Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 304

Search results for: PV panels

304 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Initiating Cleaning Of Photovoltaic Solar Panels

Authors: Mohamed Mokhtar, Mostafa F. Shaaban

Abstract:

Among the challenges facing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), dust accumulation on solar panels is considered the most severe problem that faces the growth of solar power plants. The accumulation of dust on the solar panels significantly degrades output from these panels. Hence, solar PV panels have to be cleaned manually or using costly automated cleaning methods. This paper focuses on initiating cleaning actions when required to reduce maintenance costs. The cleaning actions are triggered only when the dust level exceeds a threshold value. The amount of dust accumulated on the PV panels is estimated using an artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments are conducted to collect the required data, which are used in the training of the ANN model. Then, this ANN model will be fed by the output power from solar panels, ambient temperature, and solar irradiance, and thus, it will be able to estimate the amount of dust accumulated on solar panels at these conditions. The model was tested on different case studies to confirm the accuracy of the developed model.

Keywords: machine learning, dust, PV panels, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
303 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
302 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames under Seismic Loads

Authors: W. Badla

Abstract:

A significant portion of the buildings constructed in Algeria is structural frames with infill panels which are usually considered as non structural components and are neglected in the analysis. However, these masonry panels tend to influence the structural response. Thus, these structures can be regarded as seismic risk buildings, although in the Algerian seismic code there is little guidance on the seismic evaluation of infilled frame buildings. In this study, three RC frames with 2, 4, and 8 story and subjected to three recorded Algerian accelerograms are studied. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling the infill panels and a fiber model is used to model RC members. This paper reports on the seismic evaluation of RC frames with brick infill panels. The results obtained show that the masonry panels enhance the load lateral capacity of the buildings and the infill panel configuration influences the response of the structures.

Keywords: seismic design, RC frames, infill panels, non linear dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
301 Improving Monitoring and Fault Detection of Solar Panels Using Arduino Mega in WSN

Authors: Ali Al-Dahoud, Mohamed Fezari, Thamer Al-Rawashdeh, Ismail Jannoud

Abstract:

Monitoring and detecting faults on a set of Solar panels, using a wireless sensor network (WNS) is our contribution in this paper, This work is part of the project we are working on at Al-Zaytoonah University. The research problem has been exposed by engineers and technicians or operators dealing with PV panels maintenance, in order to monitor and detect faults within solar panels which affect considerably the energy produced by the solar panels. The proposed solution is based on installing WSN nodes with appropriate sensors for more often occurred faults on the 45 solar panels installed on the roof of IT faculty. A simulation has been done on nodes distribution and a study for the design of a node with appropriate sensors taking into account the priorities of the processing faults. Finally, a graphic user interface is designed and adapted to telemonitoring panels using WSN. The primary tests of hardware implementation gave interesting results, the sensors calibration and interference transmission problem have been solved. A friendly GUI using high level language Visial Basic was developed to carry out the monitoring process and to save data on Exel File.

Keywords: Arduino Mega microcnotroller, solar panels, fault-detection, simulation, node design

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
300 Composite Panels from Under-Utilized Wood and Agricultural Fiber Resources

Authors: Salim Hiziroglu

Abstract:

Rice straw, jute, coconut fiber, oil palm, bagasse and bamboo are some of agricultural resources that can be used to produce different types of value-added composite panels including particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Invasive species such as Eastern red cedar in South Western states in the USA would also be considered as viable raw material to manufacture above products. The main objective of this study was to investigate both physical and mechanical properties of both structural and non-structural panels manufactured from underutilized and agricultural species. Eastern red cedar, bamboo and rice straw were used to manufacture experimental panels. Properties of such samples including bending, internal bond strength, thickness swelling, density profiles and surface roughness were evaluated. Panels made 100% bamboo had the best properties among the other samples. Having rice straw in particleboard and medium density fiberboard panels reduced overall properties of the samples. Manufacturing interior sandwich type of panels having fibers on the face layers while particle of the same type of materials in the core improved their surface quality. Based on the findings of this work such species could have potential to be used as raw material to manufacture value-added panels with accepted properties.

