Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Search results for: HABIT

109 Using HABIT to Establish the Chemicals Analysis Methodology for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, S. W. Chen, Y. Chiang, W. S. Hsu, J. H. Yang, Y. S. Tseng, C. Shih

Abstract:

In this research, the HABIT analysis methodology was established for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), reports, and other data were used in this study. To evaluate the control room habitability under the CO2 storage burst, the HABIT methodology was used to perform this analysis. The HABIT result was below the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. This indicates that Maanshan NPP habitability can be maintained. Additionally, the sensitivity study of the parameters (wind speed, atmospheric stability classification, air temperature, and control room intake flow rate) was also performed in this research.

Keywords: PWR, HABIT, Habitability, Maanshan

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108 Using HABIT to Estimate the Concentration of CO2 and H2SO4 for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: Y. Chiang, W. Y. Li, J. R. Wang, S. W. Chen, W. S. Hsu, J. H. Yang, Y. S. Tseng, C. Shih

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In this research, the HABIT code was used to estimate the concentration under the CO2 and H2SO4 storage burst conditions for Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and reports were used in this research. In addition, to evaluate the control room habitability for these cases, the HABIT analysis results were compared with the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. The comparison results show that the HABIT results are below the criteria. Additionally, some sensitivity studies (stability classification, wind speed and control room intake rate) were performed in this study.

Keywords: BWR, HABIT, habitability, Kuosheng

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107 Meaningful Habit for EFL Learners

Authors: Ana Maghfiroh

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Learning a foreign language needs a big effort from the learner itself to make their language ability grows better day by day. Among those, they also need a support from all around them including teacher, friends, as well as activities which support them to speak the language. When those activities developed well as a habit which are done regularly, it will help improving the students’ language competence. It was a qualitative research which aimed to find out and describe some activities implemented in Pesantren Al Mawaddah, Ponorogo, in order to teach the students a foreign language. In collecting the data, the researcher used interview, questionnaire, and documentation. From the study, it was found that Pesantren Al Mawaddah had successfully built the language habit on the students to speak the target language. More than 15 hours a day students were compelled to speak foreign language, Arabic or English, in turn. It aimed to habituate the students to keep in touch with the target language. The habit was developed through daily language activities, such as dawn vocabs giving, dictionary handling, daily language use, speech training and language intensive course, daily language input, and night vocabs memorizing. That habit then developed the students awareness towards the language learned as well as promoted their language mastery.

Keywords: habit, communicative competence, daily language activities, Pesantren

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
106 Association between Bottle-Feeding Habit and Occlusal Disorders in Children 4-6 Years Old

Authors: Roberta S. Ilinsky, Livia Eisler, Gustavo Mota, Kurt Faltin Jr., Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of occlusal disorders associated with bottle feeding habits in children aged 4-6 years old. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 466 preschool children aged 4-6 years, attending state preschools in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents and caregivers answered a questionnaire about children’s oral habits, including bottle-feeding habit, and signed the Informed Consent form. The students underwent an oral examination to evaluate occlusal disorders. Data were analyzed by the SPSS 2.2 program (IBM, USA) and treated with non-parametric chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression with a significance level of p < 0.05. There was association between bottle-feeding and occlusal disorders (OR = 3.058, 95% CI = 1.561-5.991, PI < 0.001), with a higher significance for anterior open bite (OR = 2.855, 95% CI = 1.769-4.606, PI < 0.001) and canine class II (OR = 0.667, 95% CI = 0.449-0.990, PI < 0.045). There was no relationship between bottle-feeding habit and other occlusal disorders examined. It was possible to conclude that children who were bottle fed during childhood are more likely to develop occlusal disorders, especially anterior open bite and canine class II.

Keywords: anterior open-bite, bottle-feeding, habits, malocclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
105 Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahbobeh Gholipour

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Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.

