Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: TRPV1

6 Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

Authors: Jun Yang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin


Chronic inflammatory pain results from peripheral tissue injury or local inflammation to increase the release of protons, histamines, adenosine triphosphate, and several proinflammatory cytokines. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in fibromyalgia, neuropathic, and inflammatory pain; however, its exact mechanisms in chronic inflammatory pain are still unclear. We investigate the analgesic effect of EA by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw of mice to induce chronic inflammatory pain ( > 14 d). Our results showed that EA significantly reduced chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic inflammatory pain model. Chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was also abolished in TRPV1−/− mice. TRPV1 increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 weeks after CFA injection. The expression levels of downstream molecules such as pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC increased, as did those of pERK, pp38, and pJNK. Transcription factors (pCREB and pNFκB) and nociceptive ion channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8) were involved in this process. Inflammatory mediators such as GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein), S100B, and RAGE (Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) were also involved. The expression levels of these molecules were reduced in EA (electroacupuncture) and TRPV1−/−mice but not in the sham EA group. The present study demonstrated that EA or TRPV1 gene deletion reduced chronic inflammatory pain through TRPV1 and related molecules. In addition, our data provided evidence to support the clinical use of EA for treating chronic inflammatory pain.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation, electroacupuncture

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5 The Effect and Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture on Motion Sickness in Mice

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Yi-Wen Lin


Motion sickness (MS) is an acute disorder that occurs in healthy persons without considering gender, age or ethnicity worldwide. All signs and symptoms of MS are the results of confliction and mismatch among neural signal inputs. It is known that no singular remedy works for everybody, and electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the popular alternative therapies used for MS. Our study utilized a mouse model in order to exclude any psychological factors of MS and EA. Mice lack an emetic reflex. Therefore pica behavior, which is a normal consumption of non-nutritive substances, was found to measure the response of MS in mice. In the laboratory, Kaolin was used as a non-nutrient food substance instead of natural substances lacking nutritional value such as wood, cloth, charcoal, soil or grass. It was hypothesized that EA treatment could reduce the symptoms of MS through the TRPV1 pathways. The results of pica behavior showed a significantly increased intake of kaolin in the MS group throughout the experiment period. Moreover, the Kaolin intake of the EA group decreased to the average baseline of the control group. There was no recorded difference in the food and water intake of each group. The results indicated an increase of the TRPV1, pERK, pJNK and pmTOR protein levels in the thalamus after MS stimulation, and a significant decrease in the EA group compared with that of the control group. These findings suggest that TRPV1 pathways are associated in MS mechanisms and can be reduced by EA.

Keywords: electroacupuncture, motion sickness, Thalamus, TRPV1

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4 The Effects of Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Weight Control in Mice Model

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin


Obesity (OB) is a hazardous global health problem that has been increasing in prevalence, more severely in last decade. It is the mainly resultant from the imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure, which is concordant with a modern lifestyle, implying an increase in calories with poorer quality of food intake accompanied by a decrease in physical activities. Obesity does not concern the appearance only but is also a major factor contributing to poor physiology, psychology, society and economic issues. Moreover, OB induces low-grade inflammation in the body through the regulatory effect it enacts on the adipocyte function. Various alternative treatments were investigated for body weight control, including Acupoint Catgut Embedding (ACE). ACE is the implantation of absorbable catgut sutures at specific acupoints, displaying durable and potent stimulation and thereby reducing the treatment frequency. Our study utilized a mouse model to exclude any psychological factors of OB and ACE treatment. High-fat diet and body weight were measured once a week before subjects in ACE and Sham group received the ACE treatment or placebo treatment. We hypothesized that ACE can control body weight through the interaction of the TRPV1 pathways, as TRPV1 accordingly responds to inflammatory factors. The results of body weight variation show a significant decrease in body weight in ACE group compared with the baseline of control and Sham group. Meanwhile, converse results were explored in TRPV1 knockout mice, where a significant maintenance of normal body weight throughout the experiment period was observed. There was no significant difference in food consumption of each group. These finding indicated that TRPV1 pathways and its associated pathways may be involved in the maintenance of body weight, which can be controlled by ACE treatment of genetic manipulation.

