Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2363

Search results for: image registration

2363 Robust Image Registration Based on an Adaptive Normalized Mutual Information Metric

Authors: Huda Algharib, Amal Algharib, Hanan Algharib, Ali Mohammad Alqudah


Image registration is an important topic for many imaging systems and computer vision applications. The standard image registration techniques such as Mutual information/ Normalized mutual information -based methods have a limited performance because they do not consider the spatial information or the relationships between the neighbouring pixels or voxels. In addition, the amount of image noise may significantly affect the registration accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient method that explicitly considers the relationships between the adjacent pixels, where the gradient information of the reference and scene images is extracted first, and then the cosine similarity of the extracted gradient information is computed and used to improve the accuracy of the standard normalized mutual information measure. Our experimental results on different data types (i.e. CT, MRI and thermal images) show that the proposed method outperforms a number of image registration techniques in terms of the accuracy.

Keywords: image registration, mutual information, image gradients, image transformations

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2362 Mutual Information Based Image Registration of Satellite Images Using PSO-GA Hybrid Algorithm

Authors: Dipti Patra, Guguloth Uma, Smita Pradhan


Registration is a fundamental task in image processing. It is used to transform different sets of data into one coordinate system, where data are acquired from different times, different viewing angles, and/or different sensors. The registration geometrically aligns two images (the reference and target images). Registration techniques are used in satellite images and it is important in order to be able to compare or integrate the data obtained from these different measurements. In this work, mutual information is considered as a similarity metric for registration of satellite images. The transformation is assumed to be a rigid transformation. An attempt has been made here to optimize the transformation function. The proposed image registration technique hybrid PSO-GA incorporates the notion of Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm and is used for finding the best optimum values of transformation parameters. The performance comparision obtained with the experiments on satellite images found that the proposed hybrid PSO-GA algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in terms of mutual information and registration accuracy.

Keywords: image registration, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, hybrid PSO-GA algorithm and mutual information

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2361 A Review on Medical Image Registration Techniques

Authors: Shadrack Mambo, Karim Djouani, Yskandar Hamam, Barend van Wyk, Patrick Siarry


This paper discusses the current trends in medical image registration techniques and addresses the need to provide a solid theoretical foundation for research endeavours. Methodological analysis and synthesis of quality literature was done, providing a platform for developing a good foundation for research study in this field which is crucial in understanding the existing levels of knowledge. Research on medical image registration techniques assists clinical and medical practitioners in diagnosis of tumours and lesion in anatomical organs, thereby enhancing fast and accurate curative treatment of patients. Literature review aims to provide a solid theoretical foundation for research endeavours in image registration techniques. Developing a solid foundation for a research study is possible through a methodological analysis and synthesis of existing contributions. Out of these considerations, the aim of this paper is to enhance the scientific community’s understanding of the current status of research in medical image registration techniques and also communicate to them, the contribution of this research in the field of image processing. The gaps identified in current techniques can be closed by use of artificial neural networks that form learning systems designed to minimise error function. The paper also suggests several areas of future research in the image registration.

Keywords: image registration techniques, medical images, neural networks, optimisaztion, transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2360 Retina Registration for Biometrics Based on Characterization of Retinal Feature Points

Authors: Nougrara Zineb


The unique structure of the blood vessels in the retina has been used for biometric identification. The retina blood vessel pattern is a unique pattern in each individual and it is almost impossible to forge that pattern in a false individual. The retina biometrics’ advantages include high distinctiveness, universality, and stability overtime of the blood vessel pattern. Once the creases have been extracted from the images, a registration stage is necessary, since the position of the retinal vessel structure could change between acquisitions due to the movements of the eye. Image registration consists of following steps: Feature detection, feature matching, transform model estimation and image resembling and transformation. In this paper, we present an algorithm of registration; it is based on the characterization of retinal feature points. For experiments, retinal images from the DRIVE database have been tested. The proposed methodology achieves good results for registration in general.

