Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1503

Search results for: positron emission tomography

1503 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Mahkameh Asadi, Habibollah Dadgar


The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, amino acid positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, low and high grade glioma

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1502 The Potential for Cyclotron and Generator-produced Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview

Authors: Ng Yen, Shafii Khamis, Rehir Bin Dahalan


Cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV are widely used for the production of clincally relevant radiosiotopes used in positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear imaging. Positron emmision tomography is a powerful nuclear imaging tool that produces high quality 3-dimentional images of functional processes of body. The advantage of PET among all other imaging devices is that it allows the study of an impressive array of discrete biochemical and physiologic processes, within a single imaging session. The number of PET scanner increases every year globally due to high clinical demand. However, not all PET centers can afford a cyclotron, due to the expense associated with operation of an in-house cyclotron. Therefore, current research has also focused on the development of parent/daughter generators that can reliably provide PET nuclides. These generators (68Ge/68Ga generator, 62Zn/62Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, etc) can provide even short-lived radionuclides at any time on demand, without the need of an ‘in-house cyclotron’. The parent isotope is produced at a cyclotron/reactor facility, and can be shipped to remote clinical sites (regionally/overseas), where the daughter isotope is eluted, a model similar to the 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The specific aim for this presentation is to talk about the potential for both of the cyclotron and generator-produced PET radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical imaging.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical, cyclotron, generator

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1501 Multimodal Direct Neural Network Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction

Authors: William Whiteley, Jens Gregor


In recent developments of direct neural network based positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction, two prominent architectures have emerged for converting measurement data into images: 1) networks that contain fully-connected layers; and 2) networks that primarily use a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. In this paper, we present a multi-modal direct PET reconstruction method called MDPET, which is a hybrid approach that combines the advantages of both types of networks. MDPET processes raw data in the form of sinograms and histo-images in concert with attenuation maps to produce high quality multi-slice PET images (e.g., 8x440x440). MDPET is trained on a large whole-body patient data set and evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively against target images reconstructed with the standard PET reconstruction benchmark of iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization. The results show that MDPET outperforms the best previously published direct neural network methods in measures of bias, signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity.

Keywords: deep learning, image reconstruction, machine learning, neural network, positron emission tomography

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1500 Transformation of Positron Emission Tomography Raw Data into Images for Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Paweł Konieczka, Lech Raczyński, Wojciech Wiślicki, Oleksandr Fedoruk, Konrad Klimaszewski, Przemysław Kopka, Wojciech Krzemień, Roman Shopa, Jakub Baran, Aurélien Coussat, Neha Chug, Catalina Curceanu, Eryk Czerwiński, Meysam Dadgar, Kamil Dulski, Aleksander Gajos, Beatrix C. Hiesmayr, Krzysztof Kacprzak, łukasz Kapłon, Grzegorz Korcyl, Tomasz Kozik, Deepak Kumar, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Dominik Panek, Szymon Parzych, Elena Pérez Del Río, Sushil Sharma, Shivani Shivani, Magdalena Skurzok, Ewa łucja Stępień, Faranak Tayefi, Paweł Moskal


This paper develops the transformation of non-image data into 2-dimensional matrices, as a preparation stage for classification based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In positron emission tomography (PET) studies, CNN may be applied directly to the reconstructed distribution of radioactive tracers injected into the patient's body, as a pattern recognition tool. Nonetheless, much PET data still exists in non-image format and this fact opens a question on whether they can be used for training CNN. In this contribution, the main focus of this paper is the problem of processing vectors with a small number of features in comparison to the number of pixels in the output images. The proposed methodology was applied to the classification of PET coincidence events.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, kernel principal component analysis, medical imaging, positron emission tomography

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1499 18F-Fluoro-Ethyl-Tyrosine-Positron Emission Tomography in Gliomas: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

