Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3969

Search results for: sustainable cities

3969 Integrating Environmental and Ecological Justice for the Sustainable Development of Smart Cities: A Normative Eco Framework

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

This paper leverages theoretical insights into two different justice approaches – environmental justice and ecological justice – to examine the effectiveness of sustainable development within smart cities and related smart city technology initiatives. Through theoretical development, the author seeks to establish an Eco Framework for smart cities and urban sustainable development. In turn, this paper aims to proffer the notion that there are ecologically sustainable ways in which smart cities can get smarter, and that such strategies can be compatible with ecological justice and environmental justice. Ultimately, a single conceptual framework is put forward to integrate the above approaches and concepts with normative prescriptions, which can serve researchers in the continued examination of smart cities and policymakers in their sustainable development of smart cities.

Keywords: ecological justice, environmental justice, normative framework, smart cities, sustainable development

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3968 Planning for a Smart Sustainable Cities: A Case Study

Authors: Ajaykumar Kambekar, Nikita Kalantri

Abstract:

Due to faster urbanization; developing nations will have to look forward towards establishing new planned cities those are environmentally friendly. Due to growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is evident that the rise of smart cities is witnessed as a promising trend for future growth; however, technology alone cannot make a city as a smart city. Cities must use smart systems to enhance the quality of life of its citizens and to achieve sustainable growth. Recent trends in technology may offer some indication towards harnessing our cities potential as the new engines of sustainable growth. To overcome the problems of mega-urbanization, new concept of smart cities has been introduced. The current research aims to reduce the knowledge gap in urban planning by exploring the concept of smart cities considering sustainability as a major focus. The aim of this paper is to plan for an entire smart city. The paper analyses sustainable development and identifies the key factors for the creation of future smart cities. The study also emphasizes the use of advanced planning and scheduling software such as Microsoft Project (MSP).

Keywords: urbanization, planned cities, information and communication technology, sustainable growth

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3967 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: ecological engineering, nutrient recovery, pathogens, urban agriculture, wetlands

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3966 Need for Regional Focus for Smart and Sustainable Cities

Authors: Satinder Bhatia

Abstract:

Many nations have pursued the goal of creating smart cities. These cities receive additional funding for investment in various fields including technology that may create efficiencies and move both people and assets towards sustainable living. Given that our large cities continue to attract larger numbers of people, it may be logical to pursue this goal of creating higher and higher efficiencies in cities to generate a sustainable living for all. Too often, we have seen shortage of key resources like water, electricity, housing and other amenities such as schools, colleges and transport as more and more people crowd into our cities. Even though manufacturing of industrial goods has been pushed out of cities, they still remain the hub of services owing to the superior infrastructure of cities. But will the creation of smart cities not attract even more people requiring our cities to get smarter and smarter with time and thereby, put more and more pressure on our resources? Time has come to ask ourselves if this model in itself is a sustainable proposition. India had for long pursued the goal of developing backward regions with special focussed schemes. This study looks at the theoretical proposition of a renewed focus on development of backward areas from a regional perspective. Strengthening connectivity between developed and relatively less developed contiguous regions can transmit the benefits of developed areas more easily and give birth to sustainable projects for a two-way flow of talent, goods and services. This two-way flow at the regional level has high potential towards building and maintaining sustainable cities and nations.

Keywords: smart cities, regional disparity, regional development, sustainable living.

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3965 Inclusive Cities Decision Matrix Based on a Multidimensional Approach for Sustainable Smart Cities

Authors: Madhurima S. Waghmare, Shaleen Singhal

Abstract:

The concept of smartness, inclusion, sustainability is multidisciplinary and fuzzy, rooted in economic and social development theories and policies which get reflected in the spatial development of the cities. It is a challenge to convert these concepts from aspirations to transforming actions. There is a dearth of assessment and planning tools to support the city planners and administrators in developing smart, inclusive, and sustainable cities. To address this gap, this study develops an inclusive cities decision matrix based on an exploratory approach and using mixed methods. The matrix is soundly based on a review of multidisciplinary urban sector literature and refined and finalized based on inputs from experts and insights from case studies. The application of the decision matric on the case study cities in India suggests that the contemporary planning tools for cities need to be multidisciplinary and flexible to respond to the unique needs of the diverse contexts. The paper suggests that a multidimensional and inclusive approach to city planning can play an important role in building sustainable smart cities.

