Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 208

Search results for: milling

208 Mechanochemical Synthesis of Al2O3/Mo Nanocomposite Powders from Molybdenum Oxide

Authors: Behrooz Ghasemi, Bahram Sharijian

Abstract:

Al2O3/Mo nanocomposite powders were successfully synthesized by mechanical milling through mechanochemical reaction between MoO3 and Al. The structural evolutions of powder particles during mechanical milling were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that Al2O3-Mo was completely obtained after 5 hr of milling. The crystallite sizes of Al2O3 and Mo after milling for 20 hr were about 45 nm and 23 nm, respectively. With longer milling time, the intensities of Al2O3 and Mo peaks decreased and became broad due to the decrease in crystallite size. Morphological features of powders were influenced by the milling time. The resulting Al2O3- Mo nanocomposite powder exhibited an average particle size of 200 nm after 20 hr of milling. Also nanocomposite powder after 10 hr milling had relatively equiaxed shape with uniformly distributed Mo phase in Al2O3 matrix.

Keywords: Al2O3/Mo, nanocomposites, mechanochemical, mechanical milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
207 Synthesis of Y2O3 Films by Spray Coating with Milled EDTA ・Y・H Complexes

Authors: Keiji Komatsu,Tetsuo Sekiya, Ayumu Toyama, Atsushi Nakamura, Ikumi Toda, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Hidetoshi Saitoh

Abstract:

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films have been successfully deposited with yttrium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA・Y・H) complexes prepared by various milling techniques. The effects of the properties of the EDTA・Y・H complex on the properties of the deposited Y2O3 films have been analyzed. Seven different types of the raw EDTA・Y・H complexes were prepared by various commercial milling techniques such as ball milling, hammer milling, commercial milling, and mortar milling. The milled EDTA・Y・H complexes exhibited various particle sizes and distributions, depending on the milling method. Furthermore, we analyzed the crystal structure, morphology and elemental distribution profile of the metal oxide films deposited on stainless steel substrate with the milled EDTA・Y・H complexes. Depending on the milling technique, the flow properties of the raw powders differed. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples revealed the formation of Y2O3 crystalline phase, irrespective of the milling technique. Of all the different milling techniques, the hammer milling technique is considered suitable for fabricating dense Y2O3 films.

Keywords: powder sizes and distributions, flame spray coating techniques, Yttrium oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
206 Sustainable Milling Process for Tensile Specimens

Authors: Shilpa Kumari, Ramakumar Jayachandran

Abstract:

Machining of aluminium extrusion profiles in the automotive industry has gained much interest in the last decade, particularly due to the higher utilization of aluminum profiles and the weight reduction benefits it brings. Milling is the most common material removal process, where the rotary milling cutter is moved against a workpiece. The physical contact of the milling cutter to the workpiece increases the friction between them, thereby affecting the longevity of the milling tool and also the surface finish of the workpiece. To minimise this issue, the milling process uses cutting fluids or emulsions; however, the use of emulsion in the process has a negative impact on the environment ( such as consumption of water, oils and the used emulsion needs to be treated before disposal) and also on the personal ( may cause respiratory problems, exposure to microbial toxins generated by bacteria in the emulsions on prolonged use) working close to the process. Furthermore, the workpiece also needs to be cleaned after the milling process, which is not adding value to the process, and the cleaning also disperses mist of emulsion in the working environment. Hydro Extrusion is committed to improving the performance of sustainability from its operations, and with the negative impact of using emulsion in the milling process, a new innovative process- Dry Milling was developed to minimise the impact the cutting fluid brings. In this paper, the authors present one application of dry milling in the machining of tensile specimens in the laboratory. Dry milling is an innovative milling process without the use of any cooling/lubrication and has several advantages. Several million tensile tests are carried out in extrusion laboratories worldwide with the wet milling process. The machining of tensile specimens has a significant impact on the reliability of test results. The paper presents the results for different 6xxx alloys with different wall thicknesses of the specimens, which were machined by both dry and wet milling processes. For both different 6xxx alloys and different wall thicknesses, mechanical properties were similar for samples milled using dry and wet milling. Several tensile specimens were prepared using both dry and wet milling to compare the results, and the outcome showed the dry milling process does not affect the reliability of tensile test results.

