Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1635

Search results for: fibernectin expression

1635 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ 30mg.kg-1 combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

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1634 Macronutrients and the FTO Gene Expression in Hypothalamus: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of the existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In conclusion, the level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

Keywords: obesity, gene expression, FTO, macronutrients

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1633 Effect of Extraction Methods on the Fatty Acids and Physicochemical Properties of Serendipity Berry Seed Oil

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka

Abstract:

Serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii diel) is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine and native to tropical Africa. The vine grows during the raining season and is used mainly as sweetener. The sweetener in the berry is known as monellin which is sweeter than sucrose. The sweetener is extracted from the fruits and the seed is discarded. The discarded seeds contain bitter principles but had high yield of oil. Serendipity oil was extracted using three methods (N-hexane, expression and expression/n-hexane). Fatty acids and physicochemical properties of the oil obtained were determined. The oil obtained was clear, liquid and have odour similar to hydrocarbon. The percentage oil yield was 38.59, 12.34 and 49.57% for hexane, expression and expression-hexane method respectively. The seed contained high percentage of oil especially using combination of expression and hexane. Low percentage of oil was obtained using expression method. The refractive index values obtained were 1.443, 1.442 and 1.478 for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively. Peroxide value obtained for expression-hexane was higher than those for hexane and expression. The viscosities of the oil were 125.8, 128.76 and 126.87 cm³/s for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively which showed that the oil from expression method was more viscous than the other oils. The major fatty acids in serendipity seed oil were oleic acid (62.81%), linoleic acid (22.65%), linolenic (6.11%), palmitic acid (5.67%), stearic acid (2.21%) in decreasing order. Oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid had the highest value. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 91.574, 92.256 and 90.426% for hexane, expression, and expression-hexane respectively. Combination of expression and hexane for extraction of serendipity oil produced high yield of oil. The oil could be refined for food and non-food application.

Keywords: serendipity seed oil, expression method, fatty acid, hexane

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1632 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audiovisual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Collective expression activity informs the masses, gives direction to opinions and establishes public opinion. Due to these characteristics, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorisation of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, radio and television supreme council

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1631 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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1630 Expression of Interferon-Lambda Receptor-(IFN-λRα) in Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs) Is Influenced by the Levels of Newly Discovered Type III IFN-λ4 in Vitro

Authors: Hashaam Akhtar

Abstract:

IFNλR1 and IL10R2 collectively construct a heterodimer, which is an acknowledged functional receptor for all type III interferons (IFNs). Expression of IFNλR1 is highly tissue specific, which can help in making type III IFNs a drug of choice as comparable to its analogue, type I IFNs, for treating hepatitis C in the near future. Although, expression of IFNλR1 also varies with the concentration of type I IFNs, but in this study it was shown that the expression of IFNλR1 varies with the protein titers of IFN-α, IFN-λ3 and the newly discovered IFN-λ4. High dosage of IFN-α reduces the expression of IFNλR1 in HepG2 cells, which can affect the antiviral activity of type III IFNs in vivo. We premeditated an experimental strategy to differentiate monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs), type I and type II macrophages in vitro and quantified the expression of the IFNλR1 by qPCR. The exposure of newly discovered IFN-λ4 to macrophages and DCs also raised the expression of its own receptor, which shows that expression of IFN-λ4 protein in hepatitis C patient may augment type I treatment and help ease off viral titers. The results of this study may contribute in some understanding towards the mechanisms involved in the selective expression of IFNLR1 and exceptionalities associated with the receptor.

Keywords: IFNLR1, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFN-λ4), Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs), expression

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1629 MicroRNA 200c-3p Regulates Autophagy Mediated Upregulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC-3 Cells

Authors: Eun Jung Sohn, Hwan Tae Park

Abstract:

Autophagy is a cellular response to stress or environment on cell survival. Here, we investigated the role of ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p in autophagy. Ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p increased the expression of IRE1alpha, ATF6 and CHOP by western blot and RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the level of microRNA 200c-3p was enhanced by treatment of TG or overexpression of GRP 78. Also, ectopic expression of miR200c-3p increased the LC3 II expression by western blot and RT-qPCR. Also, we found that western blot assay showed that miR200c-3p inhibitor was blocked the starvation–induced LC3II levels. Furthermore, starvation stress increased the level of miR200c-3p in different kinetics. Ectopic expression of miR200c-3p attenuated LC3II expression in IRE1 siRNA transfected PC3 cells. Here, we first demonstrate that miR200c-3p regulates autophagy via ER stress pathway.