Keywords: composite panels, wood and non-wood fibers, mechanical properties, bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
299 STC Parameters versus Real Time Measured Parameters to Determine Cost Effectiveness of PV Panels

Authors: V. E. Selaule, R. M. Schoeman H. C. Z. Pienaar

Abstract:

Research has shown that solar energy is a renewable energy resource with the most potential when compared to other renewable energy resources in South Africa. There are many makes of Photovoltaic (PV) panels on the market and it is difficult to assess which to use. PV panel manufacturers use Standard Test Conditions (STC) to rate their PV panels. STC conditions are different from the actual operating environmental conditions were the PV panels are used. This paper describes a practical method to determine the most cost effective available PV panel. The method shows that PV panel manufacturer STC ratings cannot be used to select a cost effective PV panel.

Keywords: PV orientation, PV panel, PV STC, Solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
298 Effect of Elevation and Wind Direction on Silicon Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi

Abstract:

As a great source of renewable energy, solar energy is considered to be one of the most important in the world, since it will be one of solutions cover the energy shortage in the future. Photovoltaic (PV) is the most popular and widely used among solar energy technologies. However, PV efficiency is fairly low and remains somewhat expensive. High temperature has a negative effect on PV efficiency and cooling system for these panels is vital, especially in warm weather conditions. This paper presents the results of a simulation study carried out on silicon solar cells to assess the effects of elevation on enhancing the efficiency of solar panels. The study included four different terrains. The study also took into account the direction of the wind hitting the solar panels. To ensure the simulation mimics reality, six silicon solar panels are designed in two columns and three rows, facing to the south at an angle of 30 o. The elevations are assumed to change from 10 meters to 200 meters. The results show that maximum increase in efficiency occurs when the wind comes from the north, hitting the back of the panels.

Keywords: solar panels, elevation, wind direction, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
297 The Effect of Masonry Infills on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ameri, Ali Massumi, Behnam Mahboubi

Abstract:

The performance of masonry infilled frames during the past earthquakes shows that the infill panels play a major role as earthquake-resistant elements. The present study examines the influence of infill panels on seismic behavior of RC frame structures. For this purpose, several low- and mid-rise RC frames (two-, four-, seven-, and ten story) were numerically investigated. Reinforced masonry infill panels were then placed within the frames and the models were subjected to several nonlinear incremental static and dynamic analyses. The results of analyses showed that the use of reinforced masonry infill panels in RC frame structures can have beneficial effects on structural performance. It was confirmed that the use of masonry infill panels results in an increment in strength and stiffness of the framed buildings, followed by a reduction in displacement demand for the structural systems.

Keywords: reinforced masonry infill panels, nonlinear static analysis, incremental dynamic analysis, low-rise reinforced concrete frames, mid-rise reinforced concrete frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
296 Numerical Investigation of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Panels Resistance to Blast Loads

Authors: Sameh Ahmed, Khaled Galal

Abstract:

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sandwich panels are increasingly making their way into structural engineering applications. One of these applications is the blast mitigation. This is attributed to FRP ability of absorbing considerable amount of energy relative to their low density. In this study, FRP sandwich panels are numerically studied using an explicit finite element code ANSYS AUTODYN. The numerical model is then validated with the experimental field tests in the literature. The inner core configurations that have been studied in the experimental field tests were formed from different orientations of the honeycomb shape. On the other hand, the conducted numerical study has proposed a new core configuration. The new core configuration is formulated from a combination of woven and honeycomb shapes. Throughout this study, two performance parameters are considered; the amount of the energy absorbed by the panels and the peak deformation of the panels. Following, a parametric study has been conducted with more variations of the studied parameters to examine the enhancement of the panels' performance. It is found that the numerical results have shown a good agreement with the experimental measurements. Furthermore, the analyses have revealed that using the proposed core configuration obviously enhances the FRP panels’ behavior when subjected to blast loads.