Keywords: dry milling, tensile testing, wet milling, 6xxx alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
205 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of End Milling Process with Multiple Finger Inserted Cutters

Authors: G. Krishna Mohana Rao, P. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Milling is the process of removing unwanted material with suitable tool. Even though the milling process is having wider application, the vibration of machine tool and work piece during the process produces chatter on the products. Various methods of preventing the chatter have been incorporated into machine tool systems. Damper is cut into equal number of parts. Each part is called as finger. Multiple fingers were inserted in the hollow portion of the shank to reduce tool vibrations. In the present work, nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of the damper inserted end milling cutter used to reduce the chatter was done. A comparison is made for the milling cutter with multiple dampers. Surface roughness was determined by machining with multiple finger inserted milling cutters.

Keywords: damping inserts, end milling, vibrations, nonlinear dynamic analysis, number of fingers

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
204 Prediction of Temperature Distribution during Drilling Process Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

Experimental & numeral study of temperature distribution during milling process, is important in milling quality and tools life aspects. In the present study the milling cross-section temperature is determined by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) according to the temperature of certain points of the work piece and the points specifications and the milling rotational speed of the blade. In the present work, at first three-dimensional model of the work piece is provided and then by using the Computational Heat Transfer (CHT) simulations, temperature in different nods of the work piece are specified in steady-state conditions. Results obtained from CHT are used for training and testing the ANN approach. Using reverse engineering and setting the desired x, y, z and the milling rotational speed of the blade as input data to the network, the milling surface temperature determined by neural network is presented as output data. The desired points temperature for different milling blade rotational speed are obtained experimentally and by extrapolation method for the milling surface temperature is obtained and a comparison is performed among the soft programming ANN, CHT results and experimental data and it is observed that ANN soft programming code can be used more efficiently to determine the temperature in a milling process.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, milling process, rotational speed, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
203 Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.

Keywords: availability modeling, Markov process, milling system, rice milling plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
202 CNC Milling-Drilling Machine Cutting Tool Holder

Authors: Hasan Al Dabbas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is addressed that the mechanical machinery captures a major share of innovation in drilling and milling chucks technology. Users demand higher speeds in milling because they are cutting more aluminum and are relying on higher speeds to eliminate secondary finishing operations. To meet that demand, milling-machine builders have enhanced their machine’s rigidity. Moreover, faster cutting has caught up with boring mills. Cooling these machine’s internal components is a challenge at high speeds. Another trend predicted that it is more use of controlled axes to let the machines do many more operations on 5 sides without having to move or re-fix the work. Advances of technology in mechanical engineering have helped to make high-speed machining equipment. To accompany these changes in milling and drilling machines chucks, the demand of easiest software is increased. An open architecture controller is being sought that would allow flexibility and information exchange.

Keywords: drilling, milling, chucks, cutting edges, tools, machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
201 Off-Line Detection of "Pannon Wheat" Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó

Abstract:

The aims of this investigation is to elaborate near-infrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. This wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and operation condition of milling technology. Its obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.

Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy, wheat categories, milling process, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
200 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor

Abstract:

Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
199 Effect of Milling Parameters on the Characteristics of Nanocrystalline TiAl Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh, Rozman Mohd Tahar, Mahadzir Ishak

Abstract:

TiAl alloy nano-powder was successfully produced by a mechanical alloying (MA) technique in a planetary ball mill. The influence of milling parameters, such as the milling duration, rotation speed, and balls-to-powder mass ratio, on the characteristics of the Ti50%Al powder, including the microstructure, crystallite size refinement, and phase formation, were investigated. It was found that MA of elemental Ti and Al powders promotes the formation of TiAl alloys, as Ti (Al) solid solution was formed after 5h of milling. Milling without the addition of process control agents led to a dramatic decrease in the crystallite size to 17.8 nm after 2h of milling. Higher rotation energy and a higher ball-to-powder weight ratio also accelerated the reduction in crystallite size. Subsequent heating up to 850°C resulted in the formation of a new intermetallic phase with a dominant TiAl3 phase plus minor γ-TiAl or α2-Ti3Al phase or both. A longer milling duration also exhibited a better effect on the micro-hardness of Ti50%Al powders.

