Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2159

Search results for: grid connected photovoltaic (PV)

2159 Design and Implementation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter

Authors: B. H. Lee


Nowadays, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter is adopted in various places like as home, factory, because grid-connected PV inverter can reduce total power consumption by supplying electricity from PV array. In this paper, design and implementation of a 300 W grid-connected PV inverter are described. It is implemented with TI Piccolo DSP core and operated at 100 kHz switching frequency in order to reduce harmonic contents. The maximum operating input voltage is up to 45 V. The characteristics of the designed system that include maximum power point tracking (MPPT), single operation and battery charging are verified by simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: design, grid-connected, implementation, photovoltaic

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2158 Control Technique for Single Phase Bipolar H-Bridge Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: L. Hassaine, A. Mraoui, M. R. Bengourina


In photovoltaic system, connected to the grid, the main goal is to control the power that the inverter injects into the grid from the energy provided by the photovoltaic generator. This paper proposes a control technique for a photovoltaic system connected to the grid based on the digital pulse-width modulation (DSPWM) which can synchronise a sinusoidal current output with a grid voltage and generate power at unity power factor. This control is based on H-Bridge inverter controlled by bipolar PWM Switching. The electrical scheme of the system is presented. Simulations results of output voltage and current validate the impact of this method to determinate the appropriate control of the system. A digital design of a generator PWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic system, H-Bridge inverter, control, bipolar PWM

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2157 Optimization Design of Single Phase Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: Linda Hassaine, Abdelhamid Mraoui, Mohamed Rida Bengourina


In grid-connected photovoltaic systems, significant improvements can be carried out in the design and implementation of inverters: reduction of harmonic distortion, elimination of the DC component injected into the grid and the proposed control. This paper proposes a control strategy based on PWM switching patterns for an inverter for the photovoltaic system connected to the grid in order to control the injected current. The current injected must be sinusoidal with reduced harmonic distortion. An additional filter is designed to reduce high-order harmonics on the output side. This strategy exhibits the advantages: Simplicity, reduction of harmonics, the size of the line filter, reduction of the memory requirements and power calculation for the control.

Keywords: control, inverters, LCL filter, grid-connected photovoltaic system

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2156 Sliding Mode Control of a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected System with Active and Reactive Power Control

Authors: M. Doumi, K. Tahir, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir


This paper presents a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic generation system with unity power factor for any situation of solar radiation based on voltage-oriented control (VOC). An input voltage clamping technique is proposed to control the power between the grid and photovoltaic system, where it is intended to achieve the maximum power point operation. This method uses a Perturb and Observe (P&O) controller. The main objective of this work is to compare the energy production unit performances by the use of two types of controllers (namely, classical PI and Sliding Mode (SM) Controllers) for the grid inverter control. The proposed control has a hierarchical structure with a grid side control level to regulate the power (PQ) and the current injected to the grid and to obtain a common DC voltage constant. To show the effectiveness of both control methods performances analysis of the system are analyzed and compared by simulation and results included in this paper.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic, MPPT, inverter control, classical PI, sliding mode, DC voltage constant, voltage-oriented control, VOC

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2155 Performance Evaluation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

Authors: Abdulkadir Magaji


This study analyzes and compares the actual measured and simulated performance of a 3.2 kwP grid-connected photovoltaic system. The system is located at the Outdoor Facility of Government Day secondary School Katsina State, which lies approximately between coordinate of 12°15′N 7°30′E. The system consists of 14 Mono crystalline silicon modules connected in two strings of 7 series-connected modules, each facing north at a fixed tilt of 340. The data presented in this study were measured in the year 2015, where the system supplied a total of 4628 kWh to the local electric utility grid. The performance of the system was simulated using PVsyst software using measured and Meteonorm derived climate data sets (solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed). The comparison between measured and simulated energy yield are discussed. Although, both simulation results were similar, better comparison between measured and predicted monthly energy yield is observed with simulation performed using measured weather data at the site. The measured performance ratio in the present study shows 58.4% is higher than those reported elsewhere as compared in the study.