Keywords: fovea, optic disc, registration, retinal images

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2359 NANCY: Combining Adversarial Networks with Cycle-Consistency for Robust Multi-Modal Image Registration

Authors: Mirjana Ruppel, Rajendra Persad, Amit Bahl, Sanja Dogramadzi, Chris Melhuish, Lyndon Smith


Multimodal image registration is a profoundly complex task which is why deep learning has been used widely to address it in recent years. However, two main challenges remain: Firstly, the lack of ground truth data calls for an unsupervised learning approach, which leads to the second challenge of defining a feasible loss function that can compare two images of different modalities to judge their level of alignment. To avoid this issue altogether we implement a generative adversarial network consisting of two registration networks GAB, GBA and two discrimination networks DA, DB connected by spatial transformation layers. GAB learns to generate a deformation field which registers an image of the modality B to an image of the modality A. To do that, it uses the feedback of the discriminator DB which is learning to judge the quality of alignment of the registered image B. GBA and DA learn a mapping from modality A to modality B. Additionally, a cycle-consistency loss is implemented. For this, both registration networks are employed twice, therefore resulting in images ˆA, ˆB which were registered to ˜B, ˜A which were registered to the initial image pair A, B. Thus the resulting and initial images of the same modality can be easily compared. A dataset of liver CT and MRI was used to evaluate the quality of our approach and to compare it against learning and non-learning based registration algorithms. Our approach leads to dice scores of up to 0.80 ± 0.01 and is therefore comparable to and slightly more successful than algorithms like SimpleElastix and VoxelMorph.

Keywords: cycle consistency, deformable multimodal image registration, deep learning, GAN

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2358 A Hybrid Normalized Gradient Correlation Based Thermal Image Registration for Morphoea

Authors: L. I. Izhar, T. Stathaki, K. Howell


Analyzing and interpreting of thermograms have been increasingly employed in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases thanks to its non-invasive, non-harmful nature and low cost. In this paper, a novel system is proposed to improve diagnosis and monitoring of morphoea skin disorder based on integration with the published lines of Blaschko. In the proposed system, image registration based on global and local registration methods are found inevitable. This paper presents a modified normalized gradient cross-correlation (NGC) method to reduce large geometrical differences between two multimodal images that are represented by smooth gray edge maps is proposed for the global registration approach. This method is improved further by incorporating an iterative-based normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) method. It is found that by replacing the final registration part of the NGC method where translational differences are solved in the spatial Fourier domain with the NCC method performed in the spatial domain, the performance and robustness of the NGC method can be greatly improved. It is shown in this paper that the hybrid NGC method not only outperforms phase correlation (PC) method but also improved misregistration due to translation, suffered by the modified NGC method alone for thermograms with ill-defined jawline. This also demonstrates that by using the gradients of the gray edge maps and a hybrid technique, the performance of the PC based image registration method can be greatly improved.

Keywords: Blaschko’s lines, image registration, morphoea, thermal imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2357 Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration

Authors: Sevil Igit, Merve Meric, Sarp Erturk


In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.

Keywords: face recognition, Daisy descriptor, One-Bit Transform, image registration

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2356 Airborne SAR Data Analysis for Impact of Doppler Centroid on Image Quality and Registration Accuracy

Authors: Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to study the impact of Doppler centroid on Image quality and geocoding accuracy from the perspective of Stripmap mode of data acquisition. Although in Stripmap mode of data acquisition radar beam points at 90 degrees broad side (side looking), shift in the Doppler centroid is invariable due to platform motion. In-accurate estimation of Doppler centroid leads to poor image quality and image miss-registration. The effect of Doppler centroid is analyzed in this paper using multiple sets of data collected from airborne platform. Occurrences of ghost (ambiguous) targets and their power levels have been analyzed that impacts appropriate choice of PRF. Effect of aircraft attitudes (roll, pitch and yaw) on the Doppler centroid is also analyzed with the collected data sets. Various stages of the RDA (Range Doppler Algorithm) algorithm used for image formation in Stripmap mode, range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, azimuth compression, range cell migration correction are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the final image. The ability of Doppler centroid estimation to enhance the imaging accuracy for registration are also illustrated in this paper. The paper also tries to bring out the processing of low squint SAR data, the challenges and the performance limits imposed by the imaging geometry and the platform dynamics on the final image quality metrics. Finally, the effect on various terrain types, including land, water and bright scatters is also presented.