Keywords: Autophagy, ER stress, LC3II, miR200c-3p

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1628 Finding Bicluster on Gene Expression Data of Lymphoma Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Alhadi Bustaman, Soeganda Formalidin, Titin Siswantining

Abstract:

DNA microarray technology is used to analyze thousand gene expression data simultaneously and a very important task for drug development and test, function annotation, and cancer diagnosis. Various clustering methods have been used for analyzing gene expression data. However, when analyzing very large and heterogeneous collections of gene expression data, conventional clustering methods often cannot produce a satisfactory solution. Biclustering algorithm has been used as an alternative approach to identifying structures from gene expression data. In this paper, we introduce a transform technique based on singular value decomposition to identify normalized matrix of gene expression data followed by Mixed-Clustering algorithm and the Lift algorithm, inspired in the node-deletion and node-addition phases proposed by Cheng and Church based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). Experimental study on standard datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in gene expression data.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), biclustering, gene expression data, lymphoma, singular value decomposition (SVD)

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1627 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law

Authors: Laszlo Vari

Abstract:

In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.

Keywords: collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expression

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1626 Real Time PCR Analysis of microRNA Expression in Oral Cancer

Authors: Karl Kingsley

Abstract:

Many mechanisms are involved in the control of cellular differentiation and growth, which are often dysregulated in many cancers. Many distinct pathways are involved in these mechanisms of control, including deoxyribonuclease (DNA) methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activation that controls both genetic and epigenetic modifications and micro ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression. Less is known about the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and HDAC in oral cancers and the effect on microRNA expression. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of DNMT and HDAC family members in oral cancer and the concomitant expression of cancer-associated microRNAs. Using commercially available oral cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-4, SCC-9, SCC-15, and SCC-25, RNA was extracted and screened for DNMT, HDAC, and microRNA expression using highly-specific primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These data revealed low or absent expression of DNMT-1, which is associated with cellular differentiation but increased expression of DNMT-3a and DNMT-3b in all SCC cell lines compared with normal non-cancerous cell controls. In addition, no expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression was found among the normal, non-cancerous cells but was highly expressed in each of the SCC cell lines examined. Differential expression of oncogenic and cancer-associated microRNAs was also observed among the SCC cell lines, including miR-21, miR-133, miR-149, miR-155, miR-365, and miR-720. These findings also appeared to vary according to observed growth rates among these cells. These data may be the first to demonstrate the expression and association between HDAC and DNMT3 family members among oral cancers. In addition, the differential expression of these epigenetic modifiers may be associated with the expression of specific microRNAs in these cancers, which have not previously been observed to the best of the author's knowledge. In addition, some associations and relationships may exist between the expression of these biomarkers and the rates of growth and proliferation, which may suggest that these expression patterns might represent potentially useful biomarkers to determine tumor aggressiveness and other phenotypic behaviors among oral cancers.

Keywords: oral cancer, DNA methyltransferase, histone deacetylase, microRNA

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1625 Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples

Authors: Reshaa Alruwaili

Abstract:

The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.

Keywords: autonomy, determination theory, expression of love, dyadic adjustment

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1624 Cellular Degradation Activity is Activated by Ambient Temperature Reduction in an Annual Fish (Nothobranchius rachovii)

Authors: Cheng-Yen Lu, Chin-Yuan Hsu

Abstract:

Ambient temperature reduction (ATR) can extend the lifespan of an annual fish (Nothobranchius rachovii), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular-degraded molecules were evaluated in the muscle of N. rachovii reared under high (30 °C), moderate (25 °C), and low (20 °C) ambient temperatures by biochemical techniques. The results showed that (i) the activity of the 20S proteasome, the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (Lamp 2a), and lysosome activity increased with ATR; (ii) the expression of the 70 kD heat shock cognate protein (Hsc 70) decreased with ATR; (iii) the expression of the 20S proteasome, the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein type 1 (Lamp 1), the expression of molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR), the expression of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), and the p-mTOR/mTOR ratio did not change with ATR. These findings indicated that ATR activated the activity of proteasome, macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. Taken together these data reveal that ATR likely activates cellular degradation activity to extend the lifespan of N. rachovii.