Keywords: performance, evaluation, grid connection, photovoltaic system

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2154 Performance Assessment of PV Based Grid Connected Solar Plant with Varying Load Conditions

Authors: Kusum Tharani, Ratna Dahiya


This paper aims to analyze the power flow of a grid connected 100-kW Photovoltaic(PV) array connected to a 25-kV grid via a DC-DC boost converter and a three-phase three-level Voltage Source Converter (VSC). Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is implemented in the boost converter bymeans of a Simulink model using the 'Perturb & Observe' technique. First, related papers and technological reports were extensively studied and analyzed. Accordingly, the system is tested under various loading conditions. Power flow analysis is done using the Newton-Raphson method in Matlab environment. Finally, the system is subject to Single Line to Ground Fault and Three Phase short circuit. The results are simulated under the grid-connected operating model.

Keywords: grid connected PV Array, Newton-Raphson Method, power flow analysis, three phase fault

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2153 Optimal Design and Simulation of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Power System for an Electrical Department in University of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Mustafa Al-Refai


This paper presents the optimal design and simulation of a grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) system to supply electric power to meet the energy demand by Electrical Department in University of Tripoli Libya. Solar radiation is the key factor determining electricity produced by photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper is designed to develop a novel method to calculate the solar photovoltaic generation capacity on the basis of Mean Global Solar Radiation data available for Tripoli Libya and finally develop a system design of possible plant capacity for the available roof area. MatLab/Simulink Programming tools and monthly average solar radiation data are used for this design and simulation. The specifications of equipments are provided based on the availability of the components in the market. Simulation results and analyses are presented to validate the proposed system configuration.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV), grid, Simulink, solar energy, power plant, solar irradiation

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2152 Impact of the Photovoltaic Integration in Power Distribution Network: Case Study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Authors: David Hasurungan


This paper objective is to analyze the impact from photovoltaic system integration to power distribution network. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. Badak LNG electricity network is operated in islanded mode. The total power generation in Badak LNG plant is significantly affected to feed gas supply. Meanwhile, to support the Government regulation, Badak LNG continuously implemented the grid-connected photovoltaic system in existing power distribution network. The impact between train operational mode change in Badak LNG plant and the growth of photovoltaic system is also encompassed in analysis. The analysis and calculation are performed using software Power Factory 15.1.

Keywords: power quality, distribution network, grid-connected photovoltaic system, power management system

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2151 A 3kW Grid Connected Residential Energy Storage System with PV and Li-Ion Battery

Authors: Moiz Masood Syed, Seong-Jun Hong, Geun-Hie Rim, Kyung-Ae Cho, Hyoung-Suk Kim


In the near future, energy storage will play a vital role to enhance the present changing technology. Energy storage with power generation becomes necessary when renewable energy sources are connected to the grid which consequently adjoins to the total energy in the system since utilities require more power when peak demand occurs. This paper describes the operational function of a 3 kW grid-connected residential Energy Storage System (ESS) which is connected with Photovoltaic (PV) at its input side. The system can perform bidirectional functions of charging from the grid and discharging to the grid when power demand becomes high and low respectively. It consists of PV module, Power Conditioning System (PCS) containing a bidirectional DC/DC Converter and bidirectional DC/AC inverter and a Lithium-ion battery pack. ESS Configuration, specifications, and control are described. The bidirectional DC/DC converter tracks the maximum power point (MPPT) and maintains the stability of PV array in case of power deficiency to fulfill the load requirements. The bidirectional DC/AC inverter has good voltage regulation properties like low total harmonic distortion (THD), low electromagnetic interference (EMI), faster response and anti-islanding characteristics. Experimental results satisfy the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Keywords: energy storage system, photovoltaic, DC/DC converter, DC/AC inverter

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2150 Grid Connected Photovoltaic Micro Inverter

Authors: S. J. Bindhu, Edwina G. Rodrigues, Jijo Balakrishnan


A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro inverter with good performance properties is proposed in this paper. The proposed inverter with a quadrupler, having more efficiency and less voltage stress across the diodes. The stress that come across the diodes that use in the inverter section is considerably low in the proposed converter, also the protection scheme that we provided can eliminate the chances of the error due to fault. The proposed converter is implemented using perturb and observe algorithm so that the fluctuation in the voltage can be reduce and can attain maximum power point. Finally, some simulation and experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, MPPT, quadrupler, PV panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2149 Modeling of Micro-Grid System Components Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Mahmoud Fouad, Mervat Badr, Marwa Ibrahim