Authors: Habib Alah Dadgar, Nasim Norouzbeigi


The precise definition margin of high and low-grade gliomas is crucial for treatment. We aimed to assess the feasibility of assessment of the resection legions with post-operative positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET). Four patients with the suspicion of high and low-grade were enrolled. Patients underwent post-operative [18F]FET-PET, pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT for clinical evaluations. In our study, three patients had negative response to recurrence and progression and one patient indicated positive response after surgery. [18F]FET-PET revealed a legion of increased radiotracer uptake in the dura in the craniotomy site for patient 1. Corresponding to the patient history, the study was negative for recurrence of brain tumor. For patient 2, there was a lesion in the right parieto-temporal with slightly increased uptake in its posterior part with SUVmax = 3.79, so the study was negative for recurrence evaluation. In patient 3 there was no abnormal uptake with negative result for recurrence of brain tumor. Intense radiotracer uptake in the left parietal lobe where in the MRI there was a lesion with no change in enhancement in the post-contrast image is indicated in patient 4. Assessment of the resection legions in high and low-grade gliomas with [18F]FET-PET seems to be useful.

Keywords: FET-PET, CT, glioma, MRI

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1498 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn


The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

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1497 PET Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski


PET is widely applied scanning procedure in medical imaging based research. It delivers measurements of functioning in distinct areas of the human brain while the patient is comfortable, conscious and alert. This article presents the new compression sensing based super-resolution algorithm for improving the image resolution in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The issue of motion artifacts is well known in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies as its side effect. The PET images are being acquired over a limited period of time. As the patients cannot hold breath during the PET data gathering, spatial blurring and motion artefacts are the usual result. These may lead to wrong diagnosis. It is shown that the presented approach improves PET spatial resolution in cases when Compressed Sensing (CS) sequences are used. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were traditionally thought necessary. The application of CS to PET has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the goal is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework to achieve high resolution PET output. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity.

Keywords: PET, super-resolution, image reconstruction, pattern recognition

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1496 Evaluation of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography, MRI, and Ultrasound in the Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park


Purpose: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify nodal metastases in women with primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of FDG-PET with MRI and sonography scanning to determine axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: Between January and December 2012, ninety-nine patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were evaluated. All patients underwent FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Using axillary lymph node assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 51.4% (95% CI, 41.3% to 65.6%) and 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and ultrasound were 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4% to 73.7%), 67.2% (95% CI, 54.3% to 78.4%) and 42.86% (95% CI, 26.3% to 60.7%), 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%). Stratification according to hormone receptor status showed an increase in specificity when negative (FDG-PET: 42.3% to 77.8%, MRI 50% to 77.8%, ultrasound 34.6% to 66.7%). Also, positive HER2 status was associated with an increase in specificity (FDG-PET: 42.9% to 85.7%, MRI 50% to 85.7%, ultrasound 35.7% to 71.4%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET compared with MRI and ultrasound was high. However, FDG-PET is not sufficiently accurate to appropriately identify lymph node metastases. This study suggests that FDG-PET scanning cannot replace histologic staging in early-stage breast cancer, but might have a role in evaluating axillary lymph node status in hormone receptor negative or HER-2 overexpressing subtypes.

Keywords: axillary lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound

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1495 Comparing ITV Definitions From 4D CT-PET and Breath-Hold Technique with Abdominal Compression

Authors: R. D. Esposito, P. Dorado Rodriguez, D. Planes Meseguer


In this work, we compare the contour of Internal Target Volume (ITV), for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of a patient affected by a single liver metastasis, obtained from two different patient data acquisition techniques. The first technique consists in a free breathing Computer Tomography (CT) scan acquisition, followed by exhalation breath-hold and inhalation breath-hold CT scans, all of them applying abdominal compression while the second technique consists in a free breathing 4D CT-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan. Results obtained with these two methods are consistent, which demonstrate that at least for this specific case, both techniques are adequate for ITV contouring in SBRT treatments.

Keywords: 4D CT-PET, abdominal compression, ITV, SBRT

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1494 PET/CT Patient Dosage Assay

Authors: Gulten Yilmaz, A. Beril Tugrul, Mustafa Demir, Dogan Yasar, Bayram Demir, Bulent Buyuk


A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radioisotope imaging technique that illustrates the organs and the metabolisms of the human body. This technique is based on the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation photons, annihilated as a result of electrons annihilating positrons that radiate from positron-emitting radioisotopes that enter biological active molecules in the body. This study was conducted on ten patients in an effort to conduct patient-related experimental studies. Dosage monitoring for the bladder, which was the organ that received the highest dose during PET applications, was conducted for 24 hours. Assessment based on measuring urination activities after injecting patients was also a part of this study. The MIRD method was used to conduct dosage calculations for results obtained from experimental studies. Results obtained experimentally and theoretically were assessed comparatively.

