Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Asowata Osamede

7 Pragmatic Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Power Conditioning Device (DC-DC Converters) in a Simple Photovoltaics System

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Solar radiation provides the largest renewable energy potential on earth and photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of power conditioning devices with a focus on the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters (12 V, 24 V and 48 V) in a basic off grid PV system with a varying load profile. This would assist in harnessing more of the available solar energy. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0º N, with corresponding tilt angles. Preliminary results, which include data analysis showing the power loss in the system and efficiency, indicate that the 12V DC-DC converter coupled with the load profile had the highest efficiency for a latitude of 26º S throughout the year.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, DC-DC converters, tilt and orientation angles, direct solar radiation, load profile

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6 Estimating the Power Influence of an Off-Grid Photovoltaic Panel on the Indicting Rate of a Storage System (Batteries)

Authors: Osamede Asowata

Abstract:

The current resurgence of interest in the use of renewable energy is driven by the need to reduce the high environmental impact of fossil-based energy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of a stationary PV panel on the charging rate of deep-cycle valve regulated lead-acid (DCVRLA) batteries. Stationary PV panels are set to a fixed tilt and orientation angle, which plays a major role in dictating the output power of a PV panel and subsequently on the charging time of a DCVRLA battery. In a basic PV system, an energy storage device that stores the power from the PV panel is necessary due to the fluctuating nature of the PV voltage caused by climatic conditions. The charging and discharging times of a DCVRLA battery were determined for a twelve month period from January through December 2012. Preliminary results, which include regression analysis (R2), conversion-time per week and work-time per day, indicate that a 36 degrees tilt angle produces a good charging rate for a latitude of 26 degrees south throughout the year.

Keywords: tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers, PV panels, storage devices, direct solar radiation.

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5 Analysing Maximum Power Point Tracking in a Stand Alone Photovoltaic System

Authors: Osamede Asowata

Abstract:

Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident in its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector; these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0°N, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36°, 26°, and 16°. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, solar chargers, tilt and orientation angles, maximum power point tracking, MPPT, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

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4 Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Cloud Movement in a Basic Off-Grid Photovoltaic System: Case Study Using Transient Response of DC-DC Converters

Authors: Asowata Osamede, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker

Abstract:

Mismatch in electrical energy (power) or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to the public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The necessity for a well-structured photovoltaic (PV) system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The major renewable energy potential on earth is provided from solar radiation and solar photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduction on the dependence on fossil fuels. Solar arrays which consist of various PV module should be operated at the maximum power point in order to reduce the overall cost of the system. So power regulation and conditioning circuits should be incorporated in the set-up of a PV system. Power regulation circuits used in PV systems include maximum power point trackers, DC-DC converters and solar chargers. Inappropriate choice of power conditioning device in a basic off-grid PV system can attribute to power loss, hence the need for a right choice of power conditioning device to be coupled with the system of the essence. This paper presents the design and implementation of a power conditioning devices in order to improve the overall yield from the availability of solar energy and the system’s total efficiency. The power conditioning devices taken into consideration in the project includes the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters as well as solar chargers with MPPT. A logging interface circuit (LIC) is designed and employed into the system. The LIC is designed on a printed circuit board. It basically has DC current signalling sensors, specifically the LTS 6-NP. The LIC is consequently required to program the voltages in the system (these include the PV voltage and the power conditioning device voltage). The voltage is structured in such a way that it can be accommodated by the data logger. Preliminary results which include availability of power as well as power loss in the system and efficiency will be presented and this would be used to draw the final conclusion.

Keywords: tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers, PV panels, storage devices, direct solar radiation

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3 Simulation of Maximum Power Point Tracking in a Photovoltaic System: A Circumstance Using Pulse Width Modulation Analysis

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident to its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers in general does not promote development to the public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with MPPT from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0o north, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36 o, 26o and 16o. The load employed in this set-up are three Lead Acid Batteries (LAB). The percentage fully charged, charging and not charging conditions are observed for all three batteries. The results obtained in this research is used to draw the conclusion that would provide a benchmark for researchers and scientist worldwide. This is done so as to have an idea of the best tilt and orientation angles for maximum power point in a basic off-grid PV system. A quantitative analysis would be employed in this research. Quantitative research tends to focus on measurement and proof. Inferential statistics are frequently used to generalize what is found about the study sample to the population as a whole. This would involve: selecting and defining the research question, deciding on a study type, deciding on the data collection tools, selecting the sample and its size, analyzing, interpreting and validating findings Preliminary results which include regression analysis (normal probability plot and residual plot using polynomial 6) showed the maximum power point in the system. The best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking proves that the 36o tilt angle provided the best average on time which in turns put the system into a pulse width modulation stage.