Keywords: inclusive-cities decision matrix, smart cities in India, city planning tools, sustainable cities

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3964 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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3963 The Role of Sustainable Development in the Design and Planning of Smart Cities Using GIS Techniques: Models of Arab Cities

Authors: Ahmed M. Jihad

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The paper presents the concept of sustainable development, and the role of geographic techniques in the design, planning and presentation of maps of smart cities with geographical vision, and the identification of programs and tools, and models of maps of Arab cities, is the problem of research in how to apply, process and experience these programs? What is the role of geographic techniques in planning and mapping the optimal place for these cities? The paper proposes an addition to the designs of Iraqi cities, as it can be developed in the future to serve as a model for interactive smart cities by developing its services. The importance of this paper stems from the concept of sustainable development dynamic which has become a method of development imposed by the present era in rapid development to achieve social balance and specialized programs in draw paper argues that ensuring sustainable development is achieved through the use of information technology. The paper will follow the theoretical presentation of the importance of the concept of development, design tools and programs. The paper follows the method of analysis of modern systems (System Analysis Approach) through the latest programs will provide results can be said that the new Iraqi cities can be developed with smart technologies, like some of the Arab and European cities that were newly created through the introduction of international investment, and therefore Plans can be made to select the best programs in manufacturing and producing maps and smart cities in the future.

Keywords: geographic techniques, planning the cities, smart cities, sustainable development

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3962 Adaptive Architecture and Urbanism - A Study of Coastal Cities, Climate Change Problems, Effects, Risks And Opportunities for Making Sustainable Habitat

Authors: Santosh Kumar Ketham

Abstract:

Climate change creating most dramatic and destructive consequences, the result is global warming and sea-level rise, flooding coastal cities around the world forming vulnerable situations affecting in multiple ways: environment, economy, social and political. The aim and goal of the research is to develop cities on water. Taking the problem as an opportunity to bring science, engineering, policies and design together to make a resilient and sustainable floating community on water considering existing/new technologies of floating. The quest is to make sustainable habitat on water to live, work, learn and play.  To make sustainable energy generation and storage alongside maintaining balance of land and marine to conserve Ecosystem. The research would serve as a model for sustainable neighbourhoods designed in a modular way and thus can easily extend or re-arranged, to adapt for future socioeconomic realities.  This research paper studies primarily on climate change problems, effects, risks and opportunities. It does so, through analysing existing case studies, books and writings published on coastal cities and understanding its various aspects for making sustainable habitat.

Keywords: floating cities, flexible modular typologies, rising sea levels, sustainable architecture and urbanism

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3961 The Challenge Confronted by the Developing Countries in Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Sherine El Sakka

Abstract:

Sustainable urban development (SUD) is influenced by social, cultural, economic and environmental sustainability (ES) of developing and developed countries. Our paper will focus on the challenge confronted by the developing countries in sustainable urban development as an application on Egypt, which will clarify current situation and future challenge and assess the impact of a developing country on sustainable development to propose some possible directions for the future because new solution of improving sustainability of developing cities (SDC) should be found.

Keywords: sustainable urban development (SUD), environmental sustainability (ES), sustainability of developing cities (SDC), Egypt

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3960 Sustainability as an Effective Tool for a Place Branding an Application on El Gouna City, Egypt

Authors: Sherine El Sakka

Abstract:

Most developing countries consider sustainability is a luxury, but El Gouna city at hurghada, Egypt, thought differently and uses sustainability as a tool for branding the place. Branding a place is new approach towards sustainable cities development (SCD); sustainability(S) requires multi-dimensional indicators to show the relationship between economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects. Sustainable development (SD) according to Brundland commission defined as" meeting the needs of current generations without negative impact on the needs of future generation’, branding a place (BP) integrate economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects into the city. In order for a city to be a good brand it must possess distinctive characteristics that can be identified, these include city appearance, people’s experience, people’s belief as well as what the city stands for. The study has found that place branding is a way to promote sustainable initiative; place branding has the potential to shape as a leading tool for the concurrence of more sustainable cities in developing countries, sustainability and green development should turn main priorities to developing countries.