Keywords: PET/CT, TLD, MIRD, dose measurement, patient doses

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1493 Positron Emission Tomography Parameters as Predictors of Pathologic Response and Nodal Clearance in Patients with Stage IIIA NSCLC Receiving Trimodality Therapy

Authors: Andrea L. Arnett, Ann T. Packard, Yolanda I. Garces, Kenneth W. Merrell


Objective: Pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) has been associated with improved overall survival (OS). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the pathologic predictive value of positron emission tomography (PET) response in patients with stage III lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between post-treatment PET response and pathologic response utilizing novel FDG-PET parameters. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with non-metastatic, stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC cancer treated with CRT followed by resection. All patients underwent PET prior to and after neoadjuvant CRT. Univariate analysis was utilized to assess correlations between PET response, nodal clearance, pCR, and near-complete pathologic response (defined as the microscopic residual disease or less). Maximal standard uptake value (SUV), standard uptake ratio (SUR) [normalized independently to the liver (SUR-L) and blood pool (SUR-BP)], metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured pre- and post-chemoradiation. Results: A total of 44 patients were included for review. Median age was 61.9 years, and median follow-up was 2.6 years. Histologic subtypes included adenocarcinoma (72.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (22.7%), and the majority of patients had the T2 disease (59.1%). The rate of pCR and near-complete pathologic response within the primary lesion was 28.9% and 44.4%, respectively. The average reduction in SUVmₐₓ was 9.2 units (range -1.9-32.8), and the majority of patients demonstrated some degree of favorable treatment response. SUR-BP and SUR-L showed a mean reduction of 4.7 units (range -0.1-17.3) and 3.5 units (range –1.7-12.6), respectively. Variation in PET response was not significantly associated with histologic subtype, concurrent chemotherapy type, stage, or radiation dose. No significant correlation was found between pathologic response and absolute change in MTV or TLG. Reduction in SUVmₐₓ and SUR were associated with increased rate of pathologic response (p ≤ 0.02). This correlation was not impacted by normalization of SUR to liver versus mediastinal blood pool. A threshold of > 75% decrease in SUR-L correlated with near-complete response, with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 85.7%, as well as positive and negative predictive values of 78.6% and 69.2%, respectively (diagnostic odds ratio [DOR]: 5.6, p=0.02). A threshold of >50% decrease in SUR was also significantly associated pathologic response (DOR 12.9, p=0.2), but specificity was substantially lower when utilizing this threshold value. No significant association was found between nodal PET parameters and pathologic nodal clearance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment response to neoadjuvant therapy as assessed on PET imaging can be a predictor of pathologic response when evaluated via SUV and SUR. SUR parameters were associated with higher diagnostic odds ratios, suggesting improved predictive utility compared to SUVmₐₓ. MTV and TLG did not prove to be significant predictors of pathologic response but may warrant further investigation in a larger cohort of patients.

Keywords: lung cancer, positron emission tomography (PET), standard uptake ratio (SUR), standard uptake value (SUV)

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1492 The Superiority of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Bone Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

Authors: Mojtaba Mirmontazemi, Habibollah Dadgar


Bone is the most common metastasis site in some advanced malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer. Bone metastasis generally indicates fewer prognostic factors in these patients. Different radiological and molecular imaging modalities are used for detecting bone lesions. Molecular imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar bone scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography as noninvasive visualization of the biological occurrences has the potential to exact examination, characterization, risk stratification and comprehension of human being diseases. Also, it is potent to straightly visualize targets, specify clearly cellular pathways and provide precision medicine for molecular targeted therapies. These advantages contribute implement personalized treatment for each patient. Currently, NaF PET/CT has significantly replaced standard bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. On one hand, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has gained high attention for accurate staging of primary prostate cancer and restaging after biochemical recurrence. On the other hand, FDG PET/CT is not commonly used in osseous metastases of prostate and breast cancer as well as its usage is limited to staging patients with aggressive primary tumors or localizing the site of disease. In this article, we examine current studies about FDG, NaF, and PSMA PET/CT images in bone metastases diagnostic utility and assess response to treatment in patients with breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: skeletal metastases, fluorodeoxyglucose, sodium fluoride, molecular imaging, precision medicine, prostate cancer (68Ga-PSMA-11)