Keywords: hypertension, north of Iran, dietary intake, weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
104 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

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The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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103 Expectation-Confirmation Model of Information System Continuance: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hui-Min Lai, Chin-Pin Chen, Yung-Fu Chang

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The expectation-confirmation model (ECM) is one of the most widely used models for evaluating information system continuance, and this model has been extended to other study backgrounds, or expanded with other theoretical perspectives. However, combining ECM with other theories or investigating the background problem may produce some disparities, thus generating inaccurate conclusions. Habit is considered to be an important factor that influences the user’s continuance behavior. This paper thus critically examines seven pairs of relationships from the original ECM and the habit variable. A meta-analysis was used to tackle the development of ECM research over the last 10 years from a range of journals and conference papers published in 2005–2014. Forty-six journal articles and 19 conference papers were selected for analysis. The results confirm our prediction that a high effect size for the seven pairs of relationships was obtained (ranging from r=0.386 to r=0.588). Furthermore, a meta-analytic structural equation modeling was performed to simultaneously test all relationships. The results show that habit had a significant positive effect on continuance intention at p<=0.05 and that the six other pairs of relationships were significant at p<0.10. Based on the findings, we refined our original research model and an alternative model was proposed for understanding and predicting information system continuance. Some theoretical implications are also discussed.

Keywords: Expectation-confirmation theory, Expectation-confirmation model, Meta-analysis, meta-analytic structural equation modeling.

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
102 The Antecedents of Continued Usage on Social-Oriented Virtual Communities Based on Automaticity Mechanism

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng

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In recent years, the number of social-oriented virtual communities users has increased significantly. Corporate investment in advertising on social-oriented virtual communities increases quickly. With the gigantic commercial value of the digital market, competitions between virtual communities are keen. In this context, how to retain existing customers to continue using social-oriented virtual communities is an urgent issue for virtual community managers. This study employs the perspective of automaticity mechanism and combines the social embeddedness theory with the literature of involvement and habit in order to explore antecedents of users’ continuous usage on social-oriented virtual communities. The results can be a reference for scholars and managers of social-oriented virtual communities.

Keywords: continued usage, habit, social embeddedness, involvement, virtual community

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
101 Breeding Cotton for Annual Growth Habit: Remobilizing End-of-season Perennial Reserves for Increased Yield

Authors: Salman Naveed, Nitant Gandhi, Grant Billings, Zachary Jones, B. Todd Campbell, Michael Jones, Sachin Rustgi

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Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the primary source of natural fiber in the U.S. and a major crop in the Southeastern U.S. Despite constant efforts to increase the cotton fiber yield, the yield gain has stagnated. Therefore, we undertook a novel approach to improve the cotton fiber yield by altering its growth habit from perennial to annual. In this effort, we identified genotypes with high-expression alleles of five floral induction and meristem identity genes (FT, SOC1, FUL, LFY, and AP1) from an upland cotton mini-core collection and crossed them in various combinations to develop cotton lines with annual growth habit, optimal flowering time and enhanced productivity. To facilitate the characterization of genotypes with the desired combinations of stacked alleles, we identified markers associated with the gene expression traits via genome-wide association analysis using a 63K SNP Array (Hulse-Kemp et al. 2015 G3 5:1187). Over 14,500 SNPs showed polymorphism and were used for association analysis. A total of 396 markers showed association with expression traits. Out of these 396 markers, 159 mapped to genes, 50 to untranslated regions, and 187 to random genomic regions. Biased genomic distribution of associated markers was observed where more trait-associated markers mapped to the cotton D sub-genome. Many quantitative trait loci coincided at specific genomic regions. This observation has implications as these traits could be bred together. The analysis also allowed the identification of candidate regulators of the expression patterns of these floral induction and meristem identity genes whose functions will be validated via virus-induced gene silencing.

Keywords: cotton, GWAS, QTL, expression traits

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100 Rapid Inventory of Terrestrial Ferns and Lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (Cedar), Impalutao, Impasug-Ong Bukidnon, Philippines

Authors: Diobein Flores, Venus Buagas, Virgie Darunday

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The study inventoried the species composition of terrestrial ferns and lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (CEDAR) Impalutao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Specifically, it aimed to determine and describe the species composition, and diagnostic characters of the ferns and lycopods in the study site. Transect walk method was employed in the inventory of the species. Each species were classified, identified and described according to its diagnostic characters. Results of the study revealed a total of 20 species of ferns and lycopods. Of these, 18 species were ferns and 2 species were lycopods. Eleven (11) families and fifteen (15) genera for ferns and one (1) family and one (1) genera for lycopods. Psomiocarpa apifolia is Philippine endemic and said to be vulnerable or threatened. Taxonomic characters based on habit, rhizome, leaf arrangement and orientation, stem structure and circinate vernation were used to identify the terrestrial pteridophtyes into families, genera and species. The species collected and assessment in CEDAR should be further investigated and monitor their conservation status.