Keywords: ambiguous target, Doppler Centroid, image registration, Airborne SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2355 Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Dongyeob Han, Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Choonghyun Kang


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility.

Keywords: building, image matching, temperature, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2354 Barnard Feature Point Detector for Low-Contractperiapical Radiography Image

Authors: Chih-Yi Ho, Tzu-Fang Chang, Chih-Chia Huang, Chia-Yen Lee


In dental clinics, the dentists use the periapical radiography image to assess the effectiveness of endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiography images are taken at different times to assess alveolar bone variation before and after the root canal treatment, and furthermore to judge whether the treatment was successful. Current clinical assessment of apical tissue recovery relies only on dentist personal experience. It is difficult to have the same standard and objective interpretations due to the dentist or radiologist personal background and knowledge. If periapical radiography images at the different time could be registered well, the endodontic treatment could be evaluated. In the image registration area, it is necessary to assign representative control points to the transformation model for good performances of registration results. However, detection of representative control points (feature points) on periapical radiography images is generally very difficult. Regardless of which traditional detection methods are practiced, sufficient feature points may not be detected due to the low-contrast characteristics of the x-ray image. Barnard detector is an algorithm for feature point detection based on grayscale value gradients, which can obtain sufficient feature points in the case of gray-scale contrast is not obvious. However, the Barnard detector would detect too many feature points, and they would be too clustered. This study uses the local extrema of clustering feature points and the suppression radius to overcome the problem, and compared different feature point detection methods. In the preliminary result, the feature points could be detected as representative control points by the proposed method.

Keywords: feature detection, Barnard detector, registration, periapical radiography image, endodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2353 Legal Warranty in Real Estate Registry in Albania

Authors: Elona Saliaj


The registration of real estate in Albania after the 90's has been a long process in time and with high cost for the country. Passing the registration system from a centralized system to a free market private system, it’s accompanied by legal uncertainties that have led to economic instability. The reforms that have been undertaken in terms of property rights have been numerous and continuous throughout the years. But despite the reforms, the system of registration of real estate, has failed to be standards requirements established by the European Union. The completion of initial registration of real estate, legal treatment of previous owners or legalization of illegal constructions remain among the main problems that prevent the development of the country in its economic sector. The performance of the registration of real estate system and dealing with issues that have appeared in the Court of First Instance, the civil section of the Albanian constitute the core of handling this analysis. This paper presents a detailed analysis on the registration system that is chosen to be applied in our country for real estate. In its content it is also determined the institution that administrates these properties, the management technique and the law that determinate its functionality. The strategy is determined for creating a modern and functional registration system and for the country remains a challenge to achieve. Identifying practical problems and providing their solutions are also the focus of reference in order to improve and modernize this important system to a state law that aims to become a member of the European Union.

Keywords: real estates registration system, comparative aspects, cadastral area, property certificate, legal reform

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
2352 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh


This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2351 Curvature Based-Methods for Automatic Coarse and Fine Registration in Dimensional Metrology

Authors: Rindra Rantoson, Hichem Nouira, Nabil Anwer, Charyar Mehdi-Souzani


Multiple measurements by means of various data acquisition systems are generally required to measure the shape of freeform workpieces for accuracy, reliability and holisticity. The obtained data are aligned and fused into a common coordinate system within a registration technique involving coarse and fine registrations. Standardized iterative methods have been established for fine registration such as Iterative Closest Points (ICP) and its variants. For coarse registration, no conventional method has been adopted yet despite a significant number of techniques which have been developed in the literature to supply an automatic rough matching between data sets. Two main issues are addressed in this paper: the coarse registration and the fine registration. For coarse registration, two novel automated methods based on the exploitation of discrete curvatures are presented: an enhanced Hough Transformation (HT) and an improved Ransac Transformation. The use of curvature features in both methods aims to reduce computational cost. For fine registration, a new variant of ICP method is proposed in order to reduce registration error using curvature parameters. A specific distance considering the curvature similarity has been combined with Euclidean distance to define the distance criterion used for correspondences searching. Additionally, the objective function has been improved by combining the point-to-point (P-P) minimization and the point-to-plane (P-Pl) minimization with automatic weights. These ones are determined from the preliminary calculated curvature features at each point of the workpiece surface. The algorithms are applied on simulated and real data performed by a computer tomography (CT) system. The obtained results reveal the benefit of the proposed novel curvature-based registration methods.