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1491 Implementation and Comparative Analysis of PET and CT Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: S. Guruprasad, M. Z. Kurian, H. N. Suma


Medical imaging modalities are becoming life saving components. These modalities are very much essential to doctors for proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up. Some modalities provide anatomical information such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), X-rays and some provides only functional information such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Therefore, single modality image does not give complete information. This paper presents the fusion of structural information in CT and functional information present in PET image. This fused image is very much essential in detecting the stages and location of abnormalities and in particular very much needed in oncology for improved diagnosis and treatment. We have implemented and compared image fusion techniques like pyramid, wavelet, and principal components fusion methods along with hybrid method of DWT and PCA. The performances of the algorithms are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The system is implemented and tested by using MATLAB software. Based on the MSE, PSNR and ENTROPY analysis, PCA and DWT-PCA methods showed best results over all experiments.

Keywords: image fusion, pyramid, wavelets, principal component analysis

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1490 Predictive Value of ¹⁸F-Fdg Accumulation in Visceral Fat Activity to Detect Colorectal Cancer Metastases

Authors: Amil Suleimanov, Aigul Saduakassova, Denis Vinnikov


Objective: To assess functional visceral fat (VAT) activity evaluated by ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a predictor of metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods: We assessed 60 patients with histologically confirmed CRC who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT after a surgical treatment and courses of chemotherapy. Age, histology, stage, and tumor grade were recorded. Functional VAT activity was measured by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) using ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT and tested as a predictor of later metastases in eight abdominal locations (RE – Epigastric Region, RLH – Left Hypochondriac Region, RRL – Right Lumbar Region, RU – Umbilical Region, RLL – Left Lumbar Region, RRI – Right Inguinal Region, RP – Hypogastric (Pubic) Region, RLI – Left Inguinal Region) and pelvic cavity (P) in the adjusted regression models. We also report the best areas under the curve (AUC) for SUVmax with the corresponding sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Results: In both adjusted for age regression models and ROC analysis, 18F-FDG accumulation in RLH (cutoff SUVmax 0.74; Se 75%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.668; p = 0.049), RU (cutoff SUVmax 0.78; Se 69%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.679; p = 0.035), RRL (cutoff SUVmax 1.05; Se 69%; Sp 77%; AUC 0.682; p = 0.032) and RRI (cutoff SUVmax 0.85; Se 63%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.672; p = 0.043) could predict later metastases in CRC patients, as opposed to age, sex, primary tumor location, tumor grade and histology. Conclusions: VAT SUVmax is significantly associated with later metastases in CRC patients and can be used as their predictor.

Keywords: ¹⁸F-FDG, PET/CT, colorectal cancer, predictive value

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1489 All-Optical Gamma-Rays and Positrons Source by Ultra-Intense Laser Irradiating an Al Cone

Authors: T. P. Yu, J. J. Liu, X. L. Zhu, Y. Yin, W. Q. Wang, J. M. Ouyang, F. Q. Shao