Keywords: ambient temperature reduction, autophagy, degradation activity, lifespan, proteasome

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1623 Using Gene Expression Programming in Learning Process of Rough Neural Networks

Authors: Sanaa Rashed Abdallah, Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

The paper will introduce an approach where a rough sets, gene expression programming and rough neural networks are used cooperatively for learning and classification support. The Objective of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is to obtain new classified data with minimum error in training and testing process. Starting point of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is an information system and the output from this approach is a structure of rough neural networks which is including the weights and thresholds with minimum classification error.

Keywords: rough sets, gene expression programming, rough neural networks, classification

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1622 A Novel PfkB Gene Cloning and Characterization for Expression in Potato Plants

Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important cash crop and popular vegetable in Pakistan and throughout the world. Cold storage of potatoes accelerates the conversion of starch into reduced sugars (glucose and fructose). This process causes dry mass and bitter taste in the potatoes that are not acceptable to end consumers. In the current study, the phosphofructokinase B gene was cloned into the pET-30 vector for protein expression and the pCambia-1301 vector for plant expression. Amplification of a 930bp product from an E. coli strain determined the successful isolation of the phosphofructokinase B gene. Restriction digestion using NcoI and BglII along with the amplification of the 930bp product using gene specific primers confirmed the successful cloning of the PfkB gene in both vectors. The protein was expressed as a His-PfkB fusion protein. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35 Kda PfkB protein when hybridized with anti-His antibodies. The construct Fani-01 was evaluated transiently using a histochemical gus assay. The appearance of blue color in the agroinfiltrated area of potato leaves confirmed the successful expression of construct Fani-01. Further, the area displaying gus expression was evaluated for PfkB expression using ELISA. Moreover, PfkB gene expression evaluated through transient expression determined successful gene expression and highlighted its potential utilization for stable expression in potato to reduce sweetening due to long-term storage.

Keywords: potato, Solanum tuberosum, transformation, PfkB, anti-sweetening

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1621 Difference in the Expression of CIRBP, RBM3 and HSP70 in the Myocardium and Cerebellum after Death by Hypothermi a and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We studied the expression of hypoxia-related antigens (e.g., cold-inducible antigens and apoptotic antigens) in the myocardium and the cerebellumthat were obtained from individuals after death by carbon monoxide or hypothermia. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that expression of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding protein 3 (RBM3) may be associated with hpyothermic and the hypoxic conditions. The expression of CIRBP and RBM3 in the myocardium was different from their expression in the cerebellum, especially in the Purkinje cells. The results indicate that agonal duration influences antigen expression. In the hypothermic condition, the myocardium uses more ATP since the force of the excitation-contraction coupling of the myocardium increases by more than 400% when the experimental temperature is reduced from 35°C to 25°C. The results obtained in this study indicate that physicians should pay attention to the myocardium when cooling the patient’s body to protect the brain.

Keywords: carbon monoxide death, cerebellum, CIRBP, hypothermic death, myocardium, RBM3

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1620 Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils in Response to LPS

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover, this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: differential expression, heterophils, cytokines, defensin, TLR

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1619 Design of an Air and Land Multi-Element Expression Pattern of Navigation Electronic Map for Ground Vehicles under United Navigation Mechanism

Authors: Rui Liu, Pengyu Cui, Nan Jiang

Abstract:

At present, there is much research on the application of centralized management and cross-integration application of basic geographic information. However, the idea of information integration and sharing between land, sea, and air navigation targets is not deeply applied into the research of navigation information service, especially in the information expression. Targeting at this problem, the paper carries out works about the expression pattern of navigation electronic map for ground vehicles under air and land united navigation mechanism. At first, with the support from multi-source information fusion of GIS vector data, RS data, GPS data, etc., an air and land united information expression pattern is designed aiming at specific navigation task of emergency rescue in the earthquake. And then, the characteristics and specifications of the united expression of air and land navigation information under the constraints of map load are summarized and transferred into expression rules in the rule bank. At last, the related navigation experiment is implemented to evaluate the effect of the expression pattern. The experiment selects evaluation factors of the navigation task accomplishment time and the navigation error rate as the main index, and make comparisons with the traditional single information expression pattern. To sum up, the research improved the theory of navigation electronic map and laid a certain foundation for the design and realization of united navigation system in the aspect of real-time navigation information delivery.