Keywords: TiAl alloys, nanocrystalline materials, mechanical alloying, materials science

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
198 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef

Abstract:

The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: ball end milling, cutting forces, cutting parameters, residual stress, tool-workpiece inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
197 X-Ray Diffraction and Mӧssbauer Studies of Nanostructured Ni45Al45Fe10 Powders Elaborated by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: N. Ammouchi

Abstract:

We have studied the effect of milling time on the structural and hyperfine properties of Ni45Al45Fe10 compound elaborated by mechanical alloying. The elaboration was performed by using the planetary ball mill at different milling times. The as milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mӧssbauer spectroscopy. From XRD diffraction spectra, we show that the β NiAl(Fe) was completely formed after 24 h of milling time. When the milling time increases, the lattice parameter increases, whereas the grain size decreases to a few nanometres and the mean level of microstrains increases. The analysis of Mӧssbauer spectra indicates that, in addition to a ferromagnetic phase, α-Fe, a paramagnetic disordered phase Ni Al (Fe) solid solution is observed after 2h and only this phase is present after 12h.

Keywords: NiAlFe, nanostructured powders, X-ray diffraction, Mӧssbauer spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
196 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine

Abstract:

The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: nickel powders, nanocrystallines, XRD, VSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
195 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining, transformation matrix, rotation angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
194 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl

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Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the work piece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: dexel, process stability, material removal, milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
193 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy

Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.

Keywords: ball milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
192 The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling

Authors: A. Razavykia, A. Esmaeilzadeh, S. Iranmanesh

Abstract:

Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.

Keywords: CAD/CAM software, milling, orthopedic implants, tool path strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
191 Study of the Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr₃₅Ni₁₅ Powder Alloy Developed by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Salim Triaa, Fella Kali-Ali

Abstract:

Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr3₃₅Ni₁₅ alloys were prepared from pure elemental powders using high energy mechanical alloying. The mixture powders obtained are characterized by several techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis revelated the formation of the Fe₁Cr₁ compound with BBC structure after one hour of milling. A second compound Fe₃Ni₂ with FCC structure was observed after 12 hours of milling. The size of crystallite determined by Williamson Hall method was about 5.1 nm after 48h of mill. SEM observations confirmed the growth of crushed particles as a function of milling time, while the homogenization of our powders into different constituent elements was verified by the EDX analysis.

Keywords: Fe-Cr-Ni alloy, mechanical alloying, nanostructure, SEM, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
190 Characterization and Nanostructure Formation of Banana Peels Nanosorbent with Its Application

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

Characterization and nanostructure formation of banana peels as sorbent material are described in this paper. The transformation of this agricultural waste via mechanical milling to enhance its properties such as changed in microstructure and surface area for water pollution control and other applications were studied. Mechanical milling was employed using planetary continuous milling machine with ethanol as a milling solvent and the samples were taken at time intervals between 10 h to 30 h to examine the structural changes. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET). Results revealed three typical structures with different deformation mechanisms and the grain-sizes within the range of (71-12 nm), nanostructure of the particles and fibres. The particle size decreased from 65µm to 15 nm as the milling progressed for a period of 30 h. The morphological properties of the materials indicated that the particle shapes becomes regular and uniform as the milling progresses. Furthermore, particles fracturing resulted in surface area increment from 1.0694-4.5547 m2/g. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capacity to coordinate and remove metal ions, such as the carboxylic and amine groups were identified at absorption bands of 1730 and 889 cm-1, respectively. However, the choice of this sorbent material for the sorption or any application will depend on the composition of the pollutant to be eradicated.

Keywords: characterization, nanostructure, nanosorbent, eco-friendly, banana peels, mechanical milling, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
189 Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics

Authors: Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h, 25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure, dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%, room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc) to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.

