Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Johan Bekker

32 A Simple Device for in-Situ Direct Shear and Sinkage Tests

Authors: A. Jerves, H. Ling, J. Gabaldon, M. Usoltceva, C. Couste, A. Agarwal, R. Hurley, J. Andrade


This work introduces a simple device designed to perform in-situ direct shear and sinkage tests on granular materials as sand, clays, or regolith. It consists of a box nested within a larger box. Both have open bottoms, allowing them to be lowered into the material. Afterwards, two rotating plates on opposite sides of the outer box will rotate outwards in order to clear regolith on either side, providing room for the inner box to move relative to the plates and perform a shear test without the resistance of the surrounding soil. From this test, Coulomb parameters, including cohesion and internal friction angle, as well as, Bekker parameters can be in erred. This device has been designed for a laboratory setting, but with few modi cations, could be put on the underside of a rover for use in a remote location. The goal behind this work is to ultimately create a compact, but accurate measuring tool to put onto a rover or any kind of exploratory vehicle to test for regolith properties of celestial bodies.

Keywords: simple shear, friction angle, Bekker parameters, device, regolith

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31 Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Cloud Movement in a Basic Off-Grid Photovoltaic System: Case Study Using Transient Response of DC-DC Converters

Authors: Asowata Osamede, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker


Mismatch in electrical energy (power) or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to the public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The necessity for a well-structured photovoltaic (PV) system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The major renewable energy potential on earth is provided from solar radiation and solar photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduction on the dependence on fossil fuels. Solar arrays which consist of various PV module should be operated at the maximum power point in order to reduce the overall cost of the system. So power regulation and conditioning circuits should be incorporated in the set-up of a PV system. Power regulation circuits used in PV systems include maximum power point trackers, DC-DC converters and solar chargers. Inappropriate choice of power conditioning device in a basic off-grid PV system can attribute to power loss, hence the need for a right choice of power conditioning device to be coupled with the system of the essence. This paper presents the design and implementation of a power conditioning devices in order to improve the overall yield from the availability of solar energy and the system’s total efficiency. The power conditioning devices taken into consideration in the project includes the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters as well as solar chargers with MPPT. A logging interface circuit (LIC) is designed and employed into the system. The LIC is designed on a printed circuit board. It basically has DC current signalling sensors, specifically the LTS 6-NP. The LIC is consequently required to program the voltages in the system (these include the PV voltage and the power conditioning device voltage). The voltage is structured in such a way that it can be accommodated by the data logger. Preliminary results which include availability of power as well as power loss in the system and efficiency will be presented and this would be used to draw the final conclusion.

Keywords: tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers, PV panels, storage devices, direct solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
30 Switching of Series-Parallel Connected Modules in an Array for Partially Shaded Conditions in a Pollution Intensive Area Using High Powered MOSFETs

Authors: Osamede Asowata, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker


Photovoltaic (PV) modules may become a trend for future PV systems because of their greater flexibility in distributed system expansion, easier installation due to their nature, and higher system-level energy harnessing capabilities under shaded or PV manufacturing mismatch conditions. This is as compared to the single or multi-string inverters. Novel residential scale PV arrays are commonly connected to the grid by a single DC–AC inverter connected to a series, parallel or series-parallel string of PV panels, or many small DC–AC inverters which connect one or two panels directly to the AC grid. With an increasing worldwide interest in sustainable energy production and use, there is renewed focus on the power electronic converter interface for DC energy sources. Three specific examples of such DC energy sources that will have a role in distributed generation and sustainable energy systems are the photovoltaic (PV) panel, the fuel cell stack, and batteries of various chemistries. A high-efficiency inverter using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) for all active switches is presented for a non-isolated photovoltaic and AC-module applications. The proposed configuration features a high efficiency over a wide load range, low ground leakage current and low-output AC-current distortion with no need for split capacitors. The detailed power stage operating principles, pulse width modulation scheme, multilevel bootstrap power supply, and integrated gate drivers for the proposed inverter is described. Experimental results of a hardware prototype, show that not only are MOSFET efficient in the system, it also shows that the ground leakage current issues are alleviated in the proposed inverter and also a 98 % maximum associated driver circuit is achieved. This, in turn, provides the need for a possible photovoltaic panel switching technique. This will help to reduce the effect of cloud movements as well as improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic (PV), Matlab efficiency simulation, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), module integrated converters (MICs), multilevel converter, series connected converter

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29 A Machine Learning Decision Support Framework for Industrial Engineering Purposes

Authors: Anli Du Preez, James Bekker


Data is currently one of the most critical and influential emerging technologies. However, the true potential of data is yet to be exploited since, currently, about 1% of generated data are ever actually analyzed for value creation. There is a data gap where data is not explored due to the lack of data analytics infrastructure and the required data analytics skills. This study developed a decision support framework for data analytics by following Jabareen’s framework development methodology. The study focused on machine learning algorithms, which is a subset of data analytics. The developed framework is designed to assist data analysts with little experience, in choosing the appropriate machine learning algorithm given the purpose of their application.

