Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

# Search results for: Debjani Chakraborty

##### 57 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Abstract:

Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem. Downloads 229
##### 56 Imperfect Production Inventory Model with Inspection Errors and Fuzzy Demand and Deterioration Rates

Abstract:

Our work presents an inventory model which illustrates imperfect production and imperfect inspection processes for deteriorating items. A cost-minimizing model is studied considering two types of inspection errors, namely, Type I error of falsely screening out a proportion of non-defects, thereby passing them on for rework and Type II error of falsely not screening out a proportion of defects, thus selling those to customers which incurs a penalty cost. The screened items are reworked; however, no returns are entertained due to deteriorating nature of the items. In more practical situations, certain parameters such as the demand rate and the deterioration rate of inventory cannot be accurately determined, and therefore, they are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers in our model. We calculate the optimal lot size that must be produced in order to minimize the total inventory cost for both the crisp and the fuzzy models. A numerical example is also considered to exemplify the procedure which is followed by the analysis of sensitivity of various parameters on the decision variable and the objective function. Downloads 115
##### 55 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Abstract:

Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products. Downloads 120
##### 54 Descent Algorithms for Optimization Algorithms Using q-Derivative

Abstract:

In this paper, Newton-like descent methods are proposed for unconstrained optimization problems, which use q-derivatives of the gradient of an objective function. First, a local scheme is developed with alternative sufficient optimality condition, and then the method is extended to a global scheme. Moreover, a variant of practical Newton scheme is also developed introducing a real sequence. Global convergence of these schemes is proved under some mild conditions. Numerical experiments and graphical illustrations are provided. Finally, the performance profiles on a test set show that the proposed schemes are competitive to the existing first-order schemes for optimization problems. Downloads 319
##### 53 An Approach to Make Low-Cost Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ankit Chakraborty, Raj Shah, Prayas Variya

Abstract:

Self-compacting geo-polymer concrete is a blended version of self-compacting concrete developed in Japan by Okamura. H. in 1986 and geo-polymer concrete proposed by Davidovits in 1999. This method is eco-friendly as there is low CO₂ emission and reduces labor cost due to its self-compacting property and zero percent cement content. We are making an approach to reduce concreting cost and make concreting eco-friendly by replacing cement fully and sand by a certain amount of industrial waste. It will reduce overall concreting cost due to its self-compatibility and replacement of materials, forms eco-friendly concreting technique and gives better fresh property and hardened property results compared to self-compacting concrete and geo-polymer concrete. Downloads 151
##### 52 Visibility as a Catalyst for Driving LGBT-Inclusive Growth in India: Rethinking the Diversity and Inclusion Model

Authors: Koel Chakraborty

Abstract:

This paper critically examines the role of ‘disclosure and visibility’ of sexual minorities in a heteronormative organizational setting. The paper wishes to comment on the importance of promoting ‘visibility’ as an important catalyst in increasing the efficacy of outreach programs as part of diversity management practices as well as increasing the efficacy of teams. The aim of the research is to assess the pitfalls of not bringing ‘one’s authentic or whole self’ to work. In doing so, it will address whether Inclusive Leadership at the top propels employees to come out. The paper finally discusses and recommends strategies that could be helpful toward attaining and improving the visibility factor at a cross-functional level. This is a qualitative research with interviews and surveys conducted in inclusive workplace environments across various private sector companies in India.

##### 51 Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area

Authors: S. Dey, P. Sibanda, S. Gupta, A. Chakraborty

Abstract:

The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime. Downloads 192
##### 50 High Prevalence of Multi-drug Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among Hospitalised Diarrheal Patients in Kolkata, India

Abstract:

Acute diarrhoea caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is one of the major public health problem in developing countries, mainly in Asia and Africa. DEC consists of six pathogroups, but the majority of the cases were associated with the three pathogropus, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Hence, we studied the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of these three major DEC pathogroups in hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India, during 2012-2019 with a large sample size. 8,891 stool samples were processed, and 7.8% of them was identified as DEC infection screened by multiplex PCR, in which ETEC was most common (47.7%) followed by EAEC (38.4%) and EPEC (13.9%). Clinical patient history suggested that children <5 years of age were mostly affected with ETEC and EAEC, whereas people within >5-14 years of age were significantly associated with EPEC and ETEC infections. Antibiogram profile showed a high prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates among DEC (56.9%), in which 9% were resistant to antibiotics of six different antimicrobial classes. Screening of the antibiotic resistance conferring genes in DEC showed the presence of blaCTX-M (30.2%) in highest number followed by blaTEM (27.5%), tetB (18%), sul2 (12.6%), strA (11.8%), aadA1 (9.8%), blaOXA-1 (9%), dfrA1 (1.6%) and blaSHV (1.2%) which indicates the existence of mobile genetic elements in those isolates. Therefore, the presence of MDR DEC strains in higher number alarms the public health authorities to take preventive measures before the upsurge of the DEC caused diarrhea cases in near future.