Keywords: perovskite, dielectric, ceramics, high-energy milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
188 Optimization of Surface Finish in Milling Operation Using Live Tooling via Taguchi Method

Authors: Harish Kumar Ponnappan, Joseph C. Chen

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The main objective of this research is to optimize the surface roughness of a milling operation on AISI 1018 steel using live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. In this study, Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the milling process by investigating the effect of different machining parameters on surface roughness. The L9 orthogonal array is designed with four controllable factors with three different levels each and an uncontrollable factor, resulting in 18 experimental runs. The optimal parameters determined from Taguchi analysis were feed rate – 76.2 mm/min, spindle speed 1150 rpm, depth of cut – 0.762 mm and 2-flute TiN coated high-speed steel as tool material. The process capability Cp and process capability index Cpk values were improved from 0.62 and -0.44 to 1.39 and 1.24 respectively. The average surface roughness values from the confirmation runs were 1.30 µ, decreasing the defect rate from 87.72% to 0.01%. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design to optimize the surface roughness in a milling operation using live tooling.

Keywords: live tooling, surface roughness, taguchi analysis, CNC milling operation, CNC turning operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
187 Geometric Model to Study the Mechanism of Machining and Predict the Damage Occurring During Milling of Unidirectional CFRP

Authors: Faisal Islam, J. Ramkumar

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The applications of composite materials in aerospace, sporting and automotive industries need high quality machined surfaces and dimensional accuracy. Some studies have been done to understand the fiber failure mechanisms encountered during milling machining of CFRP composites but none are capable of explaining the exact nature of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms encountered in the milling machining process. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms occurring on the slot edges during CFRP milling machining processes. The occurrence of damage is predicted by a schematic explanation based on the mechanisms of material removal which in turn depends upon fiber cutting angles. A geometric model based on fiber cutting angle and fiber orientation angle is proposed that defines the critical and safe zone during machining and predicts the occurrence of delamination. Milling machining experiments were performed on composite samples of varying fiber orientations to verify the proposed theory. Mean fiber pulled out length was measured from the microscopic images of the damaged area to quantify the amount of damage produced. By observing the damage occurring for different fiber orientation angles and fiber cutting angles for up-milling and down-milling edges and correlating it with the material removal mechanisms as described earlier, it can be concluded that the damage/delamination mainly depends on the portion of the fiber cutting angles that lies within the critical cutting angle zone.

Keywords: unidirectional composites, milling, machining damage, delamination, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
186 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

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This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
185 Networked Implementation of Milling Stability Optimization with Bayesian Learning

Authors: Christoph Ramsauer, Jaydeep Karandikar, Tony Schmitz, Friedrich Bleicher

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Machining stability is an important limitation to discrete part machining. In this work, a networked implementation of milling stability optimization with Bayesian learning is presented. The milling process was monitored with a wireless sensory tool holder instrumented with an accelerometer at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria. The recorded data from a milling test cut is used to classify the cut as stable or unstable based on the frequency analysis. The test cut result is fed to a Bayesian stability learning algorithm at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The algorithm calculates the probability of stability as a function of axial depth of cut and spindle speed and recommends the parameters for the next test cut. The iterative process between two transatlantic locations repeats until convergence to a stable optimal process parameter set is achieved.

Keywords: machining stability, machine learning, sensor, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
184 Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Milling Applications

Authors: Hatim Laalej

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Monitoring of cutting tools in milling applications is essential for achieving the desired quality of machined parts. Frequent manual inspection of cutting tools by skilled operators is time consuming and hence costly in terms of productivity lost due to undesirable stoppages of machine tools. It is highly desirable to develop a reliable method to monitor online the condition of cutting tool and alert the operator when cutting tools need replacing. The present study is concerned with the development of an artificial technique to monitor the condition of cutting tools in milling applications. The results of this study show that the proposed technique can detect when the cutting tool is severely worn. These findings are significant in that they could help machine tool’s operator diagnose the condition of cutting tools without the need for frequent machine stoppage to perform manual inspections of cutting tools, resulting in a significant decrease in manufacturing costs.