Keywords: sustainable cities development (SCD), sustainability(S), sustainable development (SD), branding a place (BP)

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3959 Planning Healthy, Livable, and Sustainable Community in Terms of Effective Indicators on Policy Maker

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat, Maryam Baradaran

Abstract:

Creating healthy communities that are sustainable and livable is a desire of policy makers in European countries. Indicators have used at the level of international, national, state to evaluate the level of health in cities and regions. Therefore, there are many challenges in the assumption of health and planning indicators. This research provides an overview of health indicators used to date in Europe according to World Health Organization (WHO) strategy. It then discusses on how indicators have been successful to the creation of healthy, livable and sustainable cities in Europe. This research is based on qualitative research to review the documentary researches on health issue and urban planning. The result will show the positive and negative effects of in process indicators on European cities.

Keywords: healthy community, livability, sustainability, WHO strategy

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3958 Effective Environmental Planning Management (EPM) as Panacea to Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Jegede Kehinde Jacob, Ola Akeem Bayonle, Adewale Yemi Yekeen

Abstract:

The rapid rate of urban growth in most developing countries of the world in recent times is alarming. Mass movement of people from rural areas to the urban centres, the consequence of the uncontrolled rapid urbanisation resulting to many un-conforming environmental challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, land, water and air pollution, poor environmental sanitation, poor and inadequate housing, urban degradation, sprawl and slums, urban violence, crime, robbery and prostitution as well as many other social vices that make the cities unsustainable. The resultant effects of all these are abysmal failure in the management of cities on the part of the governing authorities and other relevant stakeholders as well as unconducive and unwholesome condition of living of the people. This paper attempts to examine holistically the issue of environmental planning management (EPM) process development and management concept with a view for dynamic and interactive approach for various stakeholders as partners in achieving sustainable cities of our dream. The areas of discussion including conceptual and contextual issues, sustainable cities concept, good urban governance including literature review. The paper goes further to examine opportunities and challenges of built environment generally, the nature and context of environmental problems in particular, the role and duties of environmental planning and management (EPM) process in sustainable urban development. The paper further reviewed briefly the various levels of institutionalisation of EPM process with a typical case study of sustainable Ibadan project (SIP). The paper concludes with a list of recommendations to ensure effective and lasting solutions to cities problems through initiation of EPM process achievable in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: built environment, environmental planning, sustainable cities, sustainable development, urbanization

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3957 A Meta-Analysis towards an Integrated Framework for Sustainable Urban Transportation within the Concept of Sustainable Cities

Authors: Hande Aladağ, Gökçe Aydın

Abstract:

The world’s population is increasing continuously and rapidly. Moreover, there are other problems such as the decline of natural energy resources, global warming, and environmental pollution. These facts have made sustainability an important and primary topic from future planning perspective. From this perspective, constituting sustainable cities and communities can be considered as one of the key issues in terms of sustainable development goals. The concept of sustainable cities can be evaluated under three headings such as green/sustainable buildings, self – contained cities and sustainable transportation. This study only concentrates on how to form and support a sustainable urban transportation system to contribute to the sustainable urbanization. Urban transportation system inevitably requires many engineering projects with various sizes. Engineering projects generally have four phases, in the following order: Planning, design, construction, operation. The order is valid but there are feedbacks from every phase to every phase in its upstream. In this regard, engineering projects are iterative processes. Sustainability is an integrated and comprehensive concept thus it should be among the primary concerns in every phase of transportation projects. In the study, a meta-analysis will be performed on the related studies in the literature. It is targeted and planned that, as a result of the findings of this meta-analysis, a framework for the list of principles and actions for sustainable transport will be formed. The meta-analysis will be performed to point out and clarify sustainability approaches in every phase of the related engineering projects, with also paying attention to the iterative nature of the process and relative contribution of the action for the outcomes of the sustainable transportation system. However, the analysis will not be limited to the engineering projects, non-engineering solutions will also be included in the meta-analysis. The most important contribution of this study is a determination of the outcomes of a sustainable urban transportation system in terms of energy efficiency, resource preservation and related social, environmental and economic factors. The study is also important because it will give light to the engineering and management approaches to achieve these outcomes.