Keywords: alpha taxonomy, conservation, habit, taxonomic characters

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99 Food and Feeding Habit of Clarias anguillaris in Tagwai Reservoir, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: B. U. Ibrahim, A. Okafor

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Sixty-two (62) samples of Clarias anguillaris were collected from Tagwai Reservoir and used for the study. 29 male and 33 female samples were obtained for the study. Body measurement indicated that different sizes were collected for the study. Males, females and combined sexes had standard length and total length means of 26.56±4.99 and 31.13±6.43, 27.17±5.21 and 30.62±5.43, 26.88±5.08 and 30.86±5.88 cm, respectively. The weights of males, females and combined sexes have mean weights of 241.10±96.27, 225.75±78.66 and 232.93±86.95 gm, respectively. Eight items; fish, insects, plant materials, sand grains, crustaceans, algae, detritus and unidentified items were eaten as food by Clarias anguilarias in Tagwai Reservoir. Frequency of occurrence and numerical methods used in stomach contents analysis indicated that fish was the highest, followed by insect, while the lowest was the algae. Frequency of stomach fullness of Clarias anguillaris showed low percentage of empty stomachs or stomachs without food (21.00%) and high percentage of stomachs with food (79.00%), which showed high abundance of food and high feeding intensity during the period of study. Classification of fish based on feeding habits showed that Clarias anguillaris in this study is an omnivore because it consumed both plant and animal materials.

Keywords: stomach content, feeding habit, Clarias anguillaris, Tagwai Reservoir

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98 Validity and Reliability of Lifestyle Measurement of the LSAS among Recurrent Stroke Patients in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Meida Laely Ramdani, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito

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Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health. Measurement of lifestyle behaviors is necessary for the identification of causal associations between unhealthy lifestyle and health outcomes. There was many instruments have been measured for lifestyle, but not specific for stroke recurrence. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire of Lifestyle Adjustment Scale (LSAS) among recurrent stroke patients in Indonesia and to measure the reliability and validity of LSAS. The instrument consist of 33 items was developed from the responses of 30 recurrent stroke patients with the maximum age 60 years. Data was collected during October to November 2015. The properties of the instrument were evaluated by validity assessment and reliability measures. The content validity was judged adequate by a panel of five experts, with the result of I-CVI was 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure the reliability of LSAS. The result showed that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.819. LSAS were classified under the domains of dietary habit, smoking habit, physical activity, and stress management. The results of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each subscale were 0.60, 0.39, 0.67, 0.65 and 0.76 respectively. LSAS instrument was valid and reliable therefore can be used as research tool among recurrent stroke patients. The development of this questionnaire has been adapted to the socio-cultural context in Indonesia.

Keywords: LSAS, recurrent stroke patients, lifestyle, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
97 Research on Detection of Web Page Visual Salience Region Based on Eye Tracker and Spectral Residual Model

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang, Chunhua Jia

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Web page has been one of the most important way of knowing the world. Humans catch a lot of information from it everyday. Thus, understanding where human looks when they surfing the web pages is rather important. In normal scenes, the down-top features and top-down tasks significantly affect humans’ eye movement. In this paper, we investigated if the conventional visual salience algorithm can properly predict humans’ visual attractive region when they viewing the web pages. First, we obtained the eye movement data when the participants viewing the web pages using an eye tracker. By the analysis of eye movement data, we studied the influence of visual saliency and thinking way on eye-movement pattern. The analysis result showed that thinking way affect human’ eye-movement pattern much more than visual saliency. Second, we compared the results of web page visual salience region extracted by Itti model and Spectral Residual (SR) model. The results showed that Spectral Residual (SR) model performs superior than Itti model by comparison with the heat map from eye movements. Considering the influence of mind habit on humans’ visual region of interest, we introduced one of the most important cue in mind habit-fixation position to improved the SR model. The result showed that the improved SR model can better predict the human visual region of interest in web pages.