Keywords: discrete curvature, RANSAC transformation, hough transformation, coarse registration, ICP variant, point-to-point and point-to-plane minimization combination, computer tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2350 Automated Feature Detection and Matching Algorithms for Breast IR Sequence Images

Authors: Chia-Yen Lee, Hao-Jen Wang, Jhih-Hao Lai


In recent years, infrared (IR) imaging has been considered as a potential tool to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy and early detection of breast cancer. Regions of tumor growth with high metabolic rate and angiogenesis phenomenon lead to the high temperatures. Observation of differences between the heat maps in long term is useful to help assess the growth of breast cancer cells and detect breast cancer earlier, wherein the multi-time infrared image alignment technology is a necessary step. Representative feature points detection and matching are essential steps toward the good performance of image registration and quantitative analysis. However, there is no clear boundary on the infrared images and the subject's posture are different for each shot. It cannot adhesive markers on a body surface for a very long period, and it is hard to find anatomic fiducial markers on a body surface. In other words, it’s difficult to detect and match features in an IR sequence images. In this study, automated feature detection and matching algorithms with two type of automatic feature points (i.e., vascular branch points and modified Harris corner) are developed respectively. The preliminary results show that the proposed method could identify the representative feature points on the IR breast images successfully of 98% accuracy and the matching results of 93% accuracy.

Keywords: Harris corner, infrared image, feature detection, registration, matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2349 Hybrid EMPCA-Scott Approach for Estimating Probability Distributions of Mutual Information

Authors: Thuvanan Borvornvitchotikarn, Werasak Kurutach


Mutual information (MI) is widely used in medical image registration. In the different medical images analysis, it is difficult to choose an optimal bins size number for calculating the probability distributions in MI. As the result, this paper presents a new adaptive bins number selection approach that named a hybrid EMPCA-Scott approach. This work combines an expectation maximization principal component analysis (EMPCA) and the modified Scott’s rule. The proposed approach solves the binning problem from the various intensity values in medical images. Experimental results of this work show the lower registration errors compared to other adaptive binning approaches.

Keywords: mutual information, EMPCA, Scott, probability distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2348 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong


To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

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2347 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2346 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia


This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration, robot-assisted surgery, supervisory control

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2345 Study of Regulation and Registration Law of Veterinary Biological Drugs in Iran and Comparison between FDA, EMA and WHO

Authors: Hoda Dehghani, Zahra Dehghani


Considering the obvious growth and variety of veterinary biological product and increase consumption and also the price, it is necessary to establish the rules and serious monitoring of this products which are less expensive than the original products. The scope of this research is the study of comparing the registration criteria and procedures of veterinary biological drugs in the world's leading agencies such as EMA, FDA, and WHO. For this, purpose the rules and regulations for registration of these drugs in prestigious organizations such as the FDA, EMA and WHO were examined and compared with the existing legislation in Iran. Studies show that EMA is the forefront of the compilation and registration of drugs in the world. China is a one of the greatest country in the development of drugs and establishes very closely guidelines with creditable global guidelines, and Now, is the first country to implement the rules codified in the Far East and followed by china, India and, South Korea and Taiwan have taken incorporate the industry's top ranking in Asia. At now, Asia by creating appropriate indicators not only as a powerful center in the field of drug delivery but also as a competitor to the United States is a major source of drug discovery and creation of innovation. the activities such as clinical trials and pharmaceutical investment is the speed of technology on the continent.