A strong electromagnetic field with E>1015V/m can be supplied by an intense laser such as ELI and HiPER in the near future. Exposing in such a strong laser field, laser-matter interaction enters into the near quantum electrodynamics (QED) regime and highly non-linear physics may occur during the laser-matter interaction. Recently, the multi-photon Breit-Wheeler (BW) process attracts increasing attention because it is capable to produce abundant positrons and it enhances the positron generation efficiency significantly. Here, we propose an all-optical scheme for bright gamma rays and dense positrons generation by irradiating a 1022 W/cm2 laser pulse onto an Al cone filled with near-critical-density plasmas. Two-dimensional (2D) QED particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, the radiation damping force becomes large enough to compensate for the Lorentz force in the cone, causing radiation-reaction trapping of a dense electron bunch in the laser field. The trapped electrons oscillate in the laser electric field and emits high-energy gamma photons in two ways: (1) nonlinear Compton scattering due to the oscillation of electrons in the laser fields, and (2) Compton backwardscattering resulting from the bunch colliding with the reflected laser by the cone tip. The multi-photon Breit-Wheeler process is thus initiated and abundant electron-positron pairs are generated with a positron density ~1027m-3. The scheme is finally demonstrated by full 3D PIC simulations, which indicate the positron flux is up to 109. This compact gamma ray and positron source may have promising applications in future.

Keywords: BW process, electron-positron pairs, gamma rays emission, ultra-intense laser

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1488 Multimodal Integration of EEG, fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Principal Component Analysis for Prognosis in Coma Patients

Authors: Denis Jordan, Daniel Golkowski, Mathias Lukas, Katharina Merz, Caroline Mlynarcik, Max Maurer, Valentin Riedl, Stefan Foerster, Eberhard F. Kochs, Andreas Bender, Ruediger Ilg


Introduction: So far, clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate coma states or even predict outcome in coma patients are unreliable, e.g. because of some patients’ motor disabilities. The present study was aimed to provide prognosis in coma patients using markers from electroencephalogram (EEG), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Unsuperwised principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multimodal integration of markers. Methods: Approved by the local ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich (Germany) 20 patients (aged 18-89) with severe brain damage were acquired through intensive care units at the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich and at the Therapiezentrum Burgau (Germany). At the day of EEG/fMRI/PET measurement (date I) patients (<3.5 month in coma) were grouped in the minimal conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) on the basis of their clinical presentation (coma recovery scale-revised, CRS-R). Follow-up assessment (date II) was also based on CRS-R in a period of 8 to 24 month after date I. At date I, 63 channel EEG (Brain Products, Gilching, Germany) was recorded outside the scanner, and subsequently simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI was acquired on an integrated Siemens Biograph mMR 3T scanner (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen Germany). Power spectral densities, permutation entropy (PE) and symbolic transfer entropy (STE) were calculated in/between frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital EEG channels. PE and STE are based on symbolic time series analysis and were already introduced as robust markers separating wakefulness from unconsciousness in EEG during general anesthesia. While PE quantifies the regularity structure of the neighboring order of signal values (a surrogate of cortical information processing), STE reflects information transfer between two signals (a surrogate of directed connectivity in cortical networks). fMRI was carried out using SPM12 (Wellcome Trust Center for Neuroimaging, University of London, UK). Functional images were realigned, segmented, normalized and smoothed. PET was acquired for 45 minutes in list-mode. For absolute quantification of brain’s glucose consumption rate in FDG-PET, kinetic modelling was performed with Patlak’s plot method. BOLD signal intensity in fMRI and glucose uptake in PET was calculated in 8 distinct cortical areas. PCA was performed over all markers from EEG/fMRI/PET. Prognosis (persistent VS and deceased patients vs. recovery to MCS/awake from date I to date II) was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) including bootstrap confidence intervals (CI, *: p<0.05). Results: Prognosis was reliably indicated by the first component of PCA (AUC=0.99*, CI=0.92-1.00) showing a higher AUC when compared to the best single markers (EEG: AUC<0.96*, fMRI: AUC<0.86*, PET: AUC<0.60). CRS-R did not show prediction (AUC=0.51, CI=0.29-0.78). Conclusion: In a multimodal analysis of EEG/fMRI/PET in coma patients, PCA lead to a reliable prognosis. The impact of this result is evident, as clinical estimates of prognosis are inapt at time and could be supported by quantitative biomarkers from EEG, fMRI and PET. Due to the small sample size, further investigations are required, in particular allowing superwised learning instead of the basic approach of unsuperwised PCA.

