Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4344

Search results for: dissipation factor

4344 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi


This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: VPI, resin rich, insulation, stator bar, dissipation factor, voltage endurance

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4343 An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid

Authors: Celal Kocatepe, Eyup Taslak, Celal Fadil Kumru, Oktay Arikan


While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, dielectric dissipation factor, mineral oil, vegetable oils

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4342 Offline High Voltage Diagnostic Test Findings on 15MVA Generator of Basochhu Hydropower Plant

Authors: Suprit Pradhan, Tshering Yangzom


Even with availability of the modern day online insulation diagnostic technologies like partial discharge monitoring, the measurements like Dissipation Factor (tanδ), DC High Voltage Insulation Currents, Polarization Index (PI) and Insulation Resistance Measurements are still widely used as a diagnostic tools to assess the condition of stator insulation in hydro power plants. To evaluate the condition of stator winding insulation in one of the generators that have been operated since 1999, diagnostic tests were performed on the stator bars of 15 MVA generators of Basochhu Hydropower Plant. This paper presents diagnostic study done on the data gathered from the measurements which were performed in 2015 and 2016 as part of regular maintenance as since its commissioning no proper aging data were maintained. Measurement results of Dissipation Factor, DC High Potential tests and Polarization Index are discussed with regard to their effectiveness in assessing the ageing condition of the stator insulation. After a brief review of the theoretical background, the strengths of each diagnostic method in detecting symptoms of insulation deterioration are identified. The interesting results observed from Basochhu Hydropower Plant is taken into consideration to conclude that Polarization Index and DC High Voltage Insulation current measurements are best suited for the detection of humidity and contamination problems and Dissipation Factor measurement is a robust indicator of long-term ageing caused by oxidative degradation.

Keywords: dissipation Factor (tanδ), polarization Index (PI), DC High Voltage Insulation Current, insulation resistance (IR), Tan Delta Tip-Up, dielectric absorption ratio

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4341 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers

Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru


In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity

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4340 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa


Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, response modification factor, non-linear time history

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4339 Boundary Motion by Curvature: Accessible Modeling of Oil Spill Evaporation/Dissipation

Authors: Gary Miller, Andriy Didenko, David Allison


The boundary of a region in the plane shrinks according to its curvature. A simple algorithm based upon this motion by curvature performed by a spreadsheet simulates the evaporation/dissipation behavior of oil spill boundaries.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, oil, evaporation, dissipation, boundary

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4338 Statistical Estimation of Ionospheric Energy Dissipation Using ØStgaard's Empirical Relation

Authors: M. A. Ahmadu, S. S. Rabia


During the past few decades, energy dissipation in the ionosphere resulting from the geomagnetic activity has caused an increasing number of major disruptions of important power and communication services, malfunctions and loss of expensive facilities. Here, the electron precipitation energy, w(ep) and joule heating energy, w(jh) was used in the computation of this dissipation using Østgaard’s empirical relation from hourly geomagnetic indices of 2012, under the assumption that the magnetosphere does not store any energy, so that at the beginning of the activity t1=0 and end at t2=t, the statistical results obtained show that ionospheric dissipation varies month to month, day to day and hour to hour and estimated with a value ~3.6 w(ep), which is in agreement with experimental result.

Keywords: Ostgaard's, ionospheric dissipation, joule heating, electron precipitation, geomagnetic indices, empirical relation

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4337 Dissipation of Tebuconazole in Cropland Soils as Affected by Soil Factors

Authors: Bipul Behari Saha, Sunil Kumar Singh, P. Padmaja, Kamlesh Vishwakarma


Dissipation study of tebuconazole in alluvial, black and deep-black clayey soils collected from paddy, mango and peanut cropland of tropical agro-climatic zone of India at three concentration levels were carried out for monitoring the water contamination through persisted residual toxicity. The soil-slurry samples were analyzed by capillary GC-NPD methods followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique and cleanup process. An excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1 to 50 μgkg-1. The detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) limits were 3 and 10 μgkg-1 respectively. Well spiked recoveries were achieved from 96.28 to 99.33 % at levels 5 and 20 μgkg-1 and method precision (% RSD) was ≤ 5%. The soils dissipation of tebuconazole was fitted in first order kinetic-model with half-life between 34.48 to 48.13 days. The soil organic-carbon (SOC) content correlated well with the dissipation rate constants (DRC) of the fungicide Tebuconazole. An increase in the SOC content resulted in faster dissipation. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon and tebuconazole concentrations plays dominant role in dissipation processes. The initial concentration illustrated that the degradation rate of tebuconazole in soils was concentration dependent.