Keywords: veterinary biological product, regulation of registration, biological products, regularity authorities

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2344 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou


Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2343 Deployment of Matrix Transpose in Digital Image Encryption

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E J. D.


Encryption is used to conceal information from prying eyes. Presently, information and data encryption are common due to the volume of data and information in transit across the globe on daily basis. Image encryption is yet to receive the attention of the researchers as deserved. In other words, video and multimedia documents are exposed to unauthorized accessors. The authors propose image encryption using matrix transpose. An algorithm that would allow image encryption is developed. In this proposed image encryption technique, the image to be encrypted is split into parts based on the image size. Each part is encrypted separately using matrix transpose. The actual encryption is on the picture elements (pixel) that make up the image. After encrypting each part of the image, the positions of the encrypted images are swapped before transmission of the image can take place. Swapping the positions of the images is carried out to make the encrypted image more robust for any cryptanalyst to decrypt.

Keywords: image encryption, matrices, pixel, matrix transpose

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2342 Sensor Registration in Multi-Static Sonar Fusion Detection

Authors: Longxiang Guo, Haoyan Hao, Xueli Sheng, Hanjun Yu, Jingwei Yin


In order to prevent target splitting and ensure the accuracy of fusion, system error registration is an important step in multi-static sonar fusion detection system. To eliminate the inherent system errors including distance error and angle error of each sonar in detection, this paper uses offline estimation method for error registration. Suppose several sonars from different platforms work together to detect a target. The target position detected by each sonar is based on each sonar’s own reference coordinate system. Based on the two-dimensional stereo projection method, this paper uses real-time quality control (RTQC) method and least squares (LS) method to estimate sensor biases. The RTQC method takes the average value of each sonar’s data as the observation value and the LS method makes the least square processing of each sonar’s data to get the observation value. In the underwater acoustic environment, matlab simulation is carried out and the simulation results show that both algorithms can estimate the distance and angle error of sonar system. The performance of the two algorithms is also compared through the root mean square error and the influence of measurement noise on registration accuracy is explored by simulation. The system error convergence of RTQC method is rapid, but the distribution of targets has a serious impact on its performance. LS method can not be affected by target distribution, but the increase of random noise will slow down the convergence rate. LS method is an improvement of RTQC method, which is widely used in two-dimensional registration. The improved method can be used for underwater multi-target detection registration.

Keywords: data fusion, multi-static sonar detection, offline estimation, sensor registration problem

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2341 Challenges and Success Factors in Introducing Information Systems for Students' Online Registration

Authors: Stanley Fore, Sharon Chipeperekwa


The start of the 2011 academic year in South Africa saw a number of Institutions of Higher Learning introducing online registration for their students. The efficiency and effectiveness of Information Systems are increasingly becoming a necessity and not an option for many organizations. An information system should be able to allow end users to access information easily and navigate with ease. The selected University of Technology (UoT) in this research is one of the largest public institution of higher learning in the Western Cape Province and boasts of an enrolment of more than 30000 students per academic year. An observation was made that, during registration students’ stand in long queues waiting to register or for assistance to register. The system tends to ‘freeze’ whilst students are registering and students are in most cases unfamiliar with the system interface. They constantly have to enquire what to do next when going through online registration process. A mixed method approach will be adopted which comprises of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study uses constructs of the updated DeLone and McLean IS success model (2003) to analyse and explain the student’s perceptions of the online registration system. The research was undertaken to establish the student’s perceptions of the online registration system. This research seeks to identify and analyse the challenges and success factors of introducing an online registration system whilst highlighting the extent to which this system has been able to solve the numerous problems associated with the manual era. The study will assist management and those responsible for managing the current system to determine how well the system is working or not working to achieve user satisfaction. It will also assist them going forward on what to consider before, during and after implementation of an information system. Respondents will be informed of the objectives of the research, and their consent to participate will be sought. Ethical considerations that will be applied to this study include; informed consent and protection from harm, right to privacy and involvement of the research.