Micro-grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. Renewable power sources such as wind, solar and hydro offer high potential of benign power for future micro-grid systems. Micro-Grid (MG) is basically a low voltage (LV) or medium voltage (MV) distribution network which consists of a number of called distributed generators (DG’s); micro-sources such as photovoltaic array, fuel cell, wind turbine etc. energy storage systems and loads; operating as a single controllable system, that could be operated in both grid-connected and islanded mode. The capacity of the DG’s is sufficient to support all; or most, of the load connected to the micro-grid. This paper presents a micro-grid system based on wind and solar power sources and addresses issues related to operation, control, and stability of the system. Using Matlab/Simulink, the system is modeled and simulated to identify the relevant technical issues involved in the operation of a micro-grid system based on renewable power generation units.

Keywords: micro-grid system, photovoltaic, wind turbine, energy storage, distributed generation, modeling

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2148 Large-Scale Photovoltaic Generation System Connected to HVDC Grid with Centralized High Voltage and High Power DC/DC Converter

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Shanshan Meng, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation system connected to HVDC grid has many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid. DC connection can solve many problems that AC connection faces, such as the grid-connection and power transmission, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a centralized DC/DC converter which uses Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid voltage. Meanwhile, it adopts input current sharing control strategy to realize input current and output voltage balance. A ±30kV/1MW system is modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and a downscaled ±10kV/200kW DC/DC converter platform is built to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, cascaded dc/dc converter, galvanic isolation, high-voltage, direct current (HVDC)

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2147 Effect of MPPT and THD in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

Authors: Sajjad Yahaghifar


From the end of the last century, the importance and use of renewable energy sources have gained prominence, due not only by the fossil fuels dependence reduction, but mainly by environmental reasons related to climate change and the effects to the humanity. Consequently, solar energy has been arousing interest in several countries for being a technology considered clean, with reduced environmental impact. The output power of photo voltaic (PV) arrays is always changing with weather conditions,i.e., solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control to extract maximum power from the PV arrays at real time becomes indispensable in PV generation system. This paper Study MPPT and total harmonic distortion (THD) in the city of Tabriz, Iran with the grid-connected PV system as distributed generation.

Keywords: MPPT, THD, grid-connected, PV system

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2146 Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: System Overview and Sizing Principles

Authors: Najiya Omar, Hamed Aly, Timothy Little


The optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) array is considered a critical factor in designing an efficient PV system due to the dependence of the PV cell performance on temperature. A high temperature can lead to voltage losses of solar panels, whereas a low temperature can cause voltage overproduction. There are two possible scenarios of the inverter’s operation in which they are associated with the erroneous calculations of the number of PV panels: 1) If the number of the panels is scant and the temperature is high, the minimum voltage required to operate the inverter will not be reached. As a result, the inverter will shut down. 2) Comparably, if the number of panels is excessive and the temperature is low, the produced voltage will be more than the maximum limit of the inverter which can cause the inverter to get disconnected or even damaged. This article aims to assess theoretical and practical methodologies to calculate size and determine the topology of a PV array. The results are validated by applying an experimental evaluation for a 100 kW Grid-connected PV system for a location in Halifax, Nova Scotia and achieving a satisfactory system performance compared to the previous work done.

Keywords: sizing PV panels, theoretical and practical methodologies, topology of PV array, grid-connected PV

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2145 Detailed Feasibility and Design of a Grid-Tied PV and Building Integrated Photovoltaic System for a Commercial Healthcare Building

Authors: Muhammad Ali Tariq


Grid-connected PV systems have drawn tremendous attention of researchers in the past recent years. The report elucidates the development of efficient and stable solar PV energy conversion systems after thorough analysis at various facets like PV module characteristics, its arrangement, power electronics and MPPT topologies, the stability of the grid, and economic viability over its lifetime. This report and feasibility study will try to bring all optimizing approaches and design calculations which are required for generating energy from BIPV and roof-mounted solar PV in a convenient, sustainable, and user-friendly way.