Keywords: coma states and prognosis, electroencephalogram, entropy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, machine learning, positron emission tomography, principal component analysis

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1487 Investigation of Bremsstrahlung, Braking Radiation from Beta-Emitting Radioactive Sources

Authors: Metin Kömsöken, Ayşe Güneş Tanır, Onur Karaman


Usage of high energy charged particles for diagnosis and treatment has been widespread in medicine. The main purpose is to investigate that Bremsstrahlung which occurs by tissue interactions with charged particles should not be neglected. Nuclear stopping power (Bremsstrahlung) was calculated for lung, brain, skin, muscle, bone (cortical) and water targets for the energies of electrons obtained from LINAC used in radiotherapy and of β+ sources used in positron emission tomography (PET). These calculations were done by using the four different analytical functions including classical Bethe-Bloch, Tsoulfanidis, modified Bethe-Bloch and modified Tsoulfanidis equations. It was concluded that obtained results were compatible with that of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-ESTAR).

Keywords: β- emitting source, bremsstrahlung, therapeutic radionuclides, LINAC

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1486 Investigation of Al/Si, Au/Si and Au/GaAs Interfaces by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

Authors: Abdulnasser S. Saleh


The importance of metal-semiconductor interfaces comes from the fact that most electronic devices are interconnected using metallic wiring that forms metal–semiconductor contacts. The properties of these contacts can vary considerably depending on the nature of the interface with the semiconductor. Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to study interfaces in Al/Si, Au/Si, and Au/GaAs structures. A computational modeling by ROYPROF program is used to analyze Doppler broadening results in order to determine kinds of regions that positrons are likely to sample. In all fittings, the interfaces are found 1 nm thick and act as an absorbing sink for positrons diffusing towards them and may be regarded as highly defective. Internal electric fields were found to influence positrons diffusing to the interfaces and unable to force them cross to the other side. The materials positron affinities are considered in understanding such motion. The results of these theoretical fittings have clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of interfaces in any fitting attempts of analyzing positron spectroscopy data and gave valuable information about metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Keywords: interfaces, semiconductor, positron, defects

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1485 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

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1484 A Case Study on Utility of 18FDG-PET/CT Scan in Identifying Active Extra Lymph Nodes and Staging of Breast Cancer

Authors: Farid Risheq, M. Zaid Alrisheq, Shuaa Al-Sadoon, Karim Al-Faqih, Mays Abdulazeez


Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, and a common cause of death among women. Various conventional anatomical imaging tools are utilized for diagnosis, histological assessment and TNM (Tumor, Node, Metastases) staging of breast cancer. Biopsy of sentinel lymph node is becoming an alternative to the axillary lymph node dissection. Advances in 18-Fluoro-Deoxi-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) imaging have facilitated breast cancer diagnosis utilizing biological trapping of 18FDG inside lesion cells, expressed as Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax). Objective: To present the utility of 18FDG uptake PET/CT scans in detecting active extra lymph nodes and distant occult metastases for breast cancer staging. Subjects and Methods: Four female patients were presented with initially classified TNM stages of breast cancer based on conventional anatomical diagnostic techniques. 18FDG-PET/CT scans were performed one hour post 18FDG intra-venous injection of (300-370) MBq, and (7-8) bed/130sec. Transverse, sagittal, and coronal views; fused PET/CT and MIP modality were reconstructed for each patient. Results: A total of twenty four lesions in breast, extended lesions to lung, liver, bone and active extra lymph nodes were detected among patients. The initial TNM stage was significantly changed post 18FDG-PET/CT scan for each patient, as follows: Patient-1: Initial TNM-stage: T1N1M0-(stage I). Finding: Two lesions in right breast (3.2cm2, SUVmax=10.2), (1.8cm2, SUVmax=6.7), associated with metastases to two right axillary lymph nodes. Final TNM-stage: T1N2M0-(stage II). Patient-2: Initial TNM-stage: T2N2M0-(stage III). Finding: Right breast lesion (6.1cm2, SUVmax=15.2), associated with metastases to right internal mammary lymph node, two right axillary lymph nodes, and sclerotic lesions in right scapula. Final TNM-stage: T2N3M1-(stage IV). Patient-3: Initial TNM-stage: T2N0M1-(stage III). Finding: Left breast lesion (11.1cm2, SUVmax=18.8), associated with metastases to two lymph nodes in left hilum, and three lesions in both lungs. Final TNM-stage: T2N2M1-(stage IV). Patient-4: Initial TNM-stage: T4N1M1-(stage III). Finding: Four lesions in upper outer quadrant area of right breast (largest: 12.7cm2, SUVmax=18.6), in addition to one lesion in left breast (4.8cm2, SUVmax=7.1), associated with metastases to multiple lesions in liver (largest: 11.4cm2, SUV=8.0), and two bony-lytic lesions in left scapula and cervicle-1. No evidence of regional or distant lymph node involvement. Final TNM-stage: T4N0M2-(stage IV). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that 18FDG-PET/CT scans had significantly changed the TNM stages of breast cancer patients. While the T factor was unchanged, N and M factors showed significant variations. A single session of PET/CT scan was effective in detecting active extra lymph nodes and distant occult metastases, which were not identified by conventional diagnostic techniques, and might advantageously replace bone scan, and contrast enhanced CT of chest, abdomen and pelvis. Applying 18FDG-PET/CT scan early in the investigation, might shorten diagnosis time, helps deciding adequate treatment protocol, and could improve patients’ quality of life and survival. Trapping of 18FDG in malignant lesion cells, after a PET/CT scan, increases the retention index (RI%) for a considerable time, which might help localize sentinel lymph node for biopsy using a hand held gamma probe detector. Future work is required to demonstrate its utility.