Keywords: cropland soil, dissipation, laboratory incubation, tebuconazole

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4336 Improvement of Heat Dissipation Ability of Polyimide Composite Film

Authors: Jinyoung Kim, Jinuk Kwon, Haksoo Han


Polyimide is widely used in electronic industries, and heat dissipation of polyimide film is important for its application in electric devices for high-temperature resistance heat dissipation film. In this study, we demonstrated a new way to increase heat dissipating rate by adding carbon black as filler. This type of polyimide composite film was produced by pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA). Carbon black (CB) is added in different loading, shows increasing heat dissipation rate for increase of Carbon black. The polyimide-carbon black composite film is synthesized with high dissipation rate to ~8W∙m−1K−1. Its high thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature were maintained with carbon filler verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), the polyimidization reaction of polyi(amide-mide) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The polyimide composite film with carbon black with high heat dissipating rate could be used in various applications such as computers, mobile phone industries, integrated circuits, coating materials, semiconductor etc.

Keywords: polyimide, heat dissipation, electric device, filler

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4335 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, super elastic effect, nitinol, energy dissipation

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4334 Dielectric Response Analysis Measurement for Diagnostic Oil-Paper Insulation System on Aged Inter Bus Transformer 3x10 MVA

Authors: Eki Farlen, Akas


Condition assessment of oil-paper-insulated power transformers, particularly of water content, is becoming increasingly important for aged transformers. As insulation ages, it can produce water, which reduces its dielectric strength, accelerates the cellulose ageing process, and causes gas bubbles to form at high temperatures. This paper mainly assesses the life condition of oil-paper insulation system of Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) 30 MVA, 150/30 kV in PT PLN-Substation Jelok that has been operating for 41 years, since 1974. Valuable information about the condition of high voltage insulation may be obtained by measuring its dielectric response. This paper describes in detail the interpretation of Dielectric Response Analysis (DIRANA) measurements and the test result compared to other insulation tests to get deep information for diagnostic, such as Tan delta test, oil characteristic test and Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA) test. This paper mainly discusses the parameter relationship between moisture content, water content, acidity, oil conductivity and dissipation factor. The result and analysis show that IBT 30 MVA Jelok phase U and W had just been ageing due to high acidity level (>0.2 mgKOH/g) which cause high moisture in cellulose/paper (%) are in wet category about 4.7% and 5% and water content in oil (ppm) about 3.13 ppm and 3.33 ppm at temperature 20°C. High acidity level can make oxidation process and produce water in paper and particle which can decrease the value of Interfacial Tension (IFT) below 22 mN/m (poor category) for both phase U and W. Even if paper insulation of transformer are in wet condition, dissipation factor and capacitance at the same frequency (50 Hz) from both measurement DIRANA test and Tangent delta test give the same result (almost), the results are 0.69% and 0.71% (<1%), it may be acceptable and should not be investigated. The DGA results show that TDCG are in level one (1) condition and there are no found a Key Gases, it means that transformers had no failure during operation like arching, partial discharge and thermal in oil or cellulose.