Keywords: meta-analysis, sustainability, sustainable cities, sustainable urban transportation, urban transportation

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3956 Livable City as a New Approach for Sustainable Urban Planning

Authors: Nora Mohammed Rehan Hussien

Abstract:

Cities all over the world face daunting urban challenges that have increased in scope in recent years. The biggest challenge includes issues of urban planning, housing, safety aspects, scarcity of land for development and traffic congestion. So every city in the world aspires to adopt the strategy of ‘Livable City’ which guarantees the cities urbanization manner that preserves the environment, and achieve the greatest benefit from the resources and achieve a good standard of living. Essentially, a livable city should possess basic yet unique attributes to welcome people from all strata of society without marginalizing any particular group. Most of these cities began to move towards sustainability and livability to enhance quality and performance of urban services, to reduce costs and resources consumption, to engage more affectivity and actively with its citizens, and to describe the quality of life and the characteristics of cities that make them livable. From here came the idea of the research which is creating ‘A framework of livable and sustainable city’ as a sustainable approach that must follow to achieve the principle of sustainable livability. From this point of view the research deals with one of the most successful case studies all over the world in’ livable cities system’ (Vienna) to know how to explore and understand the issues and challenges in becoming a full- livable and creative city through analyzing the criteria, principles and strategy of livable city then deducing the framework towards this concept. Finally, it suggests a set of recommendations help for applying the concept of livable city.

Keywords: quality of life, livability & livable city, sustainability, sustainable city

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3955 Applications Using Geographic Information System for Planning and Development of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Living for Smart-Cities

Authors: Javed Mohammed

Abstract:

As urbanization process has been and will be happening in an unprecedented scale worldwide, strong requirements from academic research and practical fields for smart management and intelligent planning of cities are pressing to handle increasing demands of infrastructure and potential risks of inhabitants agglomeration in disaster management. Geo-spatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS) are essential components for building smart cities in a basic way that maps the physical world into virtual environment as a referencing framework. On higher level, GIS has been becoming very important in smart cities on different sectors. In the digital city era, digital maps and geospatial databases have long been integrated in workflows in land management, urban planning and transportation in government. People have anticipated GIS to be more powerful not only as an archival and data management tool but also as spatial models for supporting decision-making in intelligent cities. The purpose of this project is to offer observations and analysis based on a detailed discussion of Geographic Information Systems( GIS) driven Framework towards the development of Smart and Sustainable Cities through high penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies.

Keywords: digital maps, geo-spatial, geographic information system, smart cities, renewable energy, urban planning

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3954 Sustainable Urban Waterfronts Using Sustainability Assessment Rating System

Authors: R. M. R. Hussein

Abstract:

Sustainable urban waterfront development is one of the most interesting phenomena of urban renewal in the last decades. However, there are still many cities whose visual image is compromised due to the lack of a sustainable urban waterfront development, which consequently affects the place of those cities globally. This paper aims to reimagine the role of waterfront areas in city design, with a particular focus on Egypt, so that they provide attractive, sustainable urban environments while promoting the continued aesthetic development of the city overall. This aim will be achieved by determining the main principles of a sustainable urban waterfront and its applications. This paper concentrates on sustainability assessment rating systems. A number of international case-studies, wherein a city has applied the basic principles for a sustainable urban waterfront and have made use of sustainability assessment rating systems, have been selected as examples which can be applied to the urban waterfronts in Egypt. This paper establishes the importance of developing the design of urban environments in Egypt, as well as identifying the methods of sustainability application for urban waterfronts.