Keywords: navigation electronic map, united navigation, multi-element expression pattern, multi-source information fusion

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1618 The Role of Family’s Emotional Climate and Emotional Expression Style in Academic Well-Being of Students with Military Parent

Authors: Ala Rakhshandeh, Zahra Ashkar, Solmaz Dehghani Dolatabadi, Hossein Bayat

Abstract:

The present study has been conducted to investigate the role of family emotional climate and emotional expression style in the academic well-being of students with military parents. Children, including 280 female students of Shahriar police officers, were selected by random sampling method, and they have been investigated through Alfred B. Hillburn's family emotional climate questionnaire (1964), King and Ammon's emotional expression questionnaire (1990), and Pitrinen, Sweeney, and Falto's academic well-being questionnaire (2014). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression under the SPSS23 program. The results reveal that the variables of family emotional climate and emotional expression can explain 36.4% of the variance in academic well-being. This finding reveals that with an increase of standard deviation on the scores of family emotional climate and emotional expression, 0.513 and 0.155 standard deviations are added to the scores of academic well-being, respectively. The emotional climate of the family has a superior distinctive role in predicting the educational well-being of female students. Thus, the emotional climate of the family and the style of emotional expression play a meaningful role in the academic well-being of students with the military parent.

Keywords: emotional climate, family, emotional expression style, academic well-being

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1617 Lipopolysaccharide Induced Avian Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed, with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: differential expression, heterophils, cytokines, defensin, TLR

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
1616 Effect of TPA and HTLV-1 Tax on BRCA-1 and ERE Controlled Genes Expression

Authors: Azhar Jabareen, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

BRCA-1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor. The activated ERα is a transcriptional factor which activates various genes either by direct binding to the DNA at E2-responsive elements (EREs) and indirectly associated with a range of alternative non-ERE elements. Interference with BRCA-1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Our lab investigated the involvement of Human T-cell leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) in breast cancer, since HTLV-1 Tax was found to strongly inhibit BRCA-1 expression. In addition, long exposure of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is one of the stress-inducing agents activated the HTLV-1 promoter. So here the involvement of TPA in breast cancer had been examined by testing the effect of TPA on BRCA-1 and ERE expression. The results showed that TPA activated both BRCA-1 and ERE expression. In the 12 hours TPA activated the tow promoters more than others time, and after 24 hours the level of the tow promoters was decreased. Tax inhibited BRCA-1 expression but did not succeed to inhibit the effect of TPA. Then the activation of the two promoters was not through ERα pathway because TPA had no effect on ERα binding to the two promoters of the BRCA-1 and ERE. Also, the activation was not via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway because when the inhibitory of NF-κB had been added to the TPA, it still activated the tow promoters. However, it seems that 53BP1 may be involved in TPA activation of these promoters because ectopic high expression of 53BP1 significantly reduced the TPA activity. In addition, in the presence of Bisindolylmaleimide-I (BI)- the inhibitor of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- there was no activation for the two promoters, so the PKC is agonized BRCA-1 and ERE activation.

Keywords: BRCA-1, ERE, HTLV-1, TPA

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1615 Analysis of Expression Data Using Unsupervised Techniques

Authors: M. A. I Perera, C. R. Wijesinghe, A. R. Weerasinghe

Abstract:

his study was conducted to review and identify the unsupervised techniques that can be employed to analyze gene expression data in order to identify better subtypes of tumors. Identifying subtypes of cancer help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of the treatments by identifying clues to find target therapeutics. Process of gene expression data analysis described under three steps as preprocessing, clustering, and cluster validation. Feature selection is important since the genomic data are high dimensional with a large number of features compared to samples. Hierarchical clustering and K Means are often used in the analysis of gene expression data. There are several cluster validation techniques used in validating the clusters. Heatmaps are an effective external validation method that allows comparing the identified classes with clinical variables and visual analysis of the classes.

