions, sometimes attempting the analysis of the whole structure as complex as it is, and it can be done using the finite element method (FEM). In the modeling of complex structures by finite elements, various elements can be used: beam element, membrane element, solid element, plates and shells elements. These elements formulated according to the classical formulation and do not generally share the same nodal degrees of freedom, which complicates the development of a compatible model. The compatibility of the elements with each other is often a difficult problem for modeling complicated structure. This compatibility is necessary to ensure the convergence. To overcome this problem, we have proposed finite elements with a rotational degree of freedom. The study used is based on the strain approach formulation with 2D and 3D formulation with different degrees of freedom at each node. For the comparison and confrontation of results; the finite elements available in ABAQUS/Standard are used.

Keywords: compatibility requirement, complex structures, finite elements, modeling, strain approach

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34 Numerical Model of Crude Glycerol Autothermal Reforming to Hydrogen-Rich Syngas

Authors: A. Odoom, A. Salama, H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Hydrogen is a clean source of energy for power production and transportation. The main source of hydrogen in this research is biodiesel. Glycerol also called glycerine is a by-product of biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oils and methanol. This is a reliable and environmentally-friendly source of hydrogen production than fossil fuels. A typical composition of crude glycerol comprises of glycerol, water, organic and inorganic salts, soap, methanol and small amounts of glycerides. Crude glycerol has limited industrial application due to its low purity thus, the usage of crude glycerol can significantly enhance the sustainability and production of biodiesel. Reforming techniques is an approach for hydrogen production mainly Steam Reforming (SR), Autothermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation Reforming (POR). SR produces high hydrogen conversions and yield but is highly endothermic whereas POR is exothermic. On the downside, PO yields lower hydrogen as well as large amount of side reactions. ATR which is a fusion of partial oxidation reforming and steam reforming is thermally neutral because net reactor heat duty is zero. It has relatively high hydrogen yield, selectivity as well as limits coke formation. The complex chemical processes that take place during the production phases makes it relatively difficult to construct a reliable and robust numerical model. Numerical model is a tool to mimic reality and provide insight into the influence of the parameters. In this work, we introduce a finite volume numerical study for an 'in-house' lab-scale experiment of ATR. Previous numerical studies on this process have considered either using Comsol or nodal finite difference analysis. Since Comsol is a commercial package which is not readily available everywhere and lab-scale experiment can be considered well mixed in the radial direction. One spatial dimension suffices to capture the essential feature of ATR, in this work, we consider developing our own numerical approach using MATLAB. A continuum fixed bed reactor is modelled using MATLAB with both pseudo homogeneous and heterogeneous models. The drawback of nodal finite difference formulation is that it is not locally conservative which means that materials and momenta can be generated inside the domain as an artifact of the discretization. Control volume, on the other hand, is locally conservative and suites very well problems where materials are generated and consumed inside the domain. In this work, species mass balance, Darcy’s equation and energy equations are solved using operator splitting technique. Therefore, diffusion-like terms are discretized implicitly while advection-like terms are discretized explicitly. An upwind scheme is adapted for the advection term to ensure accuracy and positivity. Comparisons with the experimental data show very good agreements which build confidence in our modeling approach. The models obtained were validated and optimized for better results.

Keywords: autothermal reforming, crude glycerol, hydrogen, numerical model

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33 The Application of the Analytic Basis Function Expansion Triangular-z Nodal Method for Neutron Diffusion Calculation

Authors: Kunpeng Wang, Hongchun, Wu, Liangzhi Cao, Chuanqi Zhao

Abstract:

The distributions of homogeneous neutron flux within a node were expanded into a set of analytic basis functions which satisfy the diffusion equation at any point in a triangular-z node for each energy group, and nodes were coupled with each other with both the zero- and first-order partial neutron current moments across all the interfaces of the triangular prism at the same time. Based this method, a code TABFEN has been developed and applied to solve the neutron diffusion equation in a complicated geometry. In addition, after a series of numerical derivation, one can get the neutron adjoint diffusion equations in matrix form which is the same with the neutron diffusion equation; therefore, it can be solved by TABFEN, and the low-high scan strategy is adopted to improve the efficiency. Four benchmark problems are tested by this method to verify its feasibility, the results show good agreement with the references which demonstrates the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

Keywords: analytic basis function expansion method, arbitrary triangular-z node, adjoint neutron flux, complicated geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 318