Keywords: web page salience region, eye-tracker, spectral residual, visual salience

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
96 A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Test Habit Formation Theory for Low Intensity Physical Exercise Promotion in Older Adults

Authors: Jerry Suls, Ciaran Friel, Mark Butler, Patrick Robles, Samantha Gordon, Frank Vicari, Joan Duer-Hefele, Karina W. Davidson

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Physical activity guidelines focus on increasing moderate intensity activity for older adults, but adherence to recommendations remains low. This is despite the fact that scientific evidence supports that any increase in physical activity is positively correlated with health benefits. Behavior change techniques (BCTs) have demonstrated effectiveness in effectiveness in reducing sedentary behavior and promoting physical activity. This pilot study uses a Personalized Trials (N-of-1) design to evaluate the efficacy of using five behavioral change techniques to promote an increase in low-intensity physical activity (2,000 steps of walking per day) in adults aged 45-75 years old. The 5 BCTs, described in habit formation theory, are goal setting, action planning, rehearsal, rehearsal in a consistent context and self-monitoring. The study recruited health system employees in the target age range, without mobility restrictions and demonstrating interest in increasing their daily activity by a minimum of 2,000 steps per day at least five days per week. Participants were sent a Fitbit Charge 4 fitness tracker with an established study account and password. Participants were recommended to wear the Fitbit device 24/7, but were required to wear it for a minimum of ten hours per day. Baseline physical activity was measured by the Fitbit for two weeks. Participants then engaged with a clinical research coordinator to establish a “walking plan” that included a time and day interval (e.g between 7am -8am on Monday-Friday), a location for the walk (e.g. park), and a duration of time necessary to achieve a minimum of 2,000 steps over their baseline average step count (20 minutes). All elements of the walking plan were required to remain consistent throughout the study. In the 10-week intervention phase of the study, participants received all five BCTs in a single, time- sensitive text message. The text message was delivered 30 minutes prior to the established walk time and signaled participants to begin walking when the context (i.e. day of week, time of day) they pre-selected is encountered. Participants were asked to log both the start and conclusion of their activity session by pressing a button on the Fitbit tracker. Within 30 minutes of the planned conclusion of the activity session, participants received a text message with a link to a secure survey. Here, they noted whether they engaged in the BCTs when prompted and completed an automaticity survey to identify how “automatic” their walking behavior had become. At the end of their trial, participants received a personalized summary of their step data over time to help them learn more about their responses to the five BCTs. Whether the use of these 5 ‘habit formation’ BCTs in combination elicits a change in physical activity behavior among older adults will be reported. This study will inform the feasibility of N-of-1 study design to effectively promote physical activity as a component of healthy aging.

Keywords: aging, exercise, habit, walking

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95 Antecedents of Regret and Satisfaction in Electronic Commerce

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Chuang-Chun Liu

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Online shopping has become very popular recently. In today’s highly competitive online retail environment, retaining existing customers is a necessity for online retailers. This study focuses on the antecedents and consequences of Internet buyer regret and satisfaction in the online consumer purchasing process. This study examines the roles that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) and alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) play in determining buyer regret and satisfaction in e-commerce. The study also examines the consequences of regret, satisfaction and habit in regard to repurchase intention. In addition, this study attempts to investigate the moderating role of habit in attaining a better understanding of the relationship between repurchase intention and its antecedents. Survey data collected from 431 online customers are analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) and support provided for the hypothesized links. These results indicate that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) have significant influences on regret and satisfaction, which in turn influences repurchase intention. In addition, alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) has a significant positive influence on regret. The research model can provide a richer understanding of online customers’ repurchase behavior and contribute to both research and practice.

Keywords: online shopping, purchase evaluation, regret, satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
94 Healthy Lifestyle and Quality of Life in Carintia Region, Slovenia

Authors: Pirjo Kaakinen, Helvi Kyngäs, Danica Železnik

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People live longer than earlier and healthy lifestyle is one of the important issue to prevent functional inability and chronic disease. Aim of this study was describe the lifestyle changes of Carintia region’s people. The study was cross-sectional study. Data were collected by questionnaire in two period, first May 2013 (N=63) and on March 2014 (N=77) at the University of College of ‘Health Sciences Slovenj Gradec’. The study was part of project ‘Choose a healthy lifestyle - an investment for the future’. The questionnaire included self-estimated questions about physical activity, nutrition, grocery habit, smoking habit and alcohol use. Participants were measured clinical parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, BMI. Most of participants were women (61%) and they were over 60 years old (64%). Participants have a high BMI (75%) and elevated blood pressure (64%). However, almost all participants (89%) had normal blood glucose level. Slightly more than half of participants (54%) have normal cholesterol level. Participants (83%) eat breakfast in the morning and most of them have three or four daily meals. Fruit and vegetable consumption decrease during this study. Half of participants (51%) drank a litre of water per day and popular beverage was coffee or tea. To drink carbonate beverages was not so popular over 60 year’s old participants than younger one. There was less smokers in 2014 than 2013. Intensity of daily physical activity increased during healthy lifestyle project. The most popular form of physical activity was hiking. This study showed that the project can be effective in the Carintia region’s people lifestyle changes even it was short time. People did changes in their daily life and there were a positive influence physical activity, meal frequency, fruit, vegetable and alcohol consumption. In the future is needed the follow up study to get out longitudinal lifestyle changes.