Keywords: blast load, fiber reinforced polymers, finite element modeling, sandwich panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
295 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi

Abstract:

If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
294 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
293 Polymer Industrial Floors: The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
292 Pull-Out Analysis of Composite Loops Embedded in Steel Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Panels

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Christoff Kruger

Abstract:

Modular concrete elements are used for retaining walls to provide lateral support. Depending on the retaining wall layout, these precast panels may be interlocking and may be tied into the soil backfill via geosynthetic strips. This study investigates the ultimate pull-out load increase, which is possible by adding varied diameter supplementary reinforcement through embedded anchor loops within concrete retaining wall panels. Full-scale panels used in practice have four embedded anchor points. However, only one anchor loop was embedded in the center of the experimental panels. The experimental panels had the same thickness but a smaller footprint (600mm x 600mm x 140mm) area than the full-sized panels to accommodate the space limitations of the laboratory and experimental setup. The experimental panels were also cast without any bending reinforcement as would typically be obtained in the full-scale panels. The exclusion of these reinforcements was purposefully neglected to evaluate the impact of a single bar reinforcement through the center of the anchor loops. The reinforcement bars had of 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 12 mm. 30 samples of concrete panels with embedded anchor loops were tested. The panels were supported on the edges and the anchor loops were subjected to an increasing tensile force using an Instron piston. Failures that occurred were loop failures and panel failures and a mixture thereof. There was an increase in ultimate load vs. increasing diameter as expected, but this relationship persisted until the reinforcement diameter exceeded 10 mm. For diameters larger than 10 mm, the ultimate failure load starts to decrease due to the dependency of the reinforcement bond strength to the concrete matrix. Overall, the reinforced panels showed a 14 to 23% increase in the factor of safety. Using anchor loops of 66kN ultimate load together with Y10 steel reinforcement with bent ends had shown the most promising results in reducing concrete panel pull-out failure. The Y10 reinforcement had shown, on average, a 24% increase in ultimate load achieved. Previous research has investigated supplementary reinforcement around the anchor loops. This paper extends this investigation by evaluating supplementary reinforcement placed through the panel anchor loops.

Keywords: supplementary reinforcement, anchor loops, retaining panels, reinforced concrete, pull-out failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
291 Effective Method of Paneling for Source/Vortex/Doublet Panel Methods Using Conformal Mapping

Authors: K. C. R. Perera, B. M. Hapuwatte

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective method to divide panels for mesh-less methods of source, vortex and doublet panel methods. In this research study the physical domain of air-foils were transformed into computational domain of a circle using conformal mapping technique of Joukowsky transformation. Then the circle is divided into panels of equal length and the co-ordinates were remapped into physical domain of the air-foil. With this method the leading edge and the trailing edge of the air-foil is panelled with a high density of panels and the rest of the body is panelled with low density of panels. The high density of panels in the leading edge and the trailing edge will increase the accuracy of the solutions obtained from panel methods where the fluid flow at the leading and trailing edges are complex.

Keywords: conformal mapping, Joukowsky transformation, physical domain, computational domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
290 Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaic Panels Using an Optimised Air Cooled Heat Sink

Authors: Wisam K. Hussam, Ali Alfeeli, Gergory J. Sheard

Abstract:

Solar panels that use photovoltaic (PV) cells are popular for converting solar radiation into electricity. One of the major problems impacting the performance of PV panels is the overheating caused by excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures, which degrades the efficiency of the PV panels remarkably. To overcome this issue, an aluminum heat sink was used to dissipate unwanted heat from PV cells. The dimensions of the heat sink were determined considering the optimal fin spacing that fulfils hot climatic conditions. In this study, the effects of cooling on the efficiency and power output of a PV panel were studied experimentally. Two PV modules were used: one without and one with a heat sink. The experiments ran for 11 hours from 6:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. where temperature readings in the rear and front of both PV modules were recorded at an interval of 15 minutes using sensors and an Arduino microprocessor. Results are recorded for both panels simultaneously for analysis, temperate comparison, and for power and efficiency calculations. A maximum increase in the solar to electrical conversion efficiency of 35% and almost 55% in the power output were achieved with the use of a heat sink, while temperatures at the front and back of the panel were reduced by 9% and 11%, respectively.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, natural convection, heat sink, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
289 Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: System Overview and Sizing Principles

Authors: Najiya Omar, Hamed Aly, Timothy Little

Abstract:

The optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) array is considered a critical factor in designing an efficient PV system due to the dependence of the PV cell performance on temperature. A high temperature can lead to voltage losses of solar panels, whereas a low temperature can cause voltage overproduction. There are two possible scenarios of the inverter’s operation in which they are associated with the erroneous calculations of the number of PV panels: 1) If the number of the panels is scant and the temperature is high, the minimum voltage required to operate the inverter will not be reached. As a result, the inverter will shut down. 2) Comparably, if the number of panels is excessive and the temperature is low, the produced voltage will be more than the maximum limit of the inverter which can cause the inverter to get disconnected or even damaged. This article aims to assess theoretical and practical methodologies to calculate size and determine the topology of a PV array. The results are validated by applying an experimental evaluation for a 100 kW Grid-connected PV system for a location in Halifax, Nova Scotia and achieving a satisfactory system performance compared to the previous work done.

Keywords: sizing PV panels, theoretical and practical methodologies, topology of PV array, grid-connected PV

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
288 The Effect of Different Configurations of Square Panels on the Acoustic of Airport

Authors: Maryam Nikpour, Soude Valipour, Omid Rahaei

Abstract:

Noise disturbance at airports negatively affects people's health. In this study, Ahwaz International Airport in Iran was selected as the case study due to the very long resonance measured in the middle frequencies of 5-10 seconds on this site. To overcome this acoustics problem, we examined eight different square sound-absorbing panels installed on the walls and the ceiling of the airport lounge and were simulated using EASE 4.4 software. In our research, four variables, including acoustic time index (RT, or main index), auditory error coefficient (〖AL〗_CONSE), speech transmission index (STI), and total sound pressure level (SPL) were evaluated according to the international standards of ISO3382 and ISO 3382-1. After the simulation, it was concluded that our Model A compared to other sound-absorbing panels, showed the lowest sound pressure at different frequencies using the above indices.

Keywords: acoustics, flight lounge, noise, sound absorbing panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
287 Shear Capacity of Rectangular Duct Panel Experiencing Internal Pressure

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, T. Thanga, B. Halabieh

Abstract:

The end panels of a large rectangular industrial duct, which experience significant internal pressures, also experience considerable transverse shear due to transfer of gravity loads to the supports. The current design practice of such thin plate panels for shear load is based on methods used for the design of plate girder webs. The structural arrangements, the loadings and the resulting behavior associated with the industrial duct end panels are, however, significantly different than those of the web of a plate girder. The large aspect ratio of the end panels gives rise to multiple bands of tension fields, whereas the plate girder web design is based on one tension field. In addition to shear, the industrial end panels are subjected to internal pressure which in turn produces significant membrane action. This paper reports a study which was undertaken to review the current industrial analysis and design methods and to propose a comprehensive method of designing industrial duct end panels for shear resistance. In this investigation, a nonlinear finite element model was developed to simulate the behavior of industrial duct end panel subjected to transverse shear and internal pressures. The model considered the geometric imperfections and constitutive relations for steels. Six scale independent dimensionless parameters that govern the behavior of such end panel were identified and were then used in an extensive parametric study. It was concluded that the plate slenderness dominates the shear strength of stockier end panels, and whereas, the aspect ratio and plate slenderness influence the shear strength of slender end panels. Based on these studies, this paper proposes design aids for estimating the shear strength of rectangular duct end panels.

Keywords: thin plate, transverse shear, tension field, finite element analysis, parametric study, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
286 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang

Abstract:

The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
285 Studying the Effect of Shading by Rooftop PV Panels on Dwellings’ Thermal Performance

Authors: Saad Odeh

Abstract:

Thermal performance is considered to be a key measure in building sustainability. One of the technologies used in the current building sustainable design is the rooftop solar PV power generators. The application of this type of technology has expanded vastly during the last five years in many countries. This paper studies the effect of roof shading developed by the solar PV panels on dwellings’ thermal performance. The analysis in this work is performed by using two types of packages: “AccuRate Sustainability” for rating the energy efficiency of residential building design, and “PVSYST” for the solar PV power system design. The former package is used to calculate the annual heating and cooling load, and the later package is used to evaluate the power production from the roof top PV system. The analysis correlates the electrical energy generated from the PV panels to the change in the heating and cooling load due to roof shading. Different roof orientation, roof inclination, roof insulation, as well as PV panel area are considered in this study. The analysis shows that the drop in energy efficiency due to the shaded area of the roof by PV panels is negligible compared to the energy generated by these panels.