Keywords: online registration, information systems, University of Technology, end-users

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2340 Automated Video Surveillance System for Detection of Suspicious Activities during Academic Offline Examination

Authors: G. Sandhya Devi, G. Suvarna Kumar, S. Chandini


This research work aims to develop a system that will analyze and identify students who indulge in malpractices/suspicious activities during the course of an academic offline examination. Automated Video Surveillance provides an optimal solution which helps in monitoring the students and identifying the malpractice event immediately. This work is organized into three modules. The first module deals with performing an impersonation check using a PCA-based face recognition method which is done by cross checking his profile with the database. The presence or absence of the student is even determined in this module by implementing an image registration technique wherein a grid is formed by considering all the images registered using the frontal camera at the determined positions. Second, detecting such facial malpractices in which a student gets involved in conversation with another, trying to obtain unauthorized information etc., based on the threshold range evaluated by considering his/her mouth state whether open or closed. The third module deals with identification of unauthorized material or gadgets used in the examination hall by training the positive samples of the object through various stages. Here, a top view camera feed is analyzed to detect the suspicious activities. The system automatically alerts the administration when any suspicious activities are identified, thereby reducing the error rate caused due to manual monitoring. This work is an improvement over our previous work published in identifying suspicious activities done by examinees in an offline examination.

Keywords: impersonation, image registration, incrimination, object detection, threshold evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2339 Infrastructure Change Monitoring Using Multitemporal Multispectral Satellite Images

Authors: U. Datta


The main objective of this study is to find a suitable approach to monitor the land infrastructure growth over a period of time using multispectral satellite images. Bi-temporal change detection method is unable to indicate the continuous change occurring over a long period of time. To achieve this objective, the approach used here estimates a statistical model from series of multispectral image data over a long period of time, assuming there is no considerable change during that time period and then compare it with the multispectral image data obtained at a later time. The change is estimated pixel-wise. Statistical composite hypothesis technique is used for estimating pixel based change detection in a defined region. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is used to detect the changed pixel from probabilistic estimated model of the corresponding pixel. The changed pixel is detected assuming that the images have been co-registered prior to estimation. To minimize error due to co-registration, 8-neighborhood pixels around the pixel under test are also considered. The multispectral images from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 from 2015 to 2018 are used for this purpose. There are different challenges in this method. First and foremost challenge is to get quite a large number of datasets for multivariate distribution modelling. A large number of images are always discarded due to cloud coverage. Due to imperfect modelling there will be high probability of false alarm. Overall conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the probabilistic method described in this paper has given some promising results, which need to be pursued further.

Keywords: co-registration, GLRT, infrastructure growth, multispectral, multitemporal, pixel-based change detection

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2338 Multi-Atlas Segmentation Based on Dynamic Energy Model: Application to Brain MR Images

Authors: Jie Huo, Jonathan Wu


Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is essential for scientific inquiry into the complex relationships between biological structure and clinical diagnosis, treatment and assessment. As a method of incorporating the prior knowledge and the anatomical structure similarity between a target image and atlases, multi-atlas segmentation has been successfully applied in segmenting a variety of medical images, including the brain, cardiac, and abdominal images. The basic idea of multi-atlas segmentation is to transfer the labels in atlases to the coordinate of the target image by matching the target patch to the atlas patch in the neighborhood. However, this technique is limited by the pairwise registration between target image and atlases. In this paper, a novel multi-atlas segmentation approach is proposed by introducing a dynamic energy model. First, the target is mapped to each atlas image by minimizing the dynamic energy function, then the segmentation of target image is generated by weighted fusion based on the energy. The method is tested on MICCAI 2012 Multi-Atlas Labeling Challenge dataset which includes 20 target images and 15 atlases images. The paper also analyzes the influence of different parameters of the dynamic energy model on the segmentation accuracy and measures the dice coefficient by using different feature terms with the energy model. The highest mean dice coefficient obtained with the proposed method is 0.861, which is competitive compared with the recently published method.