Keywords: adults, healthy lifestyle, health education, quality of life

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93 Correlations among Their Characteristics and Determination of Some Morphological Characteristics of Perennial Ryegrass Genotypes

Authors: Abdullah Özköse, Ahmet Tamkoç

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This study aimed to determine some plant characteristics of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes collected from the natural flora of Ankara and correlations between these characteristics. In order to evaluate for breeding purposes according to Turkey's environmental conditions, perennial ryegrass plants collected from natural pasture of Ankara at 2004 were utilized. The collected seeds of plants were sown in pots and seedlings were prepared in greenhouse. Seedlings were transplanted to the experimental field at 50x50 cm intervals in Randomized Complete Blocks Design in 2005. Data were obtained from the observations and measurements of 568 perennial ryegrasses in 2007 and 2008. Perennial ryegrass plants’ in the spring re-growth time, color, density, growth habit, tendency to inflorescences, time of inflorescence, plant height, length of upper internode, spike length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf shape, number of spikelets per spike, seed yield per spike, and 1000 grain weight were investigated and correlation analyses were made on the data. Correlation coefficients were estimated between all paired combinations of the traits. The yield components exhibited varying trends of association among themselves. Seed yield per spike showed significant and positive association with number of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight, plant height, length of upper internode, spike length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and color, but significant and negative association with growth habit and in the spring re-growth time spring.

Keywords: correlation, morphological traits, Lolium perenne

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92 Intelligent Process and Model Applied for E-Learning Systems

Authors: Mafawez Alharbi, Mahdi Jemmali

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E-learning is a developing area especially in education. E-learning can provide several benefits to learners. An intelligent system to collect all components satisfying user preferences is so important. This research presents an approach that it capable to personalize e-information and give the user their needs following their preferences. This proposal can make some knowledge after more evaluations made by the user. In addition, it can learn from the habit from the user. Finally, we show a walk-through to prove how intelligent process work.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, architecture, e-learning, software engineering, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
91 The Challenges of Unemployment Situation and Trends in Nigeria

Authors: Simon Oga Egboja

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In Africa, particularly in Nigeria, unemployment is a serious issue of concern to every citizen. Hence, this paper focuses on the employment situation and trends in Nigeria. It also investigated the causes why unemployment persists in the country. Prominent among them is the population explosion and rapid expansion of education opportunities all over the country without a corresponding increase in industrial establishment. The paper also discusses the way of reducing the rate of unemployment by encouraging graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria to read professional courses and also to indulge in the habit of establishing small-scale enterprises so that after them school they can be self-employed rather than relying solely on government for employment.

Keywords: causes, population, remedy, unemployment

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90 Colonialism and Modernism in Architecture, the Case of a Blank Page Opportunity in Casablanka

Authors: Nezha Alaoui

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The early 1950s French colonial context in Morocco provided an opportunity for architects to question the modernist established order by building dwellings for the local population. The dwellings were originally designed to encourage Muslims to adopt an urban lifestyle based on local customs. However, the inhabitants transformed their dwelling into a hybrid habitation. This paper aims to prove the relevance of the design process in accordance with the local colonial context by analyzing the dwellers' appropriation process and the modification of their habitat.

Keywords: colonial heritage, appropriation process, islamic spatial habit, housing experiment, modernist mass housing

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89 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha

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Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: adolescents, NCDs, overweight, obesity

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88 Association between Cholesterol Levels and Atopy among Adolescents with and without Sufficient Amount of Physical Activity

Authors: Keith T. S. Tung, H. W. Tsang, Rosa S. Wong, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip

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Objectives: Atopic diseases are increasingly prevalent among children and adolescents, both locally and internationally. One of the possible contributing factors could be the hypercholesterolemia which leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and other immune cells that would eventually promote inflammatory responses, including augmentation of toll-like receptor (TLR). Meanwhile, physical activity is well known for its beneficial effects against the condition of hypercholesterolemia and incidence of atopic diseases. This study, therefore, explored whether atopic diseases were associated with increased cholesterol levels and whether physical activity habit influenced this association. Methods: This is a sub-study derived from the longitudinal cohort study which recruited a group of children at five years of age in Kindergarten 3 (K3) to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, adolescents (average age: 13 years old) were asked to report their physical activity habit and history of any atopic diseases. During health assessment, peripheral blood samples were collected from the adolescents to study their lipid profile [total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol]. Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Results: Among the 315 adolescents, 99 (31.4%) reported to have allergic rhinitis. There were 45 (14.3%) with eczema, 17 (5.4%) with a food allergy, and 12 (3.8%) with asthma. Regression analyses showed that adolescents with a history of any type of atopic diseases had significantly higher total cholesterol (B=13.3, p < 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (B=7.9, p < 0.05) levels. Further subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the effect of physical activity level on the association between atopic diseases and cholesterol levels. We found stronger associations among those who did not meet the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activities each day (total cholesterol: B=15.5, p < 0.01; LDL cholesterol: B=10.4, p < 0.05). For those who met this recommendation, the associations between atopic diseases and cholesterol levels became insignificant. Conclusion: Our study results support the current research evidence on the relationship between an elevated level of cholesterol and atopic diseases. More importantly, our results provide preliminary support for the protective effect of regular exercises against elevated cholesterol level due to atopic diseases. The findings highlight the importance of a healthy lifestyle for keeping cholesterol levels in the normal range, which can bring benefits to both physical and mental health.

Keywords: atopic diseases, Chinese adolescents, cholesterol level, physical activity

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87 Effects of Low Subscription Fares and Mobility Management to Promote Public Transport Use: A Case Study of Oyama City, Japan

Authors: Tomohide Azami, Ayako Taniguchi

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Breaking away from the dependence on cars, increasing the number of public transport users, and securing operational revenues have been posing a problem for many cities worldwide. In Oyama City, Japan (population approximately 167,000), the transport share of automobiles is approximately 70% and the transport share of buses is 0.3%. Buses operated by private companies running in the city were withdrawn in 2008. To solve this problem of automobile dependence among citizens, Oyama city introduced low subscription fares (Max 70% discount on all city pass) and used branding to promote public relations (mobility management). In this study, we clarified the characteristics of the implementation process and public relations tools, and analyzed the effects of the policy from two perspectives: changing citizens' awareness and behavior, and maintaining the financial stability of the bus management. As an implementation process, the city decided to introduce low-cost citywide passes and implement mobility management for all citizens in order to break the dependence of citizens on automobiles and promote bus usage. The pass sales period was tentatively set at one year, and the service was extended and continued for two years, and converted to a permanent service due to no revenue loss. As a feature of the mobility management tool, a lifestyle information tabloid was adopted so that all citizens could read it with familiarity, and with the participation of creative directors and designers, three types of tabloids were created and distributed to all 53,000 households in the city three times. As a result of the effectiveness analysis, it was confirmed that the number of pass holders increased 4 times from 118 to 463 (as of March 2022), the number of times pass holders use the bus has increased by 11.5%, and car use has decreased by 27.5%. Those who were not in the habit of using buses are purchasing passes and developing the habit of using buses. With regard to bus management, it was observed that the total annual number of bus passengers increased by 1.1 times and the income from bus service was maintained. In addition, public relations activities have increased awareness of the pass and increased the number of citizens who have become attached to the bus and the city. These results suggest that the combination of introducing a low-cost citywide pass and public relations activities using branding can increase the number of bus users without reducing operating revenues.

Keywords: public transport, subscription fares, bus, mobility management, communication campaign

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86 Habits: Theoretical Foundations and a Conceptual Framework on a Managerial Trap and Chance

Authors: K. Piórkowska

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The overarching aim of the paper is to incorporate the micro-foundations perspective in strategic management and offering possibilities to bridge the macro–micro divide, to review the concept of habits, as well as to propose research findings and directions in terms of further exploring the habit construct and its impact on higher epistemological level phenomena (for instance organizational routines, which is a domain inherently multilevel in nature). To realize this aim, the following sections have been developed: (1) habits’ origins, (2) habits – cognitive constellations, (3) interrelationships between habits and mental representations, intentions, (4) habits and organizational routines, and (5) habits and routines linkages with adaptation. The conclusions that have been made support recent and current studies linking the level of individual heterogeneous agents with the level of macro (organizational) outcomes.