Keywords: PV panel, thermal performance, roof shading, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
284 Kenaf MDF Panels with Soy Based Adhesive. The Influence of Preparation Parameters on Physciomechanical Properties

Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Krishnan Jayaraman, Debes Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Soybean concentrate is abundant material and renewable product that is recently been explored as an alternative to conventional formaldehyde based resins in wood based products. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing environment friendly MDF panels from renewable resources. The panels are made by using kenaf bast fibers (KB) as wood substitute and soy based adhesive as bonding material. Second order response surface regression models are used to understand the effects and interactions of resin content (RC) and pressing time (PT) on the mechanical and water soaking properties of kenaf panels. The mechanical and water soaking properties are significantly improved as the RC increased and reached at the highest level at maximum resin loading (12%). The effect of pressing time is significant in the first phase when the pressing time increased from 4 to 6 min; however the effect was not as significant when pressing time further increased to 8 min. The second order regression equations further confirm that the variation in process parameters has strong relationship with the physciomechanical properties. The MDF panels the minimum requirements of internal bond strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity as recommended by US wood MDF standard specifications for G110, G120, G130 and G140 grade MDF panels. However, the thickness swelling results are considerably poorer than the recommended values of general purpose standard requirements. This deficiency can be counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde free panels made from renewable sources and by making them suitable alternative for less humid environment applications.

Keywords: kenaf, Medium density fibreboard, soy adhesive, mechanical properties, water soaking properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
283 Embodiment Design of an Azimuth-Altitude Solar Tracker

Authors: M. Culman, O. Lengerke

Abstract:

To provide an efficient solar generation system, the embodiment design of a two axis solar tracker for an array of photovoltaic (PV) panels destiny to supply the power demand on off-the-grid areas was developed. Photovoltaic cells have high costs in relation to t low efficiency; and while a lot of research and investment has been made to increases its efficiency a few points, there is a profitable solution that increases by 30-40% the annual power production: two axis solar trackers. A solar tracker is a device that supports a load in a perpendicular position toward the sun during daylight. Mounted on solar trackers, the solar panels remain perpendicular to the incoming sunlight at day and seasons so the maximum amount of energy is outputted. Through a preview research done it was justified why the generation of solar energy through photovoltaic panels mounted on dual axis structures is an attractive solution to bring electricity to remote off-the-grid areas. The work results are the embodiment design of an azimuth-altitude solar tracker to guide an array of photovoltaic panels based on a specific design methodology. The designed solar tracker is mounted on a pedestal that uses two slewing drives‚ with a nominal torque of 1950 Nm‚ to move a solar array that provides 3720 W from 12 PV panels.

Keywords: azimuth-altitude sun tracker, dual-axis solar tracker, photovoltaic system, solar energy, stand-alone power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
282 Experimental Investigation on the Fire Performance of Corrugated Sandwich Panels made from Renewable Material

Authors: Avishek Chanda, Nam Kyeun Kim, Debes Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The use of renewable substitutes in various semi-structural and structural applications has experienced an increase since the last few decades. Sandwich panels have been used for many decades, although research on understanding the effects of the core structures on the panels’ fire-reaction properties is limited. The current work investigates the fire-performance of a corrugated sandwich panel made from renewable, biodegradable, and sustainable material, plywood. The bench-scale fire testing apparatus, cone-calorimeter, was employed to evaluate the required fire-reaction properties of the sandwich core in a panel configuration, with three corrugated layers glued together with face-sheets under a heat irradiance of 50 kW/m2. The study helped in documenting a unique heat release trend associated with the fire performance of the 3-layered corrugated sandwich panels and in understanding the structural stability of the samples in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the total peak heat release rate was observed to be around 421 kW/m2, which is significantly low compared to many polymeric materials in the literature. The total smoke production was also perceived to be very limited compared to other structural materials, and the total heat release was also nominal. The time to ignition of 21.7 s further outlined the advantages of using the plywood component since polymeric composites, even with flame-retardant additives, tend to ignite faster. Overall, the corrugated plywood sandwich panels had significant fire-reaction properties and could have important structural applications. The possible use of structural panels made from bio-degradable material opens a new avenue for the use of similar structures in sandwich panel preparation.