Keywords: sustainable urban waterfront, green infrastructure, energy efficient, Cairo

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3953 Sustainable Smart Contraction: China Eco-district Evolution Research and Future Exploration

Authors: Xincheng He, Weijun Gao, Gangwei Cai

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In the process of rapid urbanization, large-scale industrial production, and unreasonable planning and construction have caused various ecological and environmental problems, while hindered the sustainable development of cities. The ecological district not only realizes the coordinated development of society, economy, and environment but also conforms to the trend of smart contraction of the development of cities in China from the periphery to the center. This paper reviews the development of China's ecological district, including the full life cycle process of policy, planning, implementation, and operation. Based on sorting out the concept, connotation, and development status of China’s ecological district, the relationship between the construction of the ecological district and the sustainable city is discussed. Summarizing the development trend of the ecological district, the ecological district should combine the construction of smart cities, actively respond to the digital information era, and improve the construction of the ecological district system. It proposes that the future direction of city's sustainable development needs to change from a thematic focus on ecology to the common urbanization of humanity, society, and nature. Focusing on people-oriented, ecological, and digital future communities will become an important construction method for the city's sustainable smart contraction.

Keywords: eco-district, smart contraction, sustainable development, future community

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3952 Planning Strategy for Sustainable Transportation in Heritage Areas

Authors: Hassam Hassan Elborombaly

Abstract:

The pollution generated from transportation modes, congestion and traffic heritage has led to the deterioration of historic buildings and the urban heritage in historic cities. Accordingly, this paper attempts to diagnose the transport and traffic problems in historic cities. In general and in Heritage Cities, and to investigate methods for conserving the urban heritage from negative effects of traffic congestion and of the traditional red modes of transportation. It also attempts to explore possible areas for intervention to mitigate transportation and traffic problems in the light of the principles of the sustainable transportation framework. It aims to draw conclusion and propose recommendation that would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation plans in historic Cairo and consequently achieve sustainable transportation. Problems In historic cities public paths compose an irregular network enclosing large residential plots (defined as super blocks quarters or hettas). The blocks represent the basic morphology units in historic Cities. Each super block incorporates several uses (i.e. residential, non-residential, service uses and others). Local paths reach the interior of the super blocks in an organized inter core, which deals mainly with residential functions mixed with handicraft activities and is composed of several local path units; (b) the other core, which is bound by the public paths and contains a combination of residential, commercial and social activities. Objectives: 1- To provide amenity convenience and comfort for visitors and people who live and work in the area. Pedestrianizing, accessibility and safety are to be reinforced while respecting the organic urban pattern. 2- To enhance street life, vitality and activity, in order to attract people and increase economic prosperity. Research Contents • Relation between residential areas and transportation in the inner core • Analytical studies for historic areas in heritage cities • Sustainable transportation planning in heritage cities • Dynamic and flexible methodology for achieving sustainable transportation network for the Heritage Cities • Result and Recommendation

Keywords: irregular network, public paths, sustainable transportation, urban heritage

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3951 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

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Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: population growth, sustainable development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws

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3950 Governance Factors of Sustainable Stormwater Management: A Comparative Study of Case Cities in China and Sweden

Authors: Xiujuan Qiao

Abstract:

Cities worldwide are increasingly adopting sustainable stormwater solutions such as using green infrastructure to mitigate challenges related to stormwater, e.g., pluvial flooding, and stormwater pollution. Barriers caused by governance factors have been identified as the main reason for the slow pace of sustainable stormwater management implementation. In this study, we examined governance factors influencing local implementation in four case cities: Lund and Malmö, Sweden, and Xi’xian New Area and Zhenjiang, China. Based on systems thinking of interrelations between previously identified influencing governance factors in sustainable stormwater management (SSM), we developed a causal loop diagram (SSM-CLD) and used it to analyze 23 semi-structured interviews with local government officers in the four case cities. Based on the results, we created one SSM-CLD for each country and analyzed the main differences between these four SSM-CLDs. The results revealed that differences in governance structures can lead to differences in the influencing governance factors. In top-down political systems, e.g., China, the role of national policy in setting local leaders’ priorities is significant for SSM implementation. In political systems with more power devolved to local governments, e.g., Sweden, public awareness and local government politicians’ priorities are important for SSM implementation. Acquiring funding for long-term maintenance was identified as a challenge in all four cities studied. These results are relevant for policymakers, local government departments, consultancy companies, and researchers seeking a better understanding of how governance factors influence sustainable stormwater management.