Keywords: behaviorism, habits, micro-foundations, routines

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85 If You Can't Teach Yourself, No One Can

Authors: Timna Mayer

Abstract:

This paper explores the vast potential of self-directed learning in violin pedagogy. Based in practice and drawing on concepts from neuropsychology, the author, a violinist and teacher, outlines five learning principles. Self-directed learning is defined as an ongoing process based on problem detection, definition, and resolution. The traditional roles of teacher and student are reimagined within this context. A step-by-step guide to applied self-directed learning suggests a model for both teachers and students that realizes student independence in the classroom, leading to higher-level understanding and more robust performance. While the value of self-directed learning is well-known in general pedagogy, this paper is novel in applying the approach to the study of musical performance, a field which is currently dominated by habit and folklore, rather than informed by science.

Keywords: neuropsychology and musical performance, self-directed learning, strategic problem solving, violin pedagogy

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84 A Review of Literature for Online Social Network Business Continuance Intention and the Hypotheses Thereof

Authors: Akwesi Assensoh-Kodua

Abstract:

Online Social Networks (OSN) has come and gone, yet the explosion of business activities on such platforms continuous to surge high, giving advantage to the bold entrepreneurs. It is therefore a practical requirement that practitioners and researchers understand the key determinants of costumers’ online social network business activities and continuance intention. An exploratory literature research to examine OSN continuous intention of business participants on OSN revealed that the practice of doing business on social network has come to stay and the following factors are the likely drivers for this new business model: perceived trust, perceived ease of use, confirmation, habit, social norm, perceived behavioural control, expected benefit, and satisfaction are the most probable factors that can lead to online social network (OSN) continuance intention.

Keywords: online social network, continuance intention, business continuance

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83 First Step into a Smoke-Free Life: The Effectivity of Peer Education Programme of Midwifery Students

Authors: Rabia Genc, Aysun Eksioglu, Emine Serap Sarican, Sibel Icke

Abstract:

Today the habit of cigarette smoking is among one of the most important public health concerns because of the health problems it leads to. The most important and hazardous group to use tobacco and tobacco products is adolescents and teenagers. And one of the most effective ways to prevent them from starting to smoke is education. This research is a kind of educational intervention study which was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of peer education on the teenagers' knowledge about smoking. The research was carried out between October 15, 2013 and September 9, 2015 at Ege University Ataturk Vocational Health School. The population of the research comprised of the students that have been studying at Ege University Atatürk Vocational Health School, Midwifery Department (N=390). The peer educator group that would give training on smoking consisted of 10 people, and the peer groups that would be trained were divided into two groups via simple randomization as experimental group (n=185) and control group (n=185). Questionnaire, information evaluation form, and informed consent forms were used as date collection tools. The analysis of the data which were collected in the study was carried out on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 15.0). It was found out that 62.5 % of the students who were in peer educator group had smoked in some period of their lives; however, none of them continued to smoke. When they were asked about their reasons to start smoking, 25% said they just wanted to try it, and 25% of them answered that it was because of their friend groups. When the pre-peer education and post-peer education point averages of peer educator group were evaluated, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the point averages (p < 0.05). When the cigarette use of experimental group and the control group were evaluated, it was clear that 18.2% of the experimental group and 24.2%of the control group still smokes. 9.1% of the experimental group and 14.8% of control group stated that they started smoking because of their friend groups. Among the students who smoke 15.9% of the ones who belongs to the experimental group and 21.9% of the ones who belong to the control group stated they are thinking of quitting smoking. It was clear that there is a significant difference between the pre-education and post-education point averages of experimental group statistically (p ≤ 0.05); however, in terms of control group, there were no significant differences between the pre-test post-test averages statistically. Between the pre-test post-test averages of experimental and control groups there were not any statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). It was found out in the study that the peer education programme is not effective on the smoking habit of Vocational Health School students. When the future studies are being planned in order to evaluate the peer education activity, it can be taken into consideration that the peer education takes a long term and the students in the educator group will be more enthusiastic and a kind of leader in their environment.

Keywords: midwifery, peer, peer education, smoking

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82 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar

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Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: middle class, households, market institutions, transition

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81 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors

Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono

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In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.

Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habit

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80 Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

Authors: Zaky Musyarof, Dwi Yono Sutarto, Dwima Rindy Atika, R. B. Fajriya Hakim

Abstract:

Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem doesn’t well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: association rules, sequential pattern mining, cluster analysis, fuzzy logic, evacuation route

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