Keywords: diagnostic, inter-bus transformer, oil-paper insulation, moisture, dissipation factor

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4333 Numerical Investigation of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Microtube with Viscous Dissipation Effect

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Hossein Shokouhmand, Mohammad Kalteh, Behrang Hasanpour


In this paper, nanofluid conjugate heat transfer through a microtube with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. The fluid flow is considered as a laminar regime. A constant heat flux is applied on the microtube outer wall and the two ends of its wall are considered adiabatic. Conjugate heat transfer problem is solved and investigated for this geometry. It is shown that viscous dissipation effect which is induced by shear stresses can not be neglected in microtubes. Viscous heating behaves as an energy source in the fluid and affects the temperature distribution. The effect of Reynolds number, particle volume fraction and the nanoparticles diameter on the energy source are investigated and an attempt on establishing suitable equations for assessing the value of the energy source based on Re, Dp and Φ is performed and they are depicted as 3D diagrams. Finally, the significance of viscous dissipation and the influence of these parameters on convective heat transfer coefficient are studied.

Keywords: convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer, microtube, nanofluid, viscous dissipation

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4332 Zero-Dissipative Explicit Runge-Kutta Method for Periodic Initial Value Problems

Authors: N. Senu, I. A. Kasim, F. Ismail, N. Bachok


In this paper zero-dissipative explicit Runge-Kutta method is derived for solving second-order ordinary differential equations with periodical solutions. The phase-lag and dissipation properties for Runge-Kutta (RK) method are also discussed. The new method has algebraic order three with dissipation of order infinity. The numerical results for the new method are compared with existing method when solving the second-order differential equations with periodic solutions using constant step size.

Keywords: dissipation, oscillatory solutions, phase-lag, Runge-Kutta methods

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4331 Modelling of Polymeric Fluid Flows between Two Coaxial Cylinders Taking into Account the Heat Dissipation

Authors: Alexander Blokhin, Ekaterina Kruglova, Boris Semisalov


Mathematical model based on the mesoscopic theory of polymer dynamics is developed for numerical simulation of the flows of polymeric liquid between two coaxial cylinders. This model is a system of nonlinear partial differential equations written in the cylindrical coordinate system and coupled with the heat conduction equation including a specific dissipation term. The stationary flows similar to classical Poiseuille ones are considered, and the resolving equations for the velocity of flow and for the temperature are obtained. For solving them, a fast pseudospectral method is designed based on Chebyshev approximations, that enables one to simulate the flows through the channels with extremely small relative values of the radius of inner cylinder. The numerical analysis of the dependance of flow on this radius and on the values of dissipation constant is done.

Keywords: dynamics of polymeric liquid, heat dissipation, singularly perturbed problem, pseudospectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, stabilization technique

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4330 Transient Performance Analysis of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar


In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GIJLT)has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP)transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor(TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and Gate-all-around junctionless transistor(GAA-JLT) have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product

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4329 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy


The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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4328 Comprehensive Experimental Study to Determine Energy Dissipation of Nappe Flows on Stepped Chutes

Authors: Abdollah Ghasempour, Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Majid Galoie


This study has investigated the fundamental parameters which have effective role on energy dissipation of nappe flows on stepped chutes in order to estimate an empirical relationship using dimensional analysis. To gain this goal, comprehensive experimental study on some large-scale physical models with various step geometries, slopes, discharges, etc. were carried out. For all models, hydraulic parameters such as velocity, pressure, water depth, flow regime and etc. were measured precisely. The effective parameters, then, could be determined by analysis of experimental data. Finally, a dimensional analysis was done in order to estimate an empirical relationship for evaluation of energy dissipation of nappe flows on stepped chutes. Because of using the large-scale physical models in this study, the empirical relationship is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: nappe flow, energy dissipation, stepped chute, dimensional analysis

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4327 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Taghvamanesh


So far several methods by different researchers have been developed in order to calculate the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Ny (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Ny depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. Many empirical definitions have been used for measurement of the bearing capacity factors N

Keywords: bearing capacity, bearing capacity factor Nγ, irregular foundations, shape factor

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4326 Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Height and Rate of Fluid Flow on a Stepped Spillway