Keywords: axillary lymph nodes, breast cancer staging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, lymph nodes

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1483 Diagnostic Accuracy in the Detection of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Comparison of Sonography, CT, PET/CT and MRI

Authors: Di Luo, Maria Buchberger, Anja Pickhard


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of four common morphological approaches, including sonography, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Material and Methods: Included in this retrospective study were 26 patients diagnosed with HNSCC between 2010 and 2011 who all underwent sonography, CT, PET/CT, and MRI imaging before neck dissection. Morphological data were compared to the corresponding histopathological results. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistic software (version 26.0), calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detection of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: The 5-year survival rate of the patient collective was 55.5%.Risk factors for survival included initial primary tumor stage, initial lymph node stage, initial metastasis status, and therapeutic approaches. Cox regression showed initial metastasis status(HR 8.671, 95%CI 1.316-57.123, p=0.025) and therapeutic approaches(HR 6.699, 95%CI 1.746-25.700, p=0.006)to be independent predictive risk factors for survival. Sensitivity was highest for MRI (96% compared to 85% for sonography and 89% for CT and PET/CT). Specificity was comparable with 95 % for CT and 98 % for sonography and PET/CT, but only 68% for MRI. While the MRI showed the least PPV (34%) compared to all other methods (85% for sonography,75% for CT, and 86% for PET/CT), the NPV was comparable in all methods(98-99%). The overall accuracy of cervical lymph node metastases detection was comparable for sonography, CT, and PET/CT with 96%,97%,94%, respectively, while MRI had only 72% accuracy. Conclusion: Since the initial status of metastasis is an independent predictive risk factor for patients’ survival, efficient detection is crucial to plan adequate therapeutic approaches. Sonography, CT, and PET/CT have better diagnostic accuracy than MRI for the evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in HNSCC patients.

Keywords: cervical lymph node metastases, diagnostic accuracy, head and neck squamous carcinoma, risk factors, survival

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1482 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra


The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

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1481 Lung Cancer Detection and Multi Level Classification Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach

Authors: V. Veeraprathap, G. S. Harish, G. Narendra Kumar


Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung in the form of tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Patients with Lung Cancer (LC) have an average of five years life span expectancy provided diagnosis, detection and prediction, which reduces many treatment options to risk of invasive surgery increasing survival rate. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for earlier detection of cancer are common. Gaussian filter along with median filter used for smoothing and noise removal, Histogram Equalization (HE) for image enhancement gives the best results without inviting further opinions. Lung cavities are extracted and the background portion other than two lung cavities is completely removed with right and left lungs segmented separately. Region properties measurements area, perimeter, diameter, centroid and eccentricity measured for the tumor segmented image, while texture is characterized by Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) functions, feature extraction provides Region of Interest (ROI) given as input to classifier. Two levels of classifications, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is used for determining patient condition as normal or abnormal, while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used for identifying the cancer stage is employed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithm is used for the main feature extraction leading to best efficiency. The developed technology finds encouraging results for real time information and on line detection for future research.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, ANN, discrete wavelet transform, DWT, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, k-nearest neighbor, KNN, region of interest, ROI