Keywords: building integrated photovoltaic system, grid integration, solar resource assessment, return on investment, multi MPPT-inverter, levelised cost of electricity

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2144 Power Energy Management For A Grid-Connected PV System Using Rule-Base Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nousheen Hashmi, Shoab Ahmad Khan


Active collaboration among the green energy sources and the load demand leads to serious issues related to power quality and stability. The growing number of green energy resources and Distributed-Generators need newer strategies to be incorporated for their operations to keep the power energy stability among green energy resources and micro-grid/Utility Grid. This paper presents a novel technique for energy power management in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic with energy storage system under set of constraints including weather conditions, Load Shedding Hours, Peak pricing Hours by using rule-based fuzzy smart grid controller to schedule power coming from multiple Power sources (photovoltaic, grid, battery) under the above set of constraints. The technique fuzzifies all the inputs and establishes fuzzify rule set from fuzzy outputs before defuzzification. Simulations are run for 24 hours period and rule base power scheduler is developed. The proposed fuzzy controller control strategy is able to sense the continuous fluctuations in Photovoltaic power generation, Load Demands, Grid (load Shedding patterns) and Battery State of Charge in order to make correct and quick decisions.The suggested Fuzzy Rule-based scheduler can operate well with vague inputs thus doesn’t not require any exact numerical model and can handle nonlinearity. This technique provides a framework for the extension to handle multiple special cases for optimized working of the system.

Keywords: photovoltaic, power, fuzzy logic, distributed generators, state of charge, load shedding, membership functions

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2143 Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, A. Rabeh, A. K. Mohamed


This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.

Keywords: renewable energies, photovoltaic systems, dc link, voltage source inverter, space vector SVPWM, unbalanced voltage dips, symmetrical components

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2142 Development and Metrological Validation of a Control Strategy in Embedded Island Grids Using Battery-Hybrid-Systems

Authors: L. Wilkening, G. Ackermann, T. T. Do


This article presents an approach for stand-alone and grid-connected mode of a German low-voltage grid with high share of photovoltaic. For this purpose, suitable dynamic system models have been developed. This allows the simulation of dynamic events in very small time ranges and the operation management over longer periods of time. Using these simulations, suitable control parameters could be identified, and their effects on the grid can be analyzed. In order to validate the simulation results, a LV-grid test bench has been implemented at the University of Technology Hamburg. The developed control strategies are to be validated using real inverters, generators and different realistic loads. It is shown that a battery hybrid system installed next to a voltage transformer makes it possible to operate the LV-grid in stand-alone mode without using additional information and communication technology and without intervention in the existing grid units. By simulating critical days of the year, suitable control parameters for stable stand-alone operations are determined and set point specifications for different control strategies are defined.

Keywords: battery, e-mobility, photovoltaic, smart grid

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2141 Integration of Hybrid PV-Wind in Three Phase Grid System Using Fuzzy MPPT without Battery Storage for Remote Area

Authors: Thohaku Abdul Hadi, Hadyan Perdana Putra, Nugroho Wicaksono, Adhika Prajna Nandiwardhana, Onang Surya Nugroho, Heri Suryoatmojo, Soedibjo


Access to electricity is now a basic requirement of mankind. Unfortunately, there are still many places around the world which have no access to electricity, such as small islands, where there could potentially be a factory, a plantation, a residential area, or resorts. Many of these places might have substantial potential for energy generation such us Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind turbine (WT), which can be used to generate electricity independently for themselves. Solar energy and wind power are renewable energy sources which are mostly found in nature and also kinds of alternative energy that are still developing in a rapid speed to help and meet the demand of electricity. PV and Wind has a characteristic of power depend on solar irradiation and wind speed based on geographical these areas. This paper presented a control methodology of hybrid small scale PV/Wind energy system that use a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to extract the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in different solar irradiation and wind speed. This paper discusses simulation and analysis of the generation process of hybrid resources in MPP and power conditioning unit (PCU) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) that is connected to the three-phase low voltage electricity grid system (380V) without battery storage. The capacity of the sources used is 2.2 kWp PV and 2.5 kW PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) -WT power rating. The Modeling of hybrid PV/Wind, as well as integrated power electronics components in grid connected system, are simulated using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: fuzzy MPPT, grid connected inverter, photovoltaic (PV), PMSG wind turbine