Authors: Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Abbas Saki


Stepped spillways are composed of several steps, which start from around the spillway crest and continue to the downstream heel. Recently, such spillways have been receiving increasing attention due to the significant effect of the associated stairs on the flow’s rate of energy dissipation. Energy dissipation in the stepped spillways across the overflow can be explained by the watercourse contact with the stairs (i.e., large, harsh surfaces). In this context, less energy must be dissipated at the end of the spillway, and, hence, a smaller (less expensive) energy-dissipating structure is required. In this study, a stepped spillway was simulated using the model Fluent 3, and a standard model was used to model the flow disturbance. For this purpose, the energy dissipation from the stepped spillway was investigated in terms of the different numbers of stairs involved. Using k-ε, the disturbances of the numerical method for velocity and of flow depth at the downstream overflow were obtained, and, then, the energy that was dissipated throughout the spillway was calculated. Our results showed that an increase in the number of stairs can considerably increase the amount of energy dissipation for the fixed, upstream energy. In addition, the results of the numerical analyses were provided as isobar and velocity curves so points that were sensitive to cavitation could be determined.

Keywords: stepped spillway, fluent software, turbulence model of k-ε, VOF model

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4325 Bubbling in Gas Solids Fluidization at a Strouhal Number Tuned for Low Energy Dissipation

Authors: Chenxi Zhang, Weizhong Qian, Fei Wei


Gas solids multiphase flow is common in many engineering and environmental applications. Turbulence and multiphase flows are two of the most challenging topics in fluid mechanics, and when combined they pose a formidable challenge, even in the dilute dispersed regime. Dimensionless numbers are important in mechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. In the fluid mechanics literature, the Strouhal number is usually associated with the dimensionless shedding frequency of a von Karman wake; here we introduce this dimensionless number to investigate bubbling in gas solids fluidization. St=fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). The bubble behavior in a large two-dimensional bubbling fluidized bed (500mm×30mm×6000mm) is investigated. Our result indicates that propulsive efficiency is high and energy dissipation is low over a narrow range of St and usually within the interval 0.2Keywords: bubbles, Strouhal number, two-phase flow, energy dissipation

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4324 Effects of Viscous Dissipation on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow towards a Horizontal Circular Cylinder

Authors: Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Anuar Ishak, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md Noar


In this study, the numerical investigation of viscous dissipation on convective boundary layer flow towards a horizontal circular cylinder with constant wall temperature is considered. The transformed partial differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number and the skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number and Eckert number are analyzed and discussed. The results in this paper is original and important for the researchers working in the area of boundary layer flow and this can be used as reference and also as complement comparison purpose in future.

Keywords: free convection, horizontal circular cylinder, viscous dissipation, convective boundary layer flow

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4323 Response Reduction Factor for Earthquake Resistant Design of Special Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Rohan V. Ambekar, Shrirang N. Tande


The present study estimates the seismic response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall using static nonlinear (pushover) analysis. Calculation of response reduction factor (R) is done as per the new formulation of response reduction factor (R) given by Applied Technology Council (ATC)-19 which is the product of strength factor (Rs), ductility factor (Rµ) and redundancy factor (RR). The analysis revealed that these three factors affect the actual value of response reduction factor (R) and therefore they must be taken into consideration while determining the appropriate response reduction factor to be used during the seismic design process. The actual values required for determination of response reduction factor (R) is worked out on the basis of pushover curve which is a plot of base shear verses roof displacement. Finally, the calculated values of response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall are compared with the codal values.

Keywords: response reduction factor, ductility ratio, base shear, special moment resisting frames

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4322 CIPP Evaluation of Online Broadcasting of Suan Dusit Rajabhat University

Authors: Somkiat Korbuakaew, Winai Mankhatitham, Anchan Chongcharoen, Wichar Kunkum


This research’s objective is to evaluate the online broadcasting of Suan Dusit Rajabhat Univeristy by CIPP model. The evaluation was separated into 4 parts: context factor, input factor, process factor and product factor. Sample group in this research were 399 participants who were university’s executive, staff and students. Questionnaires and interview were the research tools. Data were analyzed by computer program. Statistics used here were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Findings are as follows: 1. Context factor: The context factor here in this research was university’s executives, staff and students. The study shows that they would like to use online broadcasting to be the educational tool and IT development. 2. Input factor: The input factor was the modern IT equipment to create interesting teaching materials and develop education in general. 3. Process factor: The process factor in this study was the publication of the program that it should be promoted more among students and should be more objective. 4. Product factor: The product factor in this study was the purpose of the program that it expands the educational channel for students.

