Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: ST toxoid

3 Prediction and Identification of a Permissive Epitope Insertion Site for St Toxoid in cfaB from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Authors: N. Zeinalzadeh, Mahdi Sadeghi

Abstract:

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of non-inflammatory diarrhea in the developing countries, resulting in approximately 20% of all diarrheal episodes in children in these areas. ST is one of the most important virulence factors and CFA/I is one of the frequent colonization factors that help to process of ETEC infection. ST and CfaB (CFA/I subunit) are among vaccine candidates against ETEC. So, ST because of its small size is not a good immunogenic in the natural form. However to increase its immunogenic potential, here we explored candidate positions for ST insertion in CfaB sequence. After bioinformatics analysis, one of the candidate positions was selected and the chimeric gene (cfaB*st) sequence was synthesized and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The chimeric recombinant protein was purified with Ni-NTA columns and characterized with western blot analysis. The residue 74-75 of CfaB sequence could be a good candidate position for ST and other epitopes insertion.

Keywords: bioinformatics, CFA/I, enterotoxigenic E. coli, ST toxoid

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2 Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Clostridium botulinum Types B Vaccine Candidate

Authors: Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Kichan Lee, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

Abstract:

Botulism is a paralytic disease of human beings and animals caused by neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxins are genetically distinguished into 8 types, A to H. Ingestion of performed toxin, usually types B, C, and D, have been shown to produce diseases in most cases of cattle botulism. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent cattle botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. We produced recombinant protein using gene of heavy chain domain of botulinum toxin B of which binds to cellular receptor of neuron cells and used as immunogen. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of botulism vaccine composed of recombinant types B. Safety test was done by National Regulation for Veterinary Biologicals. For efficacy test, female ICR mice (5 weeks old) were subcutaneously injected, intraperitoneally challenged, and examined the survival rates compared with vaccination and non-vaccination group. Mouse survival rate of recombinant types B vaccine was above 80%, while one of non-vaccination group was 0%. A vaccine composed of recombinant types B was safe and efficacious in mouse. Our results suggest that recombinant heavy chain receptor binding domain can be used as an effective vaccine candidate for type B botulism.

Keywords: botulism, livestock, vaccine, recombinant protein, toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1 Lessons Learned from Push-Plus Implementation in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Aisha Giwa, Mohammed-Faosy Adeniran, Olufunke Femi-Ojo

Abstract:

Four decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The EPI blueprint laid out the technical and managerial functions necessary to routinely vaccinate children with a limited number of vaccines, providing protection against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, polio, and tuberculosis, and to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus by vaccinating women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid. Despite global efforts, the Routine Immunization (RI) coverage in two of the World Health Organization (WHO) regions; the African Region and the South-East Asia Region, still remains short of its targets. As a result, the WHO Regional Director for Africa declared 2012 as the year for intensifying RI in these regions and this also coincided with the declaration of polio as a programmatic emergency by the WHO Executive Board. In order to intensify routine immunization, the National Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (2013-2015) stated that its core priority is to ensure 100% adequacy and availability of vaccines for safe immunization. To achieve 100% availability, the “PUSH System” and then “Push-Plus” were adopted for vaccine distribution, which replaced the inefficient “PULL” method. The NPHCDA plays the key role in coordinating activities in area advocacy, capacity building, engagement of 3PL for the state as well as monitoring and evaluation of the vaccine delivery process. eHealth Africa (eHA) is a player as a 3PL service provider engaged by State Primary Health Care Boards (SPHCDB) to ensure vaccine availability through Vaccine Direct Delivery (VDD) project which is essential to successful routine immunization services. The VDD project ensures the availability and adequate supply of high-quality vaccines and immunization-related materials to last-mile facilities. eHA’s commitment to the VDD project saw the need for an assessment of the project vis-a-vis the overall project performance, evaluation of a process for necessary improvement suggestions as well as general impact across Kano State (Where eHA had transitioned to the state), Bauchi State (currently manage delivery to all LGAs except 3 LGAs currently being managed by the state), Sokoto State (eHA currently covers all LGAs) and Zamfara State (Currently, in-sourced and managed solely by the state).

Keywords: cold chain logistics, health supply chain system strengthening, logistics management information system, vaccine delivery traceability and accountability

Procedia PDF Downloads 57