Keywords: sustainable stormwater management, causal loop diagram, governance structures, local government priorities, public awareness, maintenance

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3949 Sustainable Lighting Solutions in Residential Interiors to Combat the Ever-Growing Problem of Environmental Degradation

Authors: Ankita Sharma, Reenu Singh

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In order to conserve the ecology and the environment, there is a need to focus on sustainable lighting solutions such as LED bulbs instead of incandescent bulbs, candle-powered lamps, self-cooling smart bulbs, and many more, that are both eco-friendly and practical. This paper focuses on such sustainable solutions to lighting, which will have a major positive impact on the environment in the coming future. A questionnaire survey was conducted to note the responses of people living in high-rise buildings in metropolitan cities with regards to such sustainable lighting choices in their homes. The result of such questionnaire survey has helped to design parameters which are used to ideate design interventions in this field of sustainable lighting choices. This paper includes proposals to facilitate the reduction of electric power in interior lighting through various lighting accessory design interventions. Thus, such design interventions will allow us to design more sustainable interior spaces, and renewable energy strategies can be developed in the field of lighting, which will not only help to save energy but also positively affect other aspects of human well-being such as productivity, heritage conservation and economic well-being too!

Keywords: sustainable, interior lighting, lighting design, environmental impact, metropolitan cities

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3948 The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

Authors: Jens-Phillip Petersen

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The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper, the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified.

Keywords: energy planning, urban planning, renewable energies, sustainable cities

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3947 The Ecological Urbanism as an Oppurtunity to Solve City Problem

Authors: Fairuz A. Ulinnuha, Bimo K. Fuadi

Abstract:

The world’s population continues to grow resulting in steady migration from rural to urban areas. Increased numbers of people and cities hand in hand with greater exploitation of world’s resource. Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating of this impact of this situation. During the 1970’s, some of eco-concept were applied to urban settings, one of them is Ecological Cities. A non-profit organization, Urban Ecology, was founded in California in 1975 to 'rebuild cities in balance with nature'. Efforts to synthesize ecological and urban planning approaches were slowed somewhat in the 1980s, but useful refinements were made. Consideration of social impact acknowledges that the ecological design is not just about ecology itself. It is also about questioning and redefining our understanding of the ecology. When ecologist did recognize the existence of cities, they were usually concerned with resource flows. One popular approach was to study the flow and transformation of energy through urban ecosystem. This research method is descriptive method, following LEED Certification which is the international standard of the sustainable building, is more widely applied. But there remains problem that the moral imperative of sustainability and by implication of sustainable design, tends to supplant the disciplinary contribution. Sustainable design is not always seen as design excellence or design innovation. This can provoke the skepticism and cause the tension those who promote disciplinary knowledge and those who push for sustainability. The challenges of rapid urbanization and limited of global resources has become more pressing. So, there is a need to find an alternative design approaches. The urban, as the site of complex relation (economy, political, social, cultural), need a complex problem solving that can solve current and future condition. The aim of this study is to discussed about conjoining of ecology such as public park and sustainable design.

Keywords: ecology, cities, urban, sustainability

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3946 Smart Transportation: Bringing Back Sunshine City Harare

Authors: R. Shayamapiki

Abstract:

This study explores the applicability of applying new urbanism principles in cities of developing countries as a panacea towards building sustainable cities through implementing smart transportation. Smart transportation approach to planning has been growing remarkably around the globe in the past decade. In conquest to curb traffic congestion and reducing automobile dependency in the inner-city Harare, Smart Transportation has been a strong drive towards building sustainable cities. Conceptually, Smart Transportation constitutes of principles which include walking, cycling and mass transit. The Smart Transportation approach has been a success story in the cities of developing world but its application in the cities of developing countries has been doubtful. Cities of developing countries being multifaceted with several urban sustainability challenges, the study consolidates that there are no robust policy, legislative and institutional frameworks to govern the application of Smart Transportation in urban planning hence no clear roadway towards its success story. Questions regarding this investigation proliferate to; how capable are cities of developing countries to transform Smart Transportation principles to a success story? What victory can Smart Transportation bring to sustainable urban development? What are constraints of embracing the principles and how can they be manipulated? Methodologically the case study of urban syntax in Harare Central Business District and arterial roads of the city, legislation and institutional settings underpins various research outcomes. The study finds out the hindrances of policy, legislative and institutional incapacities cooked with economic constraints, lack of political will and technically inflexible zoning regulations. The study also elucidates that there is need to adopt a localized approach to Smart Transportation. The paper then calls for strengthening of institutional and legal reform in conquest to embrace the concept, policy and legislative support, feasible financial mechanism, coordination of responsible stakeholders, planning standards and regulatory frameworks reform to celebrate the success story of Smart Transportation in the developing world.