Keywords: corrugated sandwich panel, fire-reaction properties, plywood, renewable material

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
281 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
280 Quasi-Static Resistance Function Quantification for Lightweight Sandwich Panels: Experimental Study

Authors: Yasser A. Khalifa, Michael J. Tait, A. M. Asce, Wael W. El-Dakhakhni, M. Asce

Abstract:

The quasi-static resistance functions for orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were determined experimentally. According to the American and Canadian codes for blast resistant designs of buildings UFC 3-340-02, ASCE/SEI 59-11, and CSA/ S850-12 the dynamic behavior is related to the static behavior under uniform loading. The target was to design a lightweight, relatively cheap, and quick sandwich panel to be employed as a sacrificial cladding for important buildings. For that an available corrugated cold formed steel sheet profile in North America was used as a core for the sandwich panel, in addition to using a quick, relatively low cost fabrication technique in the construction process. Six orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were tested and the influence of core sheet gauge on the behavior of the sandwich panels was explored using two different gauges. Failure modes, yield forces, ultimate forces, and corresponding deformations were determined and discussed.

Keywords: cold formed steel, lightweight structure, sandwich panel, sacrificial cladding, uniform loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
279 Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test

Authors: Gisele C. A. Martins, Leonardo A. Marcolin, Laurenn B. de Macedo, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Jr

Abstract:

The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.

Keywords: fire retardant, flame spread, plywood, wood-based material

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
278 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal

Abstract:

The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.

Keywords: solar energy, battery storage, electric vehicle, charging stations

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
277 Response of Concrete Panels Subjected to Compression-Tension State of Stresses

Authors: Mohammed F. Almograbi

Abstract:

For reinforced concrete panels the risk of failure due to compression -tension state of stresses, results from pure shear or torsion, can be a major problem. The present calculation methods for such stresses from multiple influences are without taking into account the softening of cracked concrete remains conservative. The non-linear finite element method has become an important and increasingly used tool for the analysis and assessment of the structures by including cracking softening and tension-stiffening. The aim of this paper is to test a computer program refined recently and to simulate the compression response of cracked concrete element and to compare with the available experimental results.

Keywords: reinforced concrete panels, compression-tension, shear, torsion, compression softening, tension stiffening, non-linear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
276 Installing Photovoltaic Panels to Generate Optimal Energy in SPAV Hostel, Vijayawada

Authors: J. Jayasuriya

Abstract:

In this research paper, a procedure for installing and assessment of a solar PV plant to generate optimal solar energy SPAV hostel at Vijayawada city was analyzed. The hostel was experiencing power disruption and had a need for an unceasing energy source. The solar panel is one of the best solutions to obtain uninterrupted clean renewable energy for an institutional building as it neither makes din nor pollutes the atmosphere. The electricity usage per month was initially measured to discriminate the energy change. The solar array was installed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for the feasibility and efficiency of PV plant near this site i.e., the orientation of the site, the size and shape of the terrace, the sun path were considered while installing panels. Various precautions were taken to intercept the factors which cause interference in energy generation, with respect to temperature, overshadowing, the wiring of panels, pollution etc. The solar panels were frequently installed, monitored and maintained properly to procure optimal energy output. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant and deflation in the electric bill will show the maximal energy that can be generated in a month on that particular site.

Keywords: solar efficiency, building sustainability, PV panel, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
275 Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels

Authors: Aleksandra Majchrzak, Katarzyna Baruch, Monika Sobolewska, Bartlomiej Chojnacki, Adam Pilch

Abstract:

Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.

Keywords: characteristic numbers, dimensional analysis, model study, scaled modeling, sound absorption coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 119