Keywords: evaluation, project, internet, online broadcasting

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4321 An Improved Single Point Closure Model Based on Dissipation Anisotropy for Geophysical Turbulent Flows

Authors: A. P. Joshi, H. V. Warrior, J. P. Panda


This paper is a continuation of the work carried out by various turbulence modelers in Oceanography on the topic of oceanic turbulent mixing. It evaluates the evolution of ocean water temperature and salinity by the appropriate modeling of turbulent mixing utilizing proper prescription of eddy viscosity. Many modelers in past have suggested including terms like shear, buoyancy and vorticity to be the parameters that decide the slow pressure strain correlation. We add to it the fact that dissipation anisotropy also modifies the correlation through eddy viscosity parameterization. This recalibrates the established correlation constants slightly and gives improved results. This anisotropization of dissipation implies that the critical Richardson’s number increases much beyond unity (to 1.66) to accommodate enhanced mixing, as is seen in reality. The model is run for a couple of test cases in the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the results are presented here.

Keywords: Anisotropy, GOTM, pressure-strain correlation, Richardson critical number

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4320 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad


In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: cavity expansion method, excess pore pressure, pile driving, slope failure

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4319 Modern Seismic Design Approach for Buildings with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Vanessa A. Segovia, Sonia E. Ruiz


The use of energy dissipation systems for seismic applications has increased worldwide, thus it is necessary to develop practical and modern criteria for their optimal design. Here, a direct displacement-based seismic design approach for frame buildings with hysteretic energy dissipation systems (HEDS) is applied. The building is constituted by two individual structural systems consisting of: 1) A main elastic structural frame designed for service loads and 2) A secondary system, corresponding to the HEDS, that controls the effects of lateral loads. The procedure implies to control two design parameters: A) The stiffness ratio (α=K_frame/K_(total system)), and B) The strength ratio (γ= V_damper / V_(total system)). The proposed damage-controlled approach contributes to the design of a more sustainable and resilient building because the structural damage is concentrated on the HEDS. The reduction of the design displacement spectrum is done by means of a damping factor (recently published) for elastic structural systems with HEDS, located in Mexico City. Two limit states are verified: Serviceability and near collapse. Instead of the traditional trial-error approach, a procedure that allows the designer to establish the preliminary sizes of the structural elements of both systems is proposed. The design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel building with buckling restrained braces, located in soft soil of Mexico City. With the aim of choosing the optimal design parameters, a parametric study is developed considering different values of α and γ. The simplified methodology is for preliminary sizing, design, and evaluation of the effectiveness of HEDS, and it constitutes a modern and practical tool that enables the structural designer to select the best design parameters.

Keywords: damage-controlled buildings, direct displacement-based seismic design, optimal hysteretic energy dissipation systems, hysteretic dampers

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4318 Numerical Modeling of Flow in USBR II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope

Authors: Hamidreza Babaali, Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Saba Soori


Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increase energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) II stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model is verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m3/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used to optimize of stilling basins.‎

Keywords: experimental and numerical modelling, end adverse slope, flow ‎parameters, USBR II stilling basin

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4317 Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Framed Structure with Steel Bracing and Supplemental Energy Dissipation

Authors: Swanand Patil, Pankaj Agarwal


In past few decades, seismic performance objectives have shifted from earthquake resistance to earthquake resilience of the structures, especially for the lifeline buildings. Features such as negligible post-earthquake damage and replaceable damaged components, makes energy dissipating systems a valid choice for a seismically resilient building. In this study, various energy dissipation devices are applied on an eight-storey moment resisting RC building model. The energy dissipating devices include both hysteresis-based and viscous type of devices. The seismic response of the building is obtained for different positioning and mechanical properties of the devices. The investigation is carried forward to the deficiently ductile RC frame also. The performance assessment is done on the basis of drift ratio, mode shapes and displacement response of the model structures. Nonlinear dynamic analysis shows largely improved displacement response. The damping devices improve displacement response more efficiently in the deficient ductile frames than that in the perfectly moment resisting frames. This finding is important considering the number of deficient buildings in India and the world. The placement and mechanical properties of the dampers prove to be a crucial part in modelling, analyzing and designing of the structures with supplemental energy dissipation.