Keywords: Data analytics, Industrial engineering, Machine learning, Value creation

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28 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong


In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

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27 Forward Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines for the Generation of Music

Authors: Johan Loeckx, Joeri Bultheel


Recently, the application of deep learning to music has gained popularity. Its true potential, however, has been largely unexplored. In this paper, a new idea for representing the dynamic behavior of music is proposed. A ”forward” conditional RBM takes into account not only preceding but also future samples during training. Though this may sound controversial at first sight, it will be shown that it makes sense from a musical and neuro-cognitive perspective. The model is applied to reconstruct music based upon the first notes and to improvise in the musical style of a composer. Different to expectations, reconstruction accuracy with respect to a regular CRBM with the same order, was not significantly improved. More research is needed to test the performance on unseen data.

Keywords: deep learning, restricted boltzmann machine, music generation, conditional restricted boltzmann machine (CRBM)

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26 The Relationship between Organizational Political Behavior and Moral Values with Work Engagement in Sport Employees of National Iranian Gas Company

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Mahnaz Ahmadikhatir, Siavash Hamidzadeh


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational political behavior and ethical values with the job enthusiasm of the sport personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company. The population of this research included all personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company's sports personnel (150 people). For collecting information, library resources and three questionnaires, organizational political behavior by Kaspar and Carlsen (1997), Lewall's moral values questionnaire (1986) and job enthusiasm questionnaire Schaufeli & Bekker (2003) have been used. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by university professors. Using Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient, the reliability of the organizational political behavior questionnaire was 0.92, the moral values questionnaire was 0.86 and the Schaufeli & Baker job enthusiasm questionnaire was 0.91-0.96. The results of this research show a significant, direct and positive relationship between the components of job aspiration with political behavior and ethical values. Therefore, managers of organizations should, as far as possible, remove political behaviors from the organization and be able to institutionalize ethical values in their organization so that they can increase employee eagerness.

Keywords: political behavior, ethical values, job enthusiasm, staff, national Iranian gas company

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25 A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition

Authors: Annie Gedion, Johan Severinus Tati, Jacinta Caroline Peter


Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.

Keywords: errors analysis, syntactic analysis, English as a second language, ESL writing

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24 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad, Shantha Kumari Muniyandi


The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: nonmetallic, printed circuit board, treatment, reuse

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23 Macroinvertebrate Variation of Endorheic Depression Wetlands within North West and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

Authors: Lee-Ann Foster, Wynand Malherbe, Martin Ferriera, Johan Van Vuren


Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variability. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetlands. The objective of this study was to compare the spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages within endorheic depressions in Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Sampling was conducted over a period of two seasons during 2012 and 2013 at all sampling points to account for a wet and dry season. The identification of macroinvertebrate community samples resulted in 24 taxa for both provinces. Results showed similarities in the structure of communities in perennial endorheic depressions in both provinces with the exception of one or two species. Macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga depressions (locally called pans) were similar to those reported in previous studies completed in the area and most of the macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga and the North West are known to be commonly found in temporary habitats. The knowledge acquired can now be utilised to enhance the available literature on these systems. Long-term studies have to be implemented to better understand the ecological functioning of the pans in the North West Province.

Keywords: aquatic, macroinvertebrate assemblages, pans, spatial variation

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22 Parameters Adjustment of the Modified UBCSand Constitutive Model for the Potentially Liquefiable Sands of Santiago de Cali-Colombia

Authors: Daniel Rosero, Johan S. Arana, Sebastian Arango, Alejandro Cruz, Isabel Gomez-Gutierrez, Peter Thomson


Santiago de Cali is located in the southwestern Colombia in a high seismic hazard zone. About 50% of the city is on the banks of the Cauca River, which is the second most important hydric affluent in the country and whose alluvial deposits contain potentially liquefiable sands. Among the methods used to study a site's liquefaction potential is the finite elements method which use constitutive models to simulate the soil response for different load types. Among the different constitutive models, the Modified UBCSand stands out to study the seismic behavior of sands, and especially the liquefaction phenomenon. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a potentially liquefiable sand of Santiago de Cali is studied by cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. Subsequently, the behavior of the sand is simulated using the Modified UBCSand constitutive model, whose parameters are calibrated using the results of cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. The above with the aim of analyze the constitutive model applicability for studying the geotechnical problems associated to liquefaction in the city.