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2140 A High Efficiency Reduced Rules Neuro-Fuzzy Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Photovoltaic Array Connected to Grid

Authors: Lotfi Farah, Nadir Farah, Zaiem Kamar


This paper achieves a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller using a high-efficiency reduced rules neuro-fuzzy inference system (HE2RNF) for a 100 kW stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system connected to the grid. The suggested HE2RNF based MPPT seeks the optimal duty cycle for the boost DC-DC converter, making the designed PV system working at the maximum power point (MPP), then transferring this power to the grid via a three levels voltage source converter (VSC). PV current variation and voltage variation are chosen as HE2RNF-based MPPT controller inputs. By using these inputs with the duty cycle as the only single output, a six rules ANFIS is generated. The high performance of the proposed HE2RNF numerically in the MATLAB/Simulink environment is shown. The 0.006% steady-state error, 0.006s of tracking time, and 0.088s of starting time prove the robustness of this six reduced rules against the widely used twenty-five ones.

Keywords: PV, MPPT, ANFIS, HE2RNF-based MPPT controller, VSC, grid connection

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2139 Analysis of Grid Connected High Concentrated Photovoltaic Systems for Peak Load Shaving in Kuwait

Authors: Adel A. Ghoneim


Air conditioning devices are substantially utilized in the summer months, as a result maximum loads in Kuwait take place in these intervals. Peak energy consumption are usually more expensive to satisfy compared to other standard power sources. The primary objective of the current work is to enhance the performance of high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) systems in an attempt to minimize peak power usage in Kuwait using HCPV modules. High concentrated PV multi-junction solar cells provide a promising method towards accomplishing lowest pricing per kilowatt-hour. Nevertheless, these cells have various features that should be resolved to be feasible for extensive power production. A single diode equivalent circuit model is formulated to analyze multi-junction solar cells efficiency in Kuwait weather circumstances taking into account the effects of both the temperature and the concentration ratio. The diode shunt resistance that is commonly ignored in the established models is considered in the present numerical model. The current model results are successfully validated versus measurements from published data to within 1.8% accuracy. Present calculations reveal that the single diode model considering the shunt resistance provides accurate and dependable results. The electrical efficiency (η) is observed to increase with concentration to a specific concentration level after which it reduces. Implementing grid systems is noticed to increase with concentration to a certain concentration degree after which it decreases. Employing grid connected HCPV systems results in significant peak load reduction.

Keywords: grid connected, high concentrated photovoltaic systems, peak load, solar cells

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2138 Control Scheme for Single-Stage Boost Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi, Behnaz Mahdaviani


Increasing renewable sources such photovoltaic are the reason of environmental pollution. Because photovoltaic generates power in low voltage, first, generated power should increase. Usually, distributed generation injects their power to AC-Grid, hence after voltage increasing an inverter is needed to convert DC power to AC power. This results in utilization two series converter that grows cost, complexity, and low efficiency. In this paper a single stage inverter is utilized to boost and invert in one stage. Control of this scheme is easier, and its initial cost decreases comparing to conventional double stage inverters. A simple control scheme is used to control active power as well as minimum total harmonic distortion (THD) in injected current. Simulations in MATLAB demonstrate better outputs comparing with conventional approaches.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, boost inverter, control strategy, three phase inverter

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2137 Single Phase PV Inverter Applying a Dual Boost Technology

Authors: Sudha Bhutada, S. R. Nigam


In this paper, a single-phase PV inverter applying a dual boost converter circuit inverter is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) generation system and PV grid connected system. This system is designed to improve integration of a Single phase inverter with Photovoltaic panel. The DC 24V is converted into to 86V DC and then 86V DC to 312V DC. The 312 V DC is then successfully inverted to AC 220V. Hence, solar energy is powerfully converted into electrical energy for fulfilling the necessities of the home load, or to link with the grid. Matlab Simulation software was used for simulation of the circuit and outcome are presented in this paper.