Keywords: earthquake resilient structures, lifeline buildings, retrofitting of structures, supplemental energy dissipation

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4316 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Boundary Layer Flow Past A Stretching Plate with Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Tsadu Shuaib, Yusuf Abdulhakeem


The research work focuses on the cases of MHD boundary layer flow past a stretching plate with heat transfer and viscous dissipation. The non-linear of momentum and energy equation are transform into ordinary differential equation by using similarity transformation, the resulting equation are solved using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). An attempt has been made to show the potentials and wide range application of the Adomian decomposition method in the comparison with the previous one in solving heat transfer problems. The Pade approximates value (η= 11[11, 11]) is use on the difficulty at infinity. The results are compared by numerical technique method. A vivid conclusion can be drawn from the results that ADM provides highly precise numerical solution for non-linear differential equations. The result where accurate especially for η ≤ 4, a general equating terms of Eckert number (Ec), Prandtl number (Pr) and magnetic parameter ( ) is derived which was used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in boundary layer.

Keywords: MHD, Adomian decomposition, boundary layer, viscous dissipation

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4315 Contribution at Dimensioning of the Energy Dissipation Basin

Authors: M. Aouimeur


The environmental risks of a dam and particularly the security in the Valley downstream of it,, is a very complex problem. Integrated management and risk-sharing become more and more indispensable. The definition of "vulnerability “concept can provide assistance to controlling the efficiency of protective measures and the characterization of each valley relatively to the floods's risk. Security can be enhanced through the integrated land management. The social sciences may be associated to the operational systems of civil protection, in particular warning networks. The passage of extreme floods in the site of the dam causes the rupture of this structure and important damages downstream the dam. The river bed could be damaged by erosion if it is not well protected. Also, we may encounter some scouring and flooding problems in the downstream area of the dam. Therefore, the protection of the dam is crucial. It must have an energy dissipator in a specific place. The basin of dissipation plays a very important role for the security of the dam and the protection of the environment against floods downstream the dam. It allows to dissipate the potential energy created by the dam with the passage of the extreme flood on the weir and regularize in a natural manner and with more security the discharge or elevation of the water plan on the crest of the weir, also it permits to reduce the speed of the flow downstream the dam, in order to obtain an identical speed to the river bed. The problem of the dimensioning of a classic dissipation basin is in the determination of the necessary parameters for the dimensioning of this structure. This communication presents a simple graphical method, that is fast and complete, and a methodology which determines the main features of the hydraulic jump, necessary parameters for sizing the classic dissipation basin. This graphical method takes into account the constraints imposed by the reality of the terrain or the practice such as the one related to the topography of the site, the preservation of the environment equilibrium and the technical and economic side.This methodology is to impose the loss of head DH dissipated by the hydraulic jump as a hypothesis (free design) to determine all the others parameters of classical dissipation basin. We can impose the loss of head DH dissipated by the hydraulic jump that is equal to a selected value or to a certain percentage of the upstream total head created by the dam. With the parameter DH+ =(DH/k),(k: critical depth),the elaborate graphical representation allows to find the other parameters, the multiplication of these parameters by k gives the main characteristics of the hydraulic jump, necessary parameters for the dimensioning of classic dissipation basin.This solution is often preferred for sizing the dissipation basins of small concrete dams. The results verification and their comparison to practical data, confirm the validity and reliability of the elaborate graphical method.

Keywords: dimensioning, energy dissipation basin, hydraulic jump, protection of the environment

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