Keywords: cancer subtypes, gene expression data analysis, clustering, cluster validation

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1614 Expression Regulation of Membrane Protein by Codon Variation of Amino Acid at N-Terminal Region

Authors: Ahreum Choi, Otgontuya Tsogbadrakh, Kwang-Hwan Jung

Abstract:

Microbial rhodopsins are well-known seven-transmembrane proteins that have been extensively studied. These retinal-binding proteins have divided into two types. The type I is microbial rhodopsin, and type II (visual pigment) is expressed mostly in mammalian eyes. For type I rhodopsin, there are two main functions that are ion pumping activity and sensory transduction. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is one of the microbial rhodopsin with main function as photo-sensory transduction. Although ASR is expressed fairly well in Escherichia coli, the expression level is relatively less compare to Proteorhodopsin. In this study, full length of ASR was used to test for the expression influence by codon usage in E. coli. Eight amino acids of codon at N-terminal part of ASR were changed randomly with designed primers, which allow 8,192 nucleotide different cases. The codon changes were screened for the preferable codons of each residue, which have given higher expression yield. Among those 57 selected mutations, there are 24 color-enhanced E. coli colonies that contain ASR proteins, and it showed better expression level than the wild type ASR codon usage. This strongly suggests that high codon usage of only partial N-terminal of protein can increase the expression level of whole protein.

Keywords: 7-transmembrane, all-trans retinal, rhodopsin, codon-usage, protein expression

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1613 Attenuation of Homocysteine-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Human Monocytes by Fulvic Acid

Authors: Shao-Ju Chien, Yi-Chien Wu, Ting-Ying Huang, Li-Tsen Li, You-Jin Chen, Cheng-Nan Chen

Abstract:

Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA) is class of compounds of humic substances and possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were kept as controls or pre-treated with FA, and then stimulated with homocysteine. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor for nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) attenuated homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibit homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

Keywords: homocysteine, monocytes, cyclooxygenase-2, fulvic acid, anti-inflammation

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1612 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: annotated facial expression dataset, gesture recognition, sequenced facial expression dataset, sign language recognition

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1611 Improved Feature Extraction Technique for Handling Occlusion in Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

Authors: Khadijat T. Bamigbade, Olufade F. W. Onifade

Abstract:

The field of automatic facial expression analysis has been an active research area in the last two decades. Its vast applicability in various domains has drawn so much attention into developing techniques and dataset that mirror real life scenarios. Many techniques such as Local Binary Patterns and its variants (CLBP, LBP-TOP) and lately, deep learning techniques, have been used for facial expression recognition. However, the problem of occlusion has not been sufficiently handled, making their results not applicable in real life situations. This paper develops a simple, yet highly efficient method tagged Local Binary Pattern-Histogram of Gradient (LBP-HOG) with occlusion detection in face image, using a multi-class SVM for Action Unit and in turn expression recognition. Our method was evaluated on three publicly available datasets which are JAFFE, CK, SFEW. Experimental results showed that our approach performed considerably well when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms and gave insight to occlusion detection as a key step to handling expression in wild.

Keywords: automatic facial expression analysis, local binary pattern, LBP-HOG, occlusion detection

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1610 Facial Expression Recognition Using Sparse Gaussian Conditional Random Field

Authors: Mohammadamin Abbasnejad

Abstract:

The analysis of expression and facial Action Units (AUs) detection are very important tasks in fields of computer vision and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) due to the wide range of applications in human life. Many works have been done during the past few years which has their own advantages and disadvantages. In this work, we present a new model based on Gaussian Conditional Random Field. We solve our objective problem using ADMM and we show how well the proposed model works. We train and test our work on two facial expression datasets, CK+, and RU-FACS. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposed approach outperform state of the art expression recognition.