Keywords: brain MRI segmentation, dynamic energy model, multi-atlas segmentation, energy minimization

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2337 Performance of Hybrid Image Fusion: Implementation of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform Technique

Authors: Manoj Gupta, Nirmendra Singh Bhadauria


Most of the applications in image processing require high spatial and high spectral resolution in a single image. For example satellite image system, the traffic monitoring system, and long range sensor fusion system all use image processing. However, most of the available equipment is not capable of providing this type of data. The sensor in the surveillance system can only cover the view of a small area for a particular focus, yet the demanding application of this system requires a view with a high coverage of the field. Image fusion provides the possibility of combining different sources of information. In this paper, we have decomposed the image using DTCWT and then fused using average and hybrid of (maxima and average) pixel level techniques and then compared quality of both the images using PSNR.

Keywords: image fusion, DWT, DT-CWT, PSNR, average image fusion, hybrid image fusion

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2336 An Assessment of the Trend and Pattern of Vital Registration System in Shiroro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Bello Mohammed


Vital registration or registration of vital events is one of the three major sources of demographic data in Nigeria. The other two are the population census and sample survey. The former is judged to be an indispensable source of demographic data because, it provide information on vital statistics and population trends between two census periods. Various literacy works however depict the vital registration in Nigeria as incapable of providing accurate data for the country. The study has both theoretical and practical significances. The trends and pattern of vital registration has not received adequate research interest in Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. This has created a gap in understanding the extent and consequence of the scourge in Africa sub-region. Practically, the study also captures the policy interventions of government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that would help enlighten the public on the importance of vital registration in Nigeria. Furthermore, feasible policy strategies that will enhance trends and pattern vital registration in the society would emanate from the study. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and applied multi stage sampling techniques to sample 230 respondents from the general public in the study area. The first stage involved the splitting of the local government into wards. The second stage involves selecting streets, while the third stage was the households. In all, 6 wards were sampled for the study. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources of data used were the questionnaire, focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview (IDI) guides while the secondary sources of data were journals and books, newspapers and magazines. Twelve FGD sessions with 96 study participants and five IDI sessions with the heads of vital registration facilities were conducted. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics like tables, frequencies and percentages were employed in presenting and interpreting the data. Information from the qualitative data was transcribed and ordered in themes to ensure that outstanding points of the responses are noted. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: the available vital registration facilities are not adequate and were not evenly distributed in the study area; lack of awareness and knowledge of the existence and the importance of vital registration by majority of the people in the local government; distance to vital registration centres from their residents; most births in the area were not registered, and even among the few births that were registered, majority of them were registered after the limited period for registration. And the study reveals that socio-economic index, educational level and distance of facilities to residents are determinants of access to vital registration facility. The study concludes by discussing the need for a reliable and accurate vital registration system if Nigeria’s vision of becoming one of the top 20 economies in the world in 2020 would be realized.

Keywords: trends, patterns, vital, registration and assessment

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2335 Methodology for Obtaining Food Licenses in India

Authors: Rathna Malhotra Gaur


Owing to multiplicity and competition in the Indian food industry, it was always important for the government of India to bring in reforms that would protect the interest of the consumer and also the food operator. To further this objective, Food Safety, and Standards Act, 2006 (hereinafter referred to as FSSAI) was enacted for laying down science-based standards for articles and food and to regulate their storage, distribution, manufacture, same and import and to ensure safe food availability to the citizens of India. One of the safeguards towards consumer interest is the enactment of Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses, Regulation, 2011 within the mandate of FSSAI. It is mandatory for every food operator in India to get the registration certificate and procurement of food Licenses before starting operations in the country. All the nuances pertaining to the procurement of licenses are dealt with under these regulations. These regulations also lay down detailed provisions with regard to the conditions that the operator has to adhere to once the License is procured, going to the integrities of the safety and hygiene standards to be maintained by the food operators. This paper is an exhaustive effort to examine the provisions of obtaining the registration and License in India and the conditions that need to be fulfilled subsequently and further on the validity and renewal of these Food Licenses.

Keywords: food laws, food licenses, food registration, penalty

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2334 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

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