Keywords: H bridge inverter, dual boost converter, PWM, SPWM

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2136 Implementation of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module with IC and P&O Method

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati


In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased. Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution, maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: incremental conductance algorithm, modeling of PV panel, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system and simulation results

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2135 Switching of Series-Parallel Connected Modules in an Array for Partially Shaded Conditions in a Pollution Intensive Area Using High Powered MOSFETs

Authors: Osamede Asowata, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker


Photovoltaic (PV) modules may become a trend for future PV systems because of their greater flexibility in distributed system expansion, easier installation due to their nature, and higher system-level energy harnessing capabilities under shaded or PV manufacturing mismatch conditions. This is as compared to the single or multi-string inverters. Novel residential scale PV arrays are commonly connected to the grid by a single DC–AC inverter connected to a series, parallel or series-parallel string of PV panels, or many small DC–AC inverters which connect one or two panels directly to the AC grid. With an increasing worldwide interest in sustainable energy production and use, there is renewed focus on the power electronic converter interface for DC energy sources. Three specific examples of such DC energy sources that will have a role in distributed generation and sustainable energy systems are the photovoltaic (PV) panel, the fuel cell stack, and batteries of various chemistries. A high-efficiency inverter using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) for all active switches is presented for a non-isolated photovoltaic and AC-module applications. The proposed configuration features a high efficiency over a wide load range, low ground leakage current and low-output AC-current distortion with no need for split capacitors. The detailed power stage operating principles, pulse width modulation scheme, multilevel bootstrap power supply, and integrated gate drivers for the proposed inverter is described. Experimental results of a hardware prototype, show that not only are MOSFET efficient in the system, it also shows that the ground leakage current issues are alleviated in the proposed inverter and also a 98 % maximum associated driver circuit is achieved. This, in turn, provides the need for a possible photovoltaic panel switching technique. This will help to reduce the effect of cloud movements as well as improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic (PV), Matlab efficiency simulation, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), module integrated converters (MICs), multilevel converter, series connected converter

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2134 Grid-Connected Inverter Experimental Simulation and Droop Control Implementation

Authors: Nur Aisyah Jalalludin, Arwindra Rizqiawan, Goro Fujita


In this study, we aim to demonstrate a microgrid system experimental simulation for an easy understanding of a large-scale microgrid system. This model is required for industrial training and learning environments. However, in order to create an exact representation of a microgrid system, the laboratory-scale system must fulfill the requirements of a grid-connected inverter, in which power values are assigned to the system to cope with the intermittent output from renewable energy sources. Aside from that, during changes in load capacity, the grid-connected system must be able to supply power from the utility grid side and microgrid side in a balanced manner. Therefore, droop control is installed in the inverter’s control board to maintain equal power sharing in both sides. This power control in a stand-alone condition and droop control in a grid-connected condition must be implemented in order to maintain a stabilized system. Based on the experimental results, power control and droop control can both be applied in the system by comparing the experimental and reference values.

Keywords: droop control, droop characteristic, grid-connected inverter, microgrid, power control

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2133 A Grid Synchronization Method Based On Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT

Authors: Priyanka Chaudhary, M. Rizwan


This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic systems, MPPT, voltage source converter, grid synchronization technique

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2132 A Quasi Z-Source Based Full Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converter as a Power Module for PV System Connected to HVDC Grid

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Guoen Cao, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) power system is to be developed in the direction of large-scale, clustering. Large-scale PV generation systems connected to HVDC grid have many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system, has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a Quasi Z-Source(QZS) based Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology as a basis power module and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid. The topology has both traditional voltage source and current source advantages, it permit the H-bridge short through and open circuit, which adopt utility duty cycle control and achieved input current and output voltage balancing through input current sharing control strategy. A ±10kV/200kW system model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: PV Generation System, Cascaded DC/DC converter, HVDC, Quasi Z Source Converter

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2131 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid-Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat


Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: photovoltaic, cloud effect, MPPT, power transients

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2130 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes

Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia


This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.

Keywords: microgrid, distributed energy resources, voltage and current control, voltage source converter, pulse width modulation, phase locked loop

Procedia PDF Downloads 270