Keywords: acritical intelligence, tool condition monitoring, sensor instrumentation, milling operation, flute tracking

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183 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz

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The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, nanocrystals, SEM, hysteresis loops, VSM, anisotropy theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
182 Tool Wear Monitoring of High Speed Milling Based on Vibratory Signal Processing

Authors: Hadjadj Abdechafik, Kious Mecheri, Ameur Aissa

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The objective of this study is to develop a process of treatment of the vibratory signals generated during a horizontal high speed milling process without applying any coolant in order to establish a monitoring system able to improve the machining performance. Thus, many tests were carried out on the horizontal high speed centre (PCI Météor 10), in given cutting conditions, by using a milling cutter with only one insert and measured its frontal wear from its new state that is considered as a reference state until a worn state that is considered as unsuitable for the tool to be used. The results obtained show that the first harmonic follow well the evolution of frontal wear, on another hand a wavelet transform is used for signal processing and is found to be useful for observing the evolution of the wavelet approximations through the cutting tool life. The power and the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the wavelet transformed signal gave the best results and can be used for tool wear estimation. All this features can constitute the suitable indicators for an effective detection of tool wear and then used for the input parameters of an online monitoring system. Although we noted the remarkable influence of the machining cycle on the quality of measurements by the introduction of a bias on the signal, this phenomenon appears in particular in horizontal milling and in the majority of studies is ignored.

Keywords: flank wear, vibration, milling, signal processing, monitoring

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181 Effect of the Tooling Conditions on the Machining Stability of a Milling Machine

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yong-Run Chen, Wei-Cheng Shih, Shen-He Tsui, Kung-Da Wu

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This paper presents the effect on the tooling conditions on the machining stabilities of a milling machine tool. The machining stability was evaluated in different feeding direction in the X-Y plane, which was referred as the orientation-dependent machining stability. According to the machining mechanics, the machining stability was determined by the frequency response function of the cutter. Thus, we first conducted the vibration tests on the spindle tool of the milling machine to assess the tool tip frequency response functions along the principal direction of the machine tool. Then, basing on the orientation dependent stability analysis model proposed in this study, we evaluated the variation of the dynamic characteristics of the spindle tool and the corresponding machining stabilities at a specific feeding direction. Current results demonstrate that the stability boundaries and limited axial cutting depth of a specific cutter were affected to vary when it was fixed in the tool holder with different overhang length. The flute of the cutter also affects the stability boundary. When a two flute cutter was used, the critical cutting depth can be increased by 47 % as compared with the four flute cutter. The results presented in study provide valuable references for the selection of the tooling conditions for achieving high milling performance.

Keywords: tooling condition, machining stability, milling machine, chatter

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180 Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-Fuzzy Surface Roughness Prediction Systems Coupled with Cutting Current in Milling Operation

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Venkata Mohan Kudapa

Abstract:

Development of two real-time surface roughness (Ra) prediction systems for milling operations was attempted. The systems used not only cutting parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed, but also the cutting current generated and corrected by a clamp type energy sensor. Two different approaches were developed. First, a fuzzy inference system (FIS), in which the fuzzy logic rules are generated by experts in the milling processes, was used to conduct prediction modeling using current cutting data. Second, a neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS) was explored. Neuro-fuzzy systems are adaptive techniques in which data are collected on the network, processed, and rules are generated by the system. The inference system then uses these rules to predict Ra as the output. Experimental results showed that the parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and input current variation could predict Ra. These two systems enable the prediction of Ra during the milling operation with an average of 91.83% and 94.48% accuracy by FIS and ANFIS systems, respectively. Statistically, the ANFIS system provided better prediction accuracy than that of the FIS system.

Keywords: surface roughness, input current, fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy, milling operations

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179 Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations

Authors: Vineeth G. Kuriakose, Joseph C. Chen, Ye Li

Abstract:

The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.

Keywords: surface roughness, Taguchi parameter design, CNC turning, CNC milling

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