Keywords: constitutive model, cyclic triaxial test, dynamic behavior, liquefiable sand, modified ubcsand

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21 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez


In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

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20 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas


The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: dietary supplements, food, health, functional food, Colombia

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19 Automatic Identification and Monitoring of Wildlife via Computer Vision and IoT

Authors: Bilal Arshad, Johan Barthelemy, Elliott Pilton, Pascal Perez


Getting reliable, informative, and up-to-date information about the location, mobility, and behavioural patterns of animals will enhance our ability to research and preserve biodiversity. The fusion of infra-red sensors and camera traps offers an inexpensive way to collect wildlife data in the form of images. However, extracting useful data from these images, such as the identification and counting of animals remains a manual, time-consuming, and costly process. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information can be automatically retrieved by using state-of-the-art deep learning methods. Another major challenge that ecologists are facing is the recounting of one single animal multiple times due to that animal reappearing in other images taken by the same or other camera traps. Nonetheless, such information can be extremely useful for tracking wildlife and understanding its behaviour. To tackle the multiple count problem, we have designed a meshed network of camera traps, so they can share the captured images along with timestamps, cumulative counts, and dimensions of the animal. The proposed method takes leverage of edge computing to support real-time tracking and monitoring of wildlife. This method has been validated in the field and can be easily extended to other applications focusing on wildlife monitoring and management, where the traditional way of monitoring is expensive and time-consuming.

Keywords: computer vision, ecology, internet of things, invasive species management, wildlife management

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18 Mobile Application Interventions in Positive Psychology: Current Status and Recommendations for Effective App Design

Authors: Gus Salazar, Jeremy Bekker, Lauren Linford, Jared Warren


Positive psychology practices allow for its principles to be applied to all people, regardless of their current level of functioning. To increase the dissemination of these practices, interventions are being adapted for use with digital technology, such as mobile apps. However, the research regarding positive psychology mobile app interventions is still in its infancy. In an effort to facilitate progress in this important area, we 1) conducted a qualitative review to summarize the current state of the positive psychology mobile app literature and 2) developed research-supported recommendations for positive psychology app development to maximize behavior change. In our literature review, we found that while positive psychology apps varied widely in content and purpose, there was a near-complete lack of research supporting their effectiveness. Most apps provided no rationale for the behavioral change techniques (BCTs) they employed in their app, and most did not develop their app with specific theoretical frameworks or design models in mind. Given this problem, we recommended four steps for effective positive psychology app design. First, developers must establish their app in a research-supported theory of change. Second, researchers must select appropriate behavioral change techniques which are consistent with their app’s goals. Third, researchers must leverage effective design principles. These steps will help mobile applications use data-driven methods for encouraging behavior change in their users. Lastly, we discuss directions for future research. In particular, researchers must investigate the effectiveness of various BCTs in positive psychology interventions. Although there is some research on this point, we do not yet clearly understand the mechanisms within the apps that lead to behavior change. Additionally, app developers must also provide data on the effectiveness of their mobile apps. As developers follow these steps for effective app development and as researchers continue to investigate what makes these apps most effective, we will provide millions of people in need with access to research-based mental health resources.

Keywords: behavioral change techniques, mobile app, mobile intervention, positive psychology

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17 Studies on Toxicity and Mechanical Properties of Nonmetallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste in Recycled HDPE Composites

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad


The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reusing nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) waste in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in terms of toxicity and mechanical properties. A series of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analysis tests have been conducted on raw nonmetallic PCBs waste to determine the chemical compositions. It can be seen that the nonmetallic PCBs approximately 72% of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin materials such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, BaO, Na2O, and SrO, 9.4% of metallic materials such as CuO, SnO2, and Fe2O3, and 6.53% of Br. Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests also have been done to study the toxicity characteristics of raw nonmetallic PCB powders, rHDPE/PCB and virgin HDPE for comparison purposes. For both of the testing, Cu was identified as the highest metal element contained in raw PCBs with the concentration of 905 mg/kg and 59.09 mg/L for TTLC and TCLP, respectively. However, once the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE composites, the concentrations of Cu were reduced to 134 mg/kg for TTLC and to 3 mg/L for TCLP testing. For mechanical properties testing, incorporation of 40 wt% nonmetallic PCB into rHDPE has increased the flexural modulus and flexural strength by 140% and 36%, respectively. While, Izod Impact strength decreased steadily with incorporation of 10 – 40 wt% nonmetallic PCBs.

Keywords: nonmetallic printed circuit board, recycled HDPE, composites, mechanical properties, total threshold limit concentration, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

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16 Psychometric Properties of Several New Positive Psychology Measures

Authors: Lauren Benyo Linford, Jared Warren, Jeremy Bekker, Gus Salazar


In order to accurately identify areas needing improvement and track growth, the availability of valid and reliable measures of different facets of well-being is vital. Because no specific measures currently exist for many facets of well-being, the purpose of this study was to construct and validate measures of the following constructs: Purpose, Values, Mindfulness, Savoring, Gratitude, Optimism, Supportive Relationships, Interconnectedness, Compassion, Community, Contribution, Engaged Living, Personal Growth, Flow Experiences, Self-Compassion, Exercise, Meditation, and an overall measure of subjective well-being—the Survey on Flourishing. In order to assess their psychometric properties, each measure was examined for internal consistency estimates, and items with poor item-test correlations were dropped. Additionally, the convergent validity of the Survey on Flourishing (SURF) was assessed. Total score correlations of SURF and other commonly used measures of well-being such as the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the PERMA Profiler (measure of Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Achievement) were examined to establish convergent validity. The Kessler Psychological distress scale (K6) was also included to determine the divergent validity of the SURF measure. Three week test-retest reliability was also assessed for the SURF measure. Additionally, normative data from general population samples was collected for both the Self-Compassion and Survey on Flourishing (SURF) measures. The purpose of this study is to introduce each of these measures, divulge the psychometric findings of this study, as well as explore additional psychometric properties of the SURF measure in particular. This study will highlight how these measures can be used in future research exploring these positive psychology constructs. Additionally, this study will discuss the utility of these measures to guide individuals in their use of the online self-directed, self-administered My Best Self 101 positive psychology resources developed by the researchers. The goal of My Best Self 101 is to disseminate real, research-based measures and tools to individuals who are seeking to increase their well-being.