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1480 The Effect of Primary Treatment on Histopathological Patterns and Choice of Neck Dissection in Regional Failure of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

Authors: Ralene Sim, Stefan Mueller, N. Gopalakrishna Iyer, Ngian Chye Tan, Khee Chee Soo, R. Shetty Mahalakshmi, Hiang Khoon Tan


Background: Regional failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is managed by salvage treatment in the form of neck dissection. Radical neck dissection (RND) is preferred over modified radical neck dissection (MRND) since it is traditionally believed to offer better long-term disease control. However, with the advent of more advanced imaging modalities like high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography-CT scans, earlier detection is achieved. Additionally, concurrent chemotherapy also contributes to reduced tumour burden. Hence, there may be a lesser need for an RND and a greater role for MRND. With this retrospective study, the primary aim is to ascertain whether MRND, as opposed to RND, has similar outcomes and hence, whether there would be more grounds to offer a less aggressive procedure to achieve lower patient morbidity. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 66 NPC patients treated at Singapore General Hospital between 1994 to 2016 for histologically proven regional recurrence, of which 41 patients underwent RND and 25 who underwent MRND, based on surgeon preference. The type of ND performed, primary treatment mode, adjuvant treatment, and pattern of recurrence were reviewed. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimate and compared. Results: Overall, the disease parameters such as nodal involvement and extranodal extension were comparable between the two groups. Comparing MRND and RND, the median (IQR) OS is 1.76 (0.58 to 3.49) and 2.41 (0.78 to 4.11) respectively. However, the p-value found is 0.5301 and hence not statistically significant. Conclusion: RND is more aggressive and has been associated with greater morbidity. Hence, with similar outcomes, MRND could be an alternative salvage procedure for regional failure in selected NPC patients, allowing similar salvage rates with lesser mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neck dissection, modified neck dissection, radical neck dissection

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1479 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky


This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

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1478 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma


Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

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1477 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux


The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions.

Keywords: confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots

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1476 Procedure to Use Quantitative Bone-Specific SPECT/CT in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, P. Taskinen, P. Rautio


This study aimed to describe procedures that we developed to use in the quantitative, bone-specific SPECT/CT at our hospital. Our procedures included the following questions for choosing imaging protocols, which were based on a clinical doctor's referral: (1) Is she/he a cancer patient or not? (2) Are there any indications of inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis? We performed about 1,106 skeletal scintigraphies over two years. About 394 patients were studied with quantitative bone-specific single-photon emission computed tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) (i.e., about 36% of all bone scintigraphies). Approximately 64% of the patients were studied using the conventional Anterior-Posterior/Posterior-Anterior imaging. Our procedure has improved efficiency and decreased cycle times.

Keywords: skeletal scintigraphy, SPECT/CT, imaging, procedure

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1475 Interaction of Low-Energy Positrons with Mg Atoms: Elastic Scattering, Bound States, and Annihilation

Authors: Mahasen M. Abdel Mageed, H. S. Zaghloul


Annihilations, phase shifts, scattering lengths, and elastic cross sections of low energy positrons scattering from magnesium atoms were studied using the least-squares variational method (LSVM). The possibility of positron binding to the magnesium atoms is investigated. A trial wavefunction is suggested to represent e+-Mg elastic scattering and scattering parameters were derived to estimate the binding energy and annihilation rates. The trial function is taken to depend on several adjustable parameters and is improved iteratively by increasing the number of terms. The present results have the same behavior as reported semi-empirical, theoretical, and experimental results. Especially, the estimated positive scattering length supports the possibility of positron-magnesium bound state system that was confirmed in previous experimental and theoretical work.

Keywords: bound wavefunction, positron annihilation, scattering phase shift, scattering length

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1474 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong


Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

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