Keywords: Gaussian Conditional Random Field, ADMM, convergence, gradient descent

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1609 ALDH1A1 as a Cancer Stem Cell Marker: Value of Immunohistochemical Expression in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Authors: H. M. Abdelmoneim, N. A. Babtain, A. S. Barhamain, A. Z. Kufiah, A. S. Malibari, S. F. Munassar, R. S. Rawa

Abstract:

Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in men in developed countries. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) could be responsible for the progression and relapse of cancer. Therefore, CSCs markers could provide a prognostic strategy for human malignancies. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and proposed to represent a functional marker for tumor initiating cells in various tumor types including prostate cancer. Material & Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma and assessed their significant correlations in 50 TURP sections. They were microscopically interpreted and the results were correlated with histopathological types and tumor grade. Results: In different prostatic histopathological lesions we found that ALDH1A1 expression was low in BPH (13.3%) and PIN (6.7%) and then its expression increased with prostatic adenocarcinoma (40%), and this was statistically highly significant (P value = 0.02). However, in different grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma we found that the higher the Gleason grade the higher the expression for ALDH1A1 and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.02). We compared the expression of ALDH1A1 in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma. ALDH1A1 expression was decreased in PIN and highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma and this was statistically significant (P value = 0.04). Conclusion: Increasing ALDH1A1 expression is correlated with aggressive behavior of the tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 might provide a potential approach to study tumorigenesis and progression of primary prostate carcinoma.

Keywords: ALDH1A1, BPH, PIN, prostatic adenocarcinoma

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1608 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

Abstract:

Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cells

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1607 Social Media and Political Expression: Examining Affordances and Spiral of Silence Theories

Authors: Mustafa Oz

Abstract:

This study compares how do people express their opinions on the Facebook versus on Twitter. It was sought to understand whether people were more willing to express their opinions on some social media channels than others. It was assumed that fear of isolation and affordances may influence users’ opinion expression behaviors on social media websites. Thus two most popular social media websites, Twitter and Facebook, were compared. This study aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of political expression on social media platforms. An online survey (N=535) was conducted to understand respondents’ opinion expression behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people were more likely to express their opinion on Twitter than Facebook when they think the majority does not support their opinion. The study concluded that people operate differently on Facebook versus Twitter.

Keywords: social media, spiral of silence, affordances, political expression

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1606 Low SPOP Expression and High MDM2 expression Are Associated with Tumor Progression and Predict Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors: Chang Liang, Weizhi Gong, Yan Zhang

Abstract:

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with a high mortality rate and poor prognosis worldwide. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) regulates the tumor suppressor p53, increasing cancer risk and accelerating tumor progression. Speckle-type POX virus and zinc finger protein (SPOP), a key of subunit of Cullin-Ring E3 ligase, inhibits tumor genesis and progression by the ubiquitination of its downstream substrates. This study aimed to clarify whether SPOP and MDM2 are mutually regulated in HCC and the correlation between SPOP and MDM2 and the prognosis of HCC patients. Methods: First, the expression of SPOP and MDM2 in HCC tissues were detected by TCGA database. Then, 53 paired samples of HCC tumor and adjacent tissues were collected to evaluate the expression of SPOP and MDM2 using immunohistochemistry. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the relationship between clinicopathological features and the expression levels of SPOP and MDM2. In addition, Kaplan‒Meier curve analysis and log-rank test were used to investigate the effects of SPOP and MDM2 on the survival of HCC patients. Last, the Multivariate Cox proportional risk regression model analyzed whether the different expression levels of SPOP and MDM2 were independent risk factors for the prognosis of HCC patients. Results: Bioinformatics analysis revealed the low expression of SPOP and high expression of MDM2 were related to worse prognosis of HCC patients. The relationship between the expression of SPOP and MDM2 and tumor stem-like features showed an opposite trend. The immunohistochemistry showed the expression of SPOP protein was significantly downregulated while MDM2 protein significantly upregulated in HCC tissue compared to that in para-cancerous tissue. Tumors with low SPOP expression were related to worse T stage and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, but tumors with high MDM2 expression were related to worse T stage, M stage, and BCLC stage. Kaplan–Meier curves showed HCC patients with high SPOP expression and low MDM2 expression had better survival than those with low SPOP expression and high MDM2 expression (P < 0.05). A multivariate Cox proportional risk regression model confirmed that a high MDM2 expression level was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in HCC patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SPOP protein was significantly downregulated, while the expression of MDM2 significantly upregulated in HCC. The low expression of SPOP and high expression. of MDM2 were associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis of HCC patients, indicating a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, murine double minute 2, speckle-type POX virus and zinc finger protein, ubiquitination

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