Keywords: diarrheagenic escherichia coli, ETEC, EAEC, EPEC

##### 49 Functional Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Life sketches of Functional Illnesses (Non-Organic) in West Bengal, India

Authors: Urmita Chakraborty

Abstract:

To start with, Organic Illnesses are no longer considered as only health difficulties. Functional Illnesses that are emotional in origin have become the search areas in many investigations. In the present study, an attempt has made to study the psychological nature of Functional Gastro-Intestinal Disorders (FGID) in West Bengal. In the specialty of Gastroenterology, the medically unexplained symptom-based conditions are known as Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder (FGID). In the present study, Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) have been taken for investigations. 72 cases have been discussed in this context. Results of the investigation have been analyzed in terms of a qualitative framework. Theoretical concepts on persistent thoughts and behaviors will be delineated in the analysis. Processes of self-categorization will be implemented too. Aspects of Attachments and controlling of affect as well as meta-cognitive appraisals are further considered for the depiction. Downloads 490
##### 48 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal

Abstract:

Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min. Downloads 106
##### 47 Preoperative Weight Management Education and Its Influence on Bariatric Surgery Patient Weights

Authors: Meghana Pandit, Abhishek Chakraborty

Abstract:

There are a multitude of factors that influence the clinical success of bariatric surgery. This study seeks to determine the efficacy of preoperative weight management education. The Food and Fitness Program at Mount Sinai serves to educate patients on topics such as stress management, sleep habits, body image, nutrition, and exercise 5-6 months before their surgeries to slowly decrease their weight. Each month, patients are weighed, and a different topic is presented. To evaluate the longitudinal effects of these lectures, patient’s weights are evaluated at the first appointment, before an informative lecture is presented. Weights are then reevaluated at the last appointment before the surgery. The weights were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test and the results demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p < .0001, n=55). Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the education paradigm employed successfully empowered patients to maintain and reduce their gross BMI before clinical intervention.

Keywords: bariatric, surgery, weight, education

##### 46 Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding

Abstract:

When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process. Downloads 176
##### 45 Automatic API Regression Analyzer and Executor

Abstract:

As the software product changes versions across releases, there are changes to the API’s and features and the upgrades become necessary. Hence, it becomes imperative to get the impact of upgrading the dependent components. This tool finds out API changes across two versions and their impact on other API’s followed by execution of the automated regression suites relevant to updates and their impacted areas. This tool has 4 layer architecture, each layer with its own unique pre-assigned capability which it does and sends the required information to next layer. This are the 4 layers. 1) Comparator: Compares the two versions of API. 2) Analyzer: Analyses the API doc and gives the modified class and its dependencies along with implemented interface details. 3) Impact Filter: Find the impact of the modified class on the other API methods. 4) Auto Executer: Based on the output given by Impact Filter, Executor will run the API regression Suite. Tool reads the java doc and extracts the required information of classes, interfaces and enumerations. The extracted information is saved into a data structure which shows the class details and its dependencies along with interfaces and enumerations that are listed in the java doc. Downloads 424
##### 44 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

Abstract:

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds. Downloads 273
##### 43 Machine Learning Approach for Yield Prediction in Semiconductor Production

Authors: Heramb Somthankar, Anujoy Chakraborty

Abstract:

This paper presents a classification study on yield prediction in semiconductor production using machine learning approaches. A complicated semiconductor production process is generally monitored continuously by signals acquired from sensors and measurement sites. A monitoring system contains a variety of signals, all of which contain useful information, irrelevant information, and noise. In the case of each signal being considered a feature, "Feature Selection" is used to find the most relevant signals. The open-source UCI SECOM Dataset provides 1567 such samples, out of which 104 fail in quality assurance. Feature extraction and selection are performed on the dataset, and useful signals were considered for further study. Afterward, common machine learning algorithms were employed to predict whether the signal yields pass or fail. The most relevant algorithm is selected for prediction based on the accuracy and loss of the ML model. Downloads 7
##### 42 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems. Downloads 121
##### 41 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Abstract:

Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

##### 40 Cooling Profile Analysis of Hot Strip Coil Using Finite Volume Method

Abstract:

Manufacturing of multiphase high strength steel in hot strip mill have drawn significant attention due to the possibility of forming low temperature transformation product of austenite under continuous cooling condition. In such endeavor, reliable prediction of temperature profile of hot strip coil is essential in order to accesses the evolution of microstructure at different location of hot strip coil, on the basis of corresponding Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram. Temperature distribution profile of the hot strip coil has been determined by using finite volume method (FVM) vis-à-vis finite difference method (FDM). It has been demonstrated that FVM offer greater computational reliability in estimation of contact pressure distribution and hence the temperature distribution for curved and irregular profiles, owing to the flexibility in selection of grid geometry and discrete point position, Moreover, use of finite volume concept allows enforcing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy, leading to enhanced accuracy of prediction. Downloads 384
##### 39 Influence of Scalable Energy-Related Sensor Parameters on Acoustic Localization Accuracy in Wireless Sensor Swarms

Abstract:

Sensor swarms can be a cost-effectieve and more user-friendly alternative for location based service systems in different application like health-care. To increase the lifetime of such swarm networks, the energy consumption should be scaled to the required localization accuracy. In this paper we have investigated some parameter for energy model that couples localization accuracy to energy-related sensor parameters such as signal length,Bandwidth and sample frequency. The goal is to use the model for the localization of undetermined environmental sounds, by means of wireless acoustic sensors. we first give an overview of TDOA-based localization together with the primary sources of TDOA error (including reverberation effects, Noise). Then we show that in localization, the signal sample rate can be under the Nyquist frequency, provided that enough frequency components remain present in the undersampled signal. The resulting localization error is comparable with that of similar localization systems. Downloads 350
##### 38 Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009

Abstract:

India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Downloads 294
##### 37 Biogenic Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles Using Annona muricata Plant Leaf Extract and Its Anti-Cancer Efficacy

Abstract:

Green nanoparticles have gotten a lot of attention because of their potential applications in tissue regeneration, bioimaging, wound healing, and cancer therapy. The physical and chemical methods to synthesize metal oxide nanoparticles have an environmental impact, necessitating the development of an environmentally friendly green strategy for nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, we used Annona muricata plant leaf extract to synthesize Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (Am-ZnO NPs), which were evaluated using UV/Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, DLS, and Zeta potential. Nanoparticles had an optical absorbance of 355 nm and a net negative surface charge of ~ - 2.59 mV. Transmission Electron Microscope characterizes the Shape and size of the nanoparticles. The obtained Am-ZnO NPs are biocompatible and hemocompatible in nature. These nanoparticles caused an anti-cancer therapeutic effect in MIA PaCa2 and MOLT4 cancer cells by inducing oxidative stress, and a change in mitochondrial membrane potential leads to programmed cell death. Further, we observed a reduction in the size of lung cancer spheroids (act as tumor micro-environment) with doxorubicin as a positive control. Downloads 27
##### 36 Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) Pulp

Abstract:

Reduction of water from the fruits and vegetables using different drying techniques is widely employed to prolong the shelf life of these food commodities. Heat transfer occurs inside the sample by conduction and mass transfer takes place by diffusion in accordance with temperature and moisture concentration gradient respectively during drying. This study was undertaken to study and model the thin layer drying behavior of Bhimkol pulp. The drying was conducted in a tray drier at 500c temperature with 5, 10 and 15 % concentrations of added maltodextrin. The drying experiments were performed at 5mm thickness of the thin layer and the constant air velocity of 0.5 m/s.Drying data were fitted to different thin layer drying models found in the literature. Comparison of fitted models was based on highest R2(0.9917), lowest RMSE (0.03201), and lowest SSE (0.01537) revealed Middle equation as the best-fitted model for thin layer drying with 10% concentration of maltodextrin. The effective diffusivity was estimated based on the solution of Fick’s law of diffusion which is found in the range of 3.0396 x10-09 to 5.0661 x 10-09. There was a reduction in drying time with the addition of maltodextrin as compare to the raw pulp.

Keywords: Bhimkol, diffusivity, maltodextrine, Midilli model

##### 35 Causes and Impacts of Marine Heatwaves in the Bay of Bengal Region in the Recent Period

Abstract:

In the ocean, the temperature extremes have the potential to devastate marine habitats, ecosystems together with ensuing socioeconomic consequences. In recent years, these extreme events are more frequent and intense globally and their increasing trend is expected to continue in the upcoming decades. It recently attracted public interest, as well as scientific researchers, which motivates us to analyze the current marine heatwave (MHW) events in the Bay of Bengal region. we have isolated 107 MHW events (above 90th percentile threshold) in this region of the Indian Ocean and investigated the variation in duration, intensity, and frequency of MHW events during our test period (1982-2021). Our study reveals that in the study region the average of three MHW events per year with an increasing linear trend of 1.11 MHW events per decade. In the analysis, we found the longest MHW event which lasted about 99 days, which is far greater than an average MHW event duration. The maximum intensity was 5.29°C (above the climatology-mean), while the mean intensity was 2.03°C. In addition, we observed net heat flux accompanied by anticyclonic eddies to be the primary cause of these events. Moreover, we concluded that these events affect sea surface height and oceanic productivity, highlighting the adverse impact of MHWs on marine ecosystems. Downloads 26
##### 34 Impact of Elevated Temperature on Spot Blotch Development in Wheat and Induction of Resistance by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

Abstract:

Plants are constantly interacting with various abiotic and biotic stresses. In changing climate scenario plants are continuously modifying physiological processes to adapt to changing environmental conditions which profoundly affect plant-pathogen interactions. Spot blotch in wheat is a fast-rising disease in the warmer plains of South Asia where the rise in minimum average temperature over most of the year already affecting wheat production. Hence, the study was undertaken to explore the role of elevated temperature in spot blotch disease development and modulation of antioxidative responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for biocontrol of spot blotch at high temperature. Elevated temperature significantly increases the susceptibility of wheat plants to spot blotch causing pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. Two PGPR Bacillus safensis (W10) and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (IP8) isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and blady grass (Imperata cylindrical L.) rhizophere respectively, showing in vitro antagonistic activity against Bipolaris sorokiniana were tested for growth promotion and induction of resistance against spot blotch in wheat. GC-MS analysis showed that Bacillus safensis (W10) and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (IP8) produced antifungal and antimicrobial compounds in culture. Seed priming with these two bacteria significantly increase growth, modulate antioxidative signaling and induce resistance and eventually reduce disease incidence in wheat plants at optimum as well as elevated temperature which was further confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using polyclonal antibody raised against Bipolaris sorokiniana. Application of the PGPR led to enhancement in activities of plant defense enzymes- phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase in infected leaves. Immunolocalization of chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase in PGPR primed and pathogen inoculated leaf tissue was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy using PAb of chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase and gold labelled conjugates. Activity of ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle related enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase along with antioxidants such as carotenoids, glutathione and ascorbate and osmolytes like proline and glycine betain accumulation were also increased during disease development in PGPR primed plant in comparison to unprimed plants at high temperature. Real-time PCR analysis revealed enhanced expression of defense genes- chalcone synthase and phenyl alanineammonia lyase. Over expression of heat shock proteins like HSP 70, small HSP 26.3 and heat shock factor HsfA3 in PGPR primed plants effectively protect plants against spot blotch infection at elevated temperature as compared with control plants. Our results revealed dynamic biochemical cross talk between elevated temperature and spot blotch disease development and furthermore highlight PGPR mediated array of antioxidative and molecular alterations responsible for induction of resistance against spot blotch disease at elevated temperature which seems to be associated with up-regulation of defense genes, heat shock proteins and heat shock factors, less ROS production, membrane damage, increased expression of redox enzymes and accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidants. Downloads 92
##### 33 B Spline Finite Element Method for Drifted Space Fractional Tempered Diffusion Equation

Authors: Ayan Chakraborty, BV. Rathish Kumar

Abstract:

Off-late many models in viscoelasticity, signal processing or anomalous diffusion equations are formulated in fractional calculus. Tempered fractional calculus is the generalization of fractional calculus and in the last few years several important partial differential equations occurring in the different field of science have been reconsidered in this term like diffusion wave equations, Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger equation and so on. In the present paper, a time-dependent tempered fractional diffusion equation of order $\gamma \in (0,1)$ with forcing function is considered. Existence, uniqueness, stability, and regularity of the solution has been proved. Crank-Nicolson discretization is used in the time direction. B spline finite element approximation is implemented. Generally, B-splines basis are useful for representing the geometry of a finite element model, interfacing a finite element analysis program. By utilizing this technique a priori space-time estimate in finite element analysis has been derived and we proved that the convergent order is $\mathcal{O}(h²+T²)$ where $h$ is the space step size and $T$ is the time. A couple of numerical examples have been presented to confirm the accuracy of theoretical results. Finally, we conclude that the studied method is useful for solving tempered fractional diffusion equations. Downloads 91
##### 32 Impact of Flexibility on Patient Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development

Abstract:

In the anticipation of demand fluctuations, services cannot be inventoried and hence it creates a difficult problem in marketing of services. The inability to meet customers (patients) requirements in healthcare context has more serious consequences than other service sectors. In order to meet patient requirements in the current uncertain environment, healthcare organizations are seeking