Keywords: inner-city Harare, new urbanism, smart transportation, sustainable cities

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3945 Evaluation of the Spatial Performance of Ancient Cities in the Context of Landscape Architecture

Authors: Elvan Ender Altay, Zeynep Pirselimoglu Batman, Murat Zencirkiran

Abstract:

Ancient cities are, according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), landscape areas designed and created by people, at the same time naturally developing and constantly changing sustainable cultural landscapes. Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands of years ago. The conceptual and spatial traces in ancient cities, are crucial for examining the city history and its preservation. This study is intended to demonstrate the impacts of human life and physical environment on the cultural landscape. This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection. In this context, ancient cities in Bursa were researched and a total of 7 ancient cities were identified. These ancient cities are; Apollonia, Lopadion, Nicaea, Myrleia, Cius, Daskyleion and Basilinopolis. In the next stage, the spatial performances of ancient cities were assessed by weighted criteria method. The highest score is the Nicaea Ancient City. Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until our day due to lack of interest in these areas. As a result, according to the findings, it is a priority to create a protective band with green areas around the archaeological sites, thus adapting to nearby areas and emphasizing culture. In addition, proposals have been made to provide a transportation network that does not harm the ancient cities and the cultural landscape.

Keywords: ancient cities, Bursa, landscape, spatial performance

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3944 Key Factors for a Smart City

Authors: Marta Christina Suciu, Cristina Andreea Florea

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relevance of building smart cities in the context of regional development and to analyze the important factors that make a city smart. These cities could be analyzed through the perspective of environment quality, the socio-cultural condition, technological applications and innovations, the vitality of the economic environment and public policies. Starting with these five sustainability domains, we will demonstrate the hypothesis that smart cities are the engine of the regional development. The aim of this paper is to assess the implications of smart cities, in the context of sustainable development, analyzing the benefits of developing creative and innovative cities. Regarding the methodology, it is used the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data, also descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. In conclusion, we will define a direction on the regional development and competitiveness increasing.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, regional development, smart city, sustainability, triple helix

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3943 Urban Sustainable Development with Flood Crisis Management Approach

Authors: Ali Liaghat, Navid Tavanpour, Nima Tavanpour

Abstract:

An increase in population and prevalence of urbanity have led plan makers and decision makers put effort into sustainable development of cities at national and local levels. One of the important issues in urban development is compliance with safety issues in cities. Despite natural disasters and unexpected events such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, etc., urban development should be regarded as an axiom, or else any form of construction and development is not safe, because it will greatly harm economic growth and development and pose an obstacle to achieving sustainable development, plus a loss to lives and finances of people. Therefore, in line with urban development, it is necessary to identify particular environmental and local issues as determinants and pay attention to them at the top of everything, in that we can call it a good action and factor in urban sustainable developments. Physical structure of each city represents how it has developed or its development shaped and what incidents, changes, natural disasters it has undergone over time. Since any form of development plan should be in accordance with the previous situations of cities, disregarding it, unfortunately, can escalate into uncontrolled urban development, non-resistant and unstable construction against earthquake or invasion of river areas, destruction of agricultural lands or vegetation, periodic floods over time. It has been viewed as serious threats to developing cities, and typically caused destruction of bed and other urban facilities as well as damages to lives and finances. In addition, uncontrolled development has caused cities to look ugly in terms of urban façade, and off and on such unplanned measures caused the country to face countless losses, and it not only vitiates expenses incurred, but it will also impose additional costs of reconstruction, i.e. it is unsustainable development. Thus, in this paper, in addition to a discussion about necessity for a profound attitude toward this subject and making long-term plans, programs for organizing river and its surrounding area, creating open and green urban spaces, retrofitting and flood preventing are presented for sustainable safety and development of cities along with a critique of successful countries.