Keywords: measurement, psychometrics, test validation, well-Being

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15 Immune Complex Components Act as Agents in Relapsing Fever Borrelia Mediated Rosette Formation

Authors: Mukunda Upreti, Jill Storry, Rafael Björk, Emilie Louvet, Johan Normark, Sven Bergström


Borrelia duttonii and most other relapsing fever species are Gram-negative bacteria which cause a blood borne infection characterized by the binding of bacterium to erythrocytes. The bacteria associate with two or more erythrocytes to form clusters of cells into rosettes. Rosetting is a major virulence factor and the mechanism is believed to facilitate persistence of bacteria in the circulatory system and the avoidance of host immune cells through masking or steric hindrance effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of rosette formation are still poorly understood. This study aims at determining the molecules involved in the rosette formation phenomenon. Fractionated serum, using different affinity purification methods, was investigated as a rosetting agent and IgG and at least one other serum components were needed for rosettes to form. An IgG titration curve demonstrated that IgG alone is not enough to restore rosette formation level to the level whole serum gives. IgG hydrolysis by IdeS ( Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes) and deglycosylation using N-Glycanase proved that the whole IgG molecule regardless of saccharide moieties is critical for Borrelia induced rosetting. Complement components C3 and C4 were also important serum molecules necessary to maintain optimum rosetting rates. The deactivation of complement network and serum depletion with C3 and C4 significantly reduced the rosette formation rate. The dependency of IgG and complement components also implied involvement of the complement receptor (CR1). Rosette formation test with Knops null RBC and sCR1 confirmed that CR1 is also part of Borrelia induced rosette formation.

Keywords: complement components C3 and C4, complement receptor 1, Immunoglobulin G, Knops null, Rosetting

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14 The Impact of Financial Literacy, Perception of Debt, and Perception of Risk Toward Student Willingness to Use Online Student Loan

Authors: Irni Rahmayani Johan, Ira Kamelia


One of the impacts of the rapid advancement of technology is the rise of digital finance, including peer-to-peer lending (P2P). P2P lending has been widely marketed, including an online student loan that used the P2P platform. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial literacy, perception of debt, and perception of risk toward student willingness to use the online student loan (P2P lending). Using a cross-sectional study design, in collecting the data this study employed an online survey method, with a total sample of 280 undergraduate students of IPB university, Indonesia. This study found that financial literacy, perception of debt, perception of risk, and interest in using online student loans are categorized as low level. While the level of knowledge is found to be the lowest, the first-year students showed a higher level in terms of willingness to use the online student loan. In addition, the second year students recorded a positive perception toward debt. This study showed that level of study, attendance in personal finance course, and student’ GPA is positively related to financial knowledge. While debt perception is negatively related to financial attitudes. Similarly, the negative relationship is found between risk perception and the willingness to use the online student loan. The determinant factor of the willingness to use online student loans is the level of study, debt perception, financial risk perception, and time risk perception. Students with a higher level of study are more likely to have a lower interest in using online student loans. Moreover, students who perceived debt as a financial stimulator, as well as those with higher level of financial risk perceptions and time risk perceptions, tend to show more interest to use the loan.

Keywords: financial literacy, willingness to use, online student loan, perception of risk, perception of debt

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13 Exposure to Nature: An Underutilized Component of Student Mental Health

Authors: Jeremy Bekker, Guy Salazar


Introduction: Nature-exposure interventions on university campuses may serve as an effective addition to overburdened counseling and student support centers. Nature-exposure interventions can work as a preventative well-being enhancement measure on campuses, which can be used adjacently with existing health resources. Specifically, this paper analyzes how spending time in nature impacts psychological well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical health. The poster covers the core findings and recommendations of this paper, which has been previously published in the BYU undergraduate psychology journal Intuition. Research Goals and Method: The goal of this paper was to outline the potential benefits of nature exposure for students’ physical health, mental well-being, and academic success. Another objective of this paper was to outline potential research-based interventions that use campus green spaces to improve student outcomes. Given that the core objective of this paper was to identify and establish research-based nature exposure interventions that could be used on college campuses, a broad literature review focused on these areas. Specifically, the databases Scopus and PsycINFO were used to screen for research focused on psychological well-being, physical health, cognitive functioning, and nature exposure interventions. Outcomes: Nature exposure has been shown to help increase positive affect, life satisfaction, happiness, coping ability and subjective well-being. Further, nature exposure has been shown to decrease negative affect, lower mental distress, reduce cognitive load, and decrease negative psychological symptoms. Finally, nature exposure has been shown to lead to better physical health. Findings and Recommendations: Potential interventions include adding green space to university buildings and grounds, dedicating already natural environments as nature restoration areas, and providing means for outdoor excursions. Potential limitations and suggested areas for future research are also addressed. Many campuses already contain green spaces, defined as any part of an environment that is predominately made of natural elements, and these green spaces comprise an untapped resource that is relatively cheap and simple.

Keywords: nature exposure, preventative care, undergraduate mental health, well-being intervention

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12 Quantification of Factors Contributing to Wave-In-Deck on Fixed Jacket Platforms

Authors: C. Y. Ng, A. M. Johan, A. E. Kajuputra


Wave-in-deck phenomenon for fixed jacket platforms at shallow water condition has been reported as a notable risk to the workability and reliability of the platform. Reduction in reservoir pressure, due to the extraction of hydrocarbon for an extended period of time, has caused the occurrence of seabed subsidence. Platform experiencing subsidence promotes reduction of air gaps, which eventually allows the waves to attack the bottom decks. The impact of the wave-in-deck generates additional loads to the structure and therefore increases the values of the moment arms. Higher moment arms trigger instability in terms of overturning, eventually decreases the reserve strength ratio (RSR) values of the structure. The mechanics of wave-in-decks, however, is still not well understood and have not been fully incorporated into the design codes and standards. Hence, it is necessary to revisit the current design codes and standards for platform design optimization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of RSR due to wave-in-deck on four-legged jacket platforms in Malaysia. Base shear values with regards to calibration and modifications of wave characteristics were obtained using SESAM GeniE. Correspondingly, pushover analysis is conducted using USFOS to retrieve the RSR. The effects of the contributing factors i.e. the wave height, wave period and water depth with regards to the RSR and base shear values were analyzed and discussed. This research proposal is important in optimizing the design life of the existing and aging offshore structures. Outcomes of this research are expected to provide a proper evaluation of the wave-in-deck mechanics and in return contribute to the current mitigation strategies in managing the issue.

Keywords: wave-in-deck loads, wave effects, water depth, fixed jacket platforms

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11 Digitalized Cargo Coordination to Eliminate Emissions in the Shipping Ecosystem: A System Dynamical Approach

Authors: Henry Schwartz, Bogdan Iancu, Magnus Gustafsson, Johan Lilius


The shipping sector generates significant amounts of carbon emissions on annual basis. The excess amount of carbon dioxide is harmful for both the environment and the society, and partly for that reason, there is acute interest to decrease the volume of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in shipping. The usage of the existing cargo carrying capacity can be maximized, and the share of time used in actual transportation operations could be increased if the whole transportation and logistics chain was optimized with the aid of information sharing done through a centralized marketplace and an information-sharing platform. The outcome of this change would be decreased carbon dioxide emission volumes produced per each metric ton of cargo transported by a vessel. Cargo coordination is a platform under development that matches the need for waterborne transportation services with the ships that operate at a given moment in time. In this research, the transition towards adopting cargo coordination is modelled with system dynamics. The model encompasses the complex supply-demand relationships of ship operators and cargo owners. The built scenarios predict the pace at which different stakeholders start using the digitalized platform and by doing so reduce the amount of annual CO2 emissions generated. To improve the reliability of the results, various sensitivity analyses considering the pace of transition as well as the overall impact on the environment (carbon dioxide emissions per amount of cargo transported) are conducted. The results of the study can be used to support investors and politicians in decision making towards more environmentally sustainable solutions. In addition, the model provides concepts and ideas for a wider discussion considering the paths towards carbon neutral transportation.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, sustainable transportation, system dynamics

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10 Anti-TNF: Possibilities of Rising Anti-Phosphorylcholine Antibodies

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Anquan Liu, Anna Frostegård, Johan Frostegård


The role of the human immune system is essential in cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Activated cells in atherosclerosis produce abundant amounts of cytokines, but the exact mechanisms involved in the effects of these inflammatory cytokines are not clear in atherosclerosis. In a large clinical cohort, we have previously determined that antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) are negatively and independently associated with both development of atherosclerosis and also a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Further, we reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients who were non-responders to TNF-inhibitors, where those with low anti-PC levels. Upon anti-TNF treatment, anti-PC levels increased. We, therefore, hypothesised that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF could play a role in anti-PC regulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with or without TNF and anti-TNF. The cell supernatants were collected after six days for ELISA measurements. In separate experiments, cells were cultured for 24 hours in both polystyrene plates and ELISPOT plates under a similar condition for ELISA and ELISPOT assays respectively. Total RNA was extracted after 6 hours of cell culture to perform RT-qPCR. Cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue staining and MTT assays. ELISA measurements detected less than 40% of anti-PC in TNF-treated cells, in comparison to control cells, whereas anti-PC production was recovered by anti-TNF treatment. ELISPOT assays showed that TNF suppresses anti-PC production by inhibiting anti-PC producing B-cells. In addition, RT-qPCR and ELISA showed that TNF also has effects also on B-cell activation as BAFF expression was inhibited by TNF treatment. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, but anti-PC is a protection marker for atherosclerosis development. Our findings show that TNF is a negative regulator of anti-PC production. Immune modulation and rising of anti-PC could be of major significance for the patients.

Keywords: anti-PC, Anti-TNF, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, phosphorylecholine

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9 The Cost of Non-Communicable Diseases in the European Union: A Projection towards the Future

Authors: Desiree Vandenberghe, Johan Albrecht


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for the vast majority of deaths in the European Union (EU) and represent a large share of total health care spending. A future increase in this health and financial burden is likely to be driven by population ageing, lifestyle changes and technological advances in medicine. Without adequate prevention measures, this burden can severely threaten population health and economic development. To tackle this challenge, a correct assessment of the current burden of NCDs is required, as well as a projection of potential increases of this burden. The contribution of this paper is to offer perspective on the evolution of the NCD burden towards the future and to give an indication of the potential of prevention policy. A Non-Homogenous, Semi-Markov model for the EU was constructed, which allowed for a projection of the cost burden for the four main NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus) towards 2030 and 2050. This simulation is done based on multiple baseline scenarios that vary in demand and supply factors such as health status, population structure, and technological advances. Finally, in order to assess the potential of preventive measures to curb the cost explosion of NCDs, a simulation is executed which includes increased efforts for preventive health care measures. According to the Markov model, by 2030 and 2050, total costs (direct and indirect costs) in the EU could increase by 30.1% and 44.1% respectively, compared to 2015 levels. An ambitious prevention policy framework for NCDs will be required if the EU wants to meet this challenge of rising costs. To conclude, significant cost increases due to Non-Communicable Diseases are likely to occur due to demographic and lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, an ambitious prevention program throughout the EU can aid in making this cost burden manageable for future generations.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, preventive health care, health policy, Markov model, scenario analysis

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8 Begamat-I-Bhopals': Role in the Development of Female Education under Colonialism

Authors: Munaza Mubeen


The colonial Urdu literature has played a significant role in uplifting the overall status of the Indians. Taking example of the Bhopal State, the contribution of the Royal ladies holds no match in the contemporary age. Similarly, the efforts of the Begamat-e-Bhopal in the field of education had been acknowledged across the Sub-continent. It had been noticed that with the downfall of the Mughal Empire at the hands of the British Raj, the local culture in the Indian sub-continent in general and in Bhopal State in proper got deteriorated. This led to uncertainty, chaos and an anti-British sentiment which created hatred against them in the entire sub-continent. Likely, in Bhopal State, the role of women in field of education also vanished. However, this change was felt by the ladies in the Royal Household where they struggled for restoration of the status quo with their personal efforts. The prominent contributors from the Royal household included Qudseya Begum, Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Shah Jahan Begum and Nawab Sultan Johan-they are known as Begamat-i-Bhopal. They established schools, colleges and universities to impart formal and non-formal education respectively. Their systematic approach and continued efforts constituted a dynamic aspect of women’ empowerment. Focused on the female education, however, one of the by-products of their efforts was an introduction of socio-cultural and politico-religious awareness among the middle class womenfolk. Unfortunately, the role of these Bagamat-i-Bhopal has been left untouched or ignored by the academic scholars. This study critically analyzed the role of Beghamat-i-Bhopal regarding female education in Hindustan in general and in Bhopal in particular. Similarly, the contribution of the contemporary writers in development of female education in Bhopal has also been discussed in this paper. This paper is based on the 'historico-textual' approach following structural reason which has established a justifiable argument. The researcher, therefore, has taken into consideration all the chronological nuances in order to accord greater visibility to the contents. The data has been described, analyzed and interpreted inclusively and in generalized manner.

Keywords: colonialism, Begamaat e Bhopal, female education, State of Bhopal

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7 A Simple Olfactometer for Odour and Lateralization Thresholds of Chemical Vapours

Authors: Lena Ernstgård, Aishwarya M. Dwivedi, Johan Lundström, Gunnar Johanson


A simple inexpensive olfactometer was constructed to enable valid measures of detection threshold of low concentrations of vapours of chemicals. The delivery system consists of seven syringe pumps, each connected to a Tedlar bag containing a predefined concentration of the test chemical in the air. The seven pumps are connected to a 8-way mixing valve which in turn connects to a birhinal nose piece. Chemical vapor of known concentration is generated by injection of an appropriate amount of the test chemical into a Tedlar bag with a known volume of clean air. Complete vaporization is assured by gentle heating of the bag from the outside with a heat flow. The six test concentrations are obtained by adding different volumes from the starting bag to six new Tedlar bags with known volumes of clean air. One bag contains clean air only. Thus, six different test concentrations and clean air can easily be tested in series by shifting the valve to new positions. Initial in-line measurement with a photoionization detector showed that the delivery system quickly responded to a shift in valve position. Thus 90% of the desired concentration was reached within 15 seconds. The concentrations in the bags are verified daily by gas chromatography. The stability of the system in terms of chemical concentration is monitored in real time by means of a photo-ionization detector. To determine lateralization thresholds, an additional pump supplying clean air is added to the delivery system in a way so that the nostrils can be separately and interchangeably be exposed to clean air and test chemical. Odor and lateralization thresholds were determined for three aldehydes; acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and hexanal in 20 healthy naïve individuals. Aldehydes generally have a strong odour, and the selected aldehydes are also considered to be irritating to mucous membranes. The median odor thresholds of the three aldehydes were 0.017, 0.0008, and 0.097 ppm, respectively. No lateralization threshold could be identified for acrolein, whereas the medians for crotonaldehyde and hexanal were 0.003 and 0.39 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, we constructed a simple, inexpensive olfactometer that allows for stable and easily measurable concentrations of vapors of the test chemical. Our test with aldehydes demonstrates that the system produces valid detection among volunteers in terms of odour and lateralization thresholds.

Keywords: irritation, odour delivery, olfactometer, smell

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6 The Accuracy of an In-House Developed Computer-Assisted Surgery Protocol for Mandibular Micro-Vascular Reconstruction

Authors: Christophe Spaas, Lies Pottel, Joke De Ceulaer, Johan Abeloos, Philippe Lamoral, Tom De Backer, Calix De Clercq


We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of an in-house developed low-cost computer-assisted surgery (CAS) protocol for osseous free flap mandibular reconstruction. All patients who underwent primary or secondary mandibular reconstruction with a free (solely or composite) osseous flap, either a fibula free flap or iliac crest free flap, between January 2014 and December 2017 were evaluated. The low-cost protocol consisted out of a virtual surgical planning, a prebend custom reconstruction plate and an individualized free flap positioning guide. The accuracy of the protocol was evaluated through comparison of the postoperative outcome with the 3D virtual planning, based on measurement of the following parameters: intercondylar distance, mandibular angle (axial and sagittal), inner angular distance, anterior-posterior distance, length of the fibular/iliac crest segments and osteotomy angles. A statistical analysis of the obtained values was done. Virtual 3D surgical planning and cutting guide design were performed with Proplan CMF® software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and IPS Gate (KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany). Segmentation of the DICOM data as well as outcome analysis were done with BrainLab iPlan® Software (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). A cost analysis of the protocol was done. Twenty-two patients (11 fibula /11 iliac crest) were included and analyzed. Based on voxel-based registration on the cranial base, 3D virtual planning landmark parameters did not significantly differ from those measured on the actual treatment outcome (p-values >0.05). A cost evaluation of the in-house developed CAS protocol revealed a 1750 euro cost reduction in comparison with a standard CAS protocol with a patient-specific reconstruction plate. Our results indicate that an accurate transfer of the planning with our in-house developed low-cost CAS protocol is feasible at a significant lower cost.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, computer-assisted surgery, low-cost, mandibular reconstruction

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5 Feasibility Study of Particle Image Velocimetry in the Muzzle Flow Fields during the Intermediate Ballistic Phase

Authors: Moumen Abdelhafidh, Stribu Bogdan, Laboureur Delphine, Gallant Johan, Hendrick Patrick


This study is part of an ongoing effort to improve the understanding of phenomena occurring during the intermediate ballistic phase, such as muzzle flows. A thorough comprehension of muzzle flow fields is essential for optimizing muzzle device and projectile design. This flow characterization has heretofore been almost entirely limited to local and intrusive measurement techniques such as pressure measurements using pencil probes. Consequently, the body of quantitative experimental data is limited, so is the number of numerical codes validated in this field. The objective of the work presented here is to demonstrate the applicability of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in the challenging environment of the propellant flow of a .300 blackout weapon to provide accurate velocity measurements. The key points of a successful PIV measurement are the selection of the particle tracer, their seeding technique, and their tracking characteristics. We have experimentally investigated the aforementioned points by evaluating the resistance, gas dispersion, laser light reflection as well as the response to a step change across the Mach disk for five different solid tracers using two seeding methods. To this end, an experimental setup has been performed and consisted of a PIV system, the combustion chamber pressure measurement, classical high-speed schlieren visualization, and an aerosol spectrometer. The latter is used to determine the particle size distribution in the muzzle flow. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of PIV to accurately resolve the salient features of the propellant flow, such as the under the expanded jet and vortex rings, as well as the instantaneous velocity field with maximum centreline velocities of more than 1000 m/s. Besides, naturally present unburned particles in the gas and solid ZrO₂ particles with a nominal size of 100 nm, when coated on the propellant powder, are suitable as tracers. However, the TiO₂ particles intended to act as a tracer, surprisingly not only melted but also functioned as a combustion accelerator and decreased the number of particles in the propellant gas.

Keywords: intermediate ballistic, muzzle flow fields, particle image velocimetry, propellant gas, particle size distribution, under expanded jet, solid particle tracers

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4 Disseminating Positive Psychology Resources Online: Current Research and Future Directions

Authors: Warren Jared, Bekker Jeremy, Salazar Guy, Jackman Katelyn, Linford Lauren


Introduction: Positive Psychology research has burgeoned in the past 20 years; however, relatively few evidence-based resources to cultivate positive psychology skills are widely available to the general public. The positive psychology resources at were developed to assist individuals in cultivating well-being using a variety of techniques, including gratitude, purpose, mindfulness, self-compassion, savoring, personal growth, and supportive relationships. These resources are empirically based and are built to be accessible to a broad audience. Key Objectives: This presentation highlights results from two recent randomized intervention studies of specific MBS101 learning modules. A key objective of this research is to empirically assess the efficacy and usability of these online resources. Another objective of this research is to encourage the broad dissemination of online positive psychology resources; thus, recommendations for further research and dissemination will be discussed. Methods: In both interventions, we recruited adult participants using social media advertisements. The participants completed several well-being and positive psychology construct-specific measures (savoring and self-compassion measures) at baseline and post-intervention. Participants in the experimental condition were also given a feedback questionnaire to gather qualitative data on how participants viewed the modules. Participants in the self-compassion study were randomly split between an experimental group, who received the treatment, and a control group, who were placed on a waitlist. There was no control group for the savoring study. Participants were instructed to read content on the module and practice savoring or self-compassion strategies listed in the module for a minimum of twenty minutes a day for 21 days. The intervention was semi-structured, as participants were free to choose which module activities they would complete from a menu of research-based strategies. Participants tracked which activities they completed and how long they spent on the modules each day. Results: In the savoring study, participants increased in savoring ability as indicated by multiple measures. In addition, participants increased in well-being from pre- to post-treatment. In the self-compassion study, repeated measures mixed model analyses revealed that compared to waitlist controls, participants who used the MBS101 self-compassion module experienced significant improvements in self-compassion, well-being, and body image with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Attrition was 10.5% for the self-compassion study and 71% for the savoring study. Overall, participants indicated that the modules were generally helpful, and they particularly appreciated the specific strategy menus. Participants requested more structured course activities, more interactive content, and more practice activities overall. Recommendations: is an applied positive psychology research program that shows promise as a model for effectively disseminating evidence-based positive psychology resources that are both engaging and easily accessible. Considerable research is still needed, both to test the efficacy and usability of the modules currently available and to improve them based on participant feedback. Feedback received from participants in the randomized controlled trial led to the development of an expanded, 30-day online course called The Gift of Self-Compassion and an online mindfulness course currently in development called Mindfulness For Humans.

Keywords: positive psychology, intervention, online resources, self-compassion, dissemination, online curriculum

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3 The Audiovisual Media as a Metacritical Ludicity Gesture in the Musical-Performatic and Scenic Works of Caetano Veloso and David Bowie

Authors: Paulo Da Silva Quadros


This work aims to point out comparative parameters between the artistic production of two exponents of the contemporary popular culture scene: Caetano Veloso (Brazil) and David Bowie (England). Both Caetano Veloso and David Bowie were pioneers in establishing an aesthetic game between various artistic expressions at the service of the music-visual scene, that is, the conceptual interconnections between several forms of aesthetic processes, such as fine arts, theatre, cinema, poetry, and literature. There are also correlations in their expressive attitudes of art, especially regarding the dialogue between the fields of art and politics (concern with respect to human rights, human dignity, racial issues, tolerance, gender issues, and sexuality, among others); the constant tension and cunning game between market, free expression and critical sense; the sophisticated, playful mechanisms of metalanguage and aesthetic metacritique. Fact is that both of them almost came to cooperate with each other in the 1970s when Caetano was in exile in England, and when both had at the same time the same music producer, who tried to bring them closer, noticing similar aesthetic qualities in both artistic works, which was later glimpsed by some music critics. Among many of the most influential issues in Caetano's and Bowie's game of artistic-aesthetic expression are, for example, the ideas advocated by the sensation of strangeness (Albert Camus), art as transcendence (Friedrich Nietzsche), the deconstruction and reconstruction of auratic reconfiguration of artistic signs (Walter Benjamin and Andy Warhol). For deepen more theoretical issues, the following authors will be used as supportive interpretative references: Hans-Georg Gadamer, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schiller, Johan Huizinga. In addition to the aesthetic meanings of Ars Ludens characteristics of the two artists, the following supporting references will be also added: the question of technique (Martin Heidegger), the logic of sense (Gilles Deleuze), art as an event and the sense of the gesture of art ( Maria Teresa Cruz), the society of spectacle (Guy Debord), Verarbeitung and Durcharbeitung (Sigmund Freud), the poetics of interpretation and the sign of relation (Cremilda Medina). The purpose of such interpretative references is to seek to understand, from a cultural reading perspective (cultural semiology), some significant elements in the dynamics of aesthetic and media interconnections of both artists, which made them as some of the most influential interlocutors in contemporary music aesthetic thought, as a playful vivid experience of life and art.

Keywords: Caetano Veloso, David Bowie, music aesthetics, symbolic playfulness, cultural reading

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