Keywords: acupoint catgut embedding, obesity, hypothalamus, TRPV1

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3 The Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Murine Fibromyalgia Model

Authors: Bernice Jeanne Lottering, Yi-Wen Lin


Introduction: Chronic pain has a definitive lack of objective parameters in the measurement and treatment efficacy of diseases such as Fibromyalgia (FM). Persistent widespread pain and generalized tenderness are the characteristic symptoms affecting a large majority of the global population, particularly females. This disease has indicated a refractory tendency to conventional treatment ventures, largely resultant from a lack of etiological and pathogenic understanding of the disease development. Emerging evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the amplification of pain signals and the neurotransmitters associated therewith. Various stimuli have been found to activate the channels existent on nociceptor terminals, thereby actuating nociceptive impulses along the pain pathways. The transient receptor potential vanalloid 1 (TRPV1) channel functions as a molecular integrator for numerous sensory inputs, such as nociception, and was explored in the current study. Current intervention approaches face a multitude challenges, ranging from effective therapeutic interventions to the limitation of pathognomonic criteria resultant from incomplete understanding and partial evidence on the mechanisms of action of FM. It remains unclear whether electroacupuncture (EA) plays an integral role in the functioning of the TRPV1 pathway, and whether or not it can reduce the chronic pain induced by FM. Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the activation and modulation of the TRPV1 channel pathway in a cold stress model of FM applied to a murine model. Furthermore, the effect of EA in the treatment of mechanical and thermal pain, as expressed in FM was also to be investigated. Methods: 18 C57BL/6 wild type and 6 TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice, aged 8-12 weeks, were exposed to an intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like pain model, with or without EA treatment at ZusanLi ST36 (2Hz/20min) on day 3 to 5. Von Frey and Hargreaves behaviour tests were implemented in order to analyze the mechanical and thermal pain thresholds on day 0, 3 and 5 in control group (C), FM group (FM), FM mice with EA treated group (FM + EA) and FM in KO group. Results: An increase in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the FM, EA and KO groups when compared to the control group. This initial increase was reduced in the EA group, which directs focus at the treatment efficacy of EA in nociceptive sensitization, and the analgesic effect EA has attenuating FM associated pain. Discussion: An increase in the nociceptive sensitization was observed through higher withdrawal thresholds in the von Frey mechanical test and the Hargreaves thermal test. TRPV1 function in mice has been scientifically associated with these nociceptive conduits, and the increased behaviour test results suggest that TRPV1 upregulation is central to the FM induced hyperalgesia. This data was supported by the decrease in sensitivity observed in results of the TRPV1 KO group. Moreover, the treatment of EA showed a decrease in this FM induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA at bilateral ST36. This evidence compellingly implies that the analgesic effect of EA is associated with TRPV1 downregulation.

Keywords: fibromyalgia, electroacupuncture, TRPV1, nociception

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2 Acupoint Injection of High Concentration of Glucose Attenuates Mice Chronic Pain and Depression Comorbidity

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Yi-Wen Lin


Inflammation causes changes of peripheral and central nervous system properties, affecting both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, resulting in inflammatory pain. Acupoint injection (AI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely used for relieving pain. It is an acupoint-stimulating technique that utilizes anatomically based meridians derived from Chinese medicine theory. AI has been accepted as an effective treatment and is thought to display superior results when compared to traditional acupuncture methods. However, the mechanism of AI needs to be ratified by more scientific evidence in order to support the theory and its therapeutic development. In this study, we explored the effect of AI on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. Mice hindpaw was injected by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce the condition of chronic pain. Measurements of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and depression-like behavior were analyzed. The results indicated a positive tendency to AI treatment. The comorbidity of chronic pain and depression was investigated with relation to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) mechanism through the use of TRPV1 gene deletion. The expression of nociceptors such as voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) or TRPV1, was significantly down-regulated by AI. The expression of inflammation-activated molecules: astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the microglial marker Iba-1, S100B, and related kinases, were reversed by AI in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Taken together, these data provided a detailed molecular mechanism of AI-induced analgesia and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may be utilized for clinical practice to treat chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: inflammatory pain, acupoint injection, TRPV1, GFAP, S100B

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1 Reduction of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 for Chronic Pain and Depression Co-Morbidity through Electroacupuncture and Gene Deletion in Mice Brain

Authors: Bernice Lottering, Yi-Wen Lin


Chronic pain and depression have an estimated 80% rate of comorbidity with unsatisfactory treatment interventions signifying the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions for a serious chronic condition affecting a large majority of the global population. Chronic pain is defined as persistent pain presenting for over 3 months. This disease state increases the risk of developing depression in comparison to healthy individuals. In the current study, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce cell-mediated chronic inflammatory pain in a murine model. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was induced, alongside observable depression-like behaviors. These conditions were attenuated through the use of electroacupuncture (EA). Similarly, these effects were also investigated with respect to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), by analyzing the effects of TRPV1 gene deletion on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. The expression of the TRPV1 inflammatory response, and related downstream molecules, including protein kinases (PKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transcriptional factors, were significantly reduced in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of CFA-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 was also found to be reduced in the aforementioned areas, suggesting potential application and validity in a clinical setting. Our study determined the prospective therapeutic effects of EA in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain and depression comorbidity and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia. These findings may be relevant in the utilization of clinical intervention approaches related to chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: chronic pain, depression, NMDA, prefrontal cortex, TRPV1

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