Keywords: flood, sustainable development, urbanisation, urban management

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3942 Compactness and Quality of Life: Applying Regression Analysis on American Cities

Authors: Hsi-Chuan Wang, Hongxi Yin

Abstract:

Compactness has been proposed as a type of sustainable urban form globally. However, the meanings and the measurements might diverse in regarding to the varying interpretation; moreover, since compactness was proposed to eliminate auto culture and urban sprawl in the developed countries, voices have emerged asking to rethink the suitability of compactness in the developing countries – based upon such understanding, Quality of Life (QOL) has been suggested as a good way to show the overall benefit of compactness. In regarding to such background, two subjects were targeted for discussion in this paper: (I) the meaning and feasibility of compactness between the developing and developed countries, and (II) the interaction between compactness and QOL. This paper argues that compactness should not be considered a universal principle for cities of all kind, but rather an ideal concept for urban designer and planner to consider throughout local practices. It firstly reviewed the benefits of both compactness and sprawl to uncover the features behind these urban forms, and later addressed the meaning and difficulty of adopting compactness in both the developing and developed countries. Secondly, arguing compactness to be positioned as a ‘process’ along the transition from the developing countries to the developed ones, this paper applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to uncover (I) the relationship between compactness and QOL in regarding to 30 American cities and (II) the impact of ‘becoming compact’ on QOL in regarding to 8 identified American Urbanized Areas (UZAs). The findings indicated that higher compactness could link to lower QOL among the compact cities, but with higher QOL among the sprawl cities. In addition, based upon the comparison between 2000 and 2010 on 8 UZAs, their QOL have escalated during the transition from the sprawl areas into the compact ones, but the extent of improvement in QOL could differ greatly among areas. In regarding to our findings, compact development should be proposed as a general guideline leading the contemporary sprawl cities in transition with sustainable urbanism; however, to prevent the externalities from damaging QOL with over-compactness, the compact policy should be flexible to adjust a long-term roadmap for sustainable development.

Keywords: compactness, quality of life, sprawl, sustainable urbanism

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3941 Fire Resilient Cities: The Impact of Fire Regulations, Technological and Community Resilience

Authors: Fanny Guay

Abstract:

Building resilience, sustainable buildings, urbanization, climate change, resilient cities, are just a few examples of where the focus of research has been in the last few years. It is obvious that there is a need to rethink how we are building our cities and how we are renovating our existing buildings. However, the question remaining is how can we assure that we are building sustainable yet resilient cities? There are many aspects one can touch upon when discussing resilience in cities, but after the event of Grenfell in June 2017, it has become clear that fire resilience must be a priority. We define resilience as a holistic approach including communities, society and systems, focusing not only on resisting the effects of a disaster, but also how it will cope and recover from it. Cities are an example of such a system, where components such as buildings have an important role to play. A building on fire will have an impact on the community, the economy, the environment, and so the entire system. Therefore, we believe that fire and resilience go hand in hand when we discuss building resilient cities. This article aims at discussing the current state of the concept of fire resilience and suggests actions to support the built of more fire resilient buildings. Using the case of Grenfell and the fire safety regulations in the UK, we will briefly compare the fire regulations in other European countries, more precisely France, Germany and Denmark, to underline the difference and make some suggestions to increase fire resilience via regulation. For this research, we will also include other types of resilience such as technological resilience, discussing the structure of buildings itself, as well as community resilience, considering the role of communities in building resilience. Our findings demonstrate that to increase fire resilience, amending existing regulations might be necessary, for example, how we performed reaction to fire tests and how we classify building products. However, as we are looking at national regulations, we are only able to make general suggestions for improvement. Another finding of this research is that the capacity of the community to recover and adapt after a fire is also an essential factor. Fundamentally, fire resilience, technological resilience and community resilience are closely connected. Building resilient cities is not only about sustainable buildings or energy efficiency; it is about assuring that all the aspects of resilience are included when building or renovating buildings. We must ask ourselves questions as: Who are the users of this building? Where is the building located? What are the components of the building, how was it designed and which construction products have been used? If we want to have resilient cities, we must answer these basic questions and assure that basic factors such as fire resilience are included in our assessment.

Keywords: buildings, cities, fire, resilience

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3940 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

Abstract:

Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: business, governance, CSR, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 132