Keywords: power-conversion, meteonorm, PV panels, DC-DC converters

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2 Switching of Series-Parallel Connected Modules in an Array for Partially Shaded Conditions in a Pollution Intensive Area Using High Powered MOSFETs

Authors: Osamede Asowata, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) modules may become a trend for future PV systems because of their greater flexibility in distributed system expansion, easier installation due to their nature, and higher system-level energy harnessing capabilities under shaded or PV manufacturing mismatch conditions. This is as compared to the single or multi-string inverters. Novel residential scale PV arrays are commonly connected to the grid by a single DC–AC inverter connected to a series, parallel or series-parallel string of PV panels, or many small DC–AC inverters which connect one or two panels directly to the AC grid. With an increasing worldwide interest in sustainable energy production and use, there is renewed focus on the power electronic converter interface for DC energy sources. Three specific examples of such DC energy sources that will have a role in distributed generation and sustainable energy systems are the photovoltaic (PV) panel, the fuel cell stack, and batteries of various chemistries. A high-efficiency inverter using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) for all active switches is presented for a non-isolated photovoltaic and AC-module applications. The proposed configuration features a high efficiency over a wide load range, low ground leakage current and low-output AC-current distortion with no need for split capacitors. The detailed power stage operating principles, pulse width modulation scheme, multilevel bootstrap power supply, and integrated gate drivers for the proposed inverter is described. Experimental results of a hardware prototype, show that not only are MOSFET efficient in the system, it also shows that the ground leakage current issues are alleviated in the proposed inverter and also a 98 % maximum associated driver circuit is achieved. This, in turn, provides the need for a possible photovoltaic panel switching technique. This will help to reduce the effect of cloud movements as well as improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic (PV), Matlab efficiency simulation, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), module integrated converters (MICs), multilevel converter, series connected converter

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1 Assessment of Potentially Harmful Elements in Floodplain Soils and Stream Sediments in Ile-Ife Area, South-Western Nigeria: Using Geographic Information System and Multi-Variances Approaches

Authors: I. T. Asowata, A. S. Akinwumiju

Abstract:

The enrichment of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in stream sediments (SS) and floodplain soils (FS) poses great environmental hazards to water bodies and other parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this research was to assess the distribution pattern of selected PHEs (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, As, Cd, V, Cr, Ni, Th, Sr, and La) in SS of selected rivers that drain Ile-Ife area and their adjacent FS, to ascertain the pollution status of these elements in the study area. 60 samples (40 SS and 20 FS) were purposely collected for this study; the samples were air-dried at room temperature, disaggregated, sieved with > 63 µm and digested with modified aqua reqia (1:1:1 HCl:HNO₃:H₂O) and were analysed with ultra-trace inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method (ICP-ES). The geochemical results showed decreasing trend of average contents of PHEs studied Mn > Zn > V > Cr > Pb > La > Sr > Cu > Ni > Co > Th > As > Cd for both SS and FS. Floodplain topsoil in ppm, Cu range from 10.0-180.0; mean, 71.1, Pb, 17.1-255.0; 93.5 and Zn, 83.0-3122.2; 826.0. Also, floodplain sub-soils, Cu range from 30.0-203.1; mean of 76.6, Pb, 16.0-214.0; 77.9 and Zn, 59.1-2351.0; 622.3. Similarly, SS results for Cu, 22.1-257.0; 70.3, Pb, 15.0-172.0; 67.3 and Zn, 65.0-1285.0; 357.8, among other PHEs, suggesting significant level of PHEs enrichment in the studied geo media. Elemental association showed positive and/or negative correlation among the PHEs and also showed different sources of metal enrichment to be largely anthropogenic with some geogenic. Geoaccumulation and metal ratio indexes indicated that FS and SS studied have received significant PHEs of between moderately to strongly polluted, which implies significant environmental implications in the study area.

Keywords: aqua regia, enrichment, GIS, Ile-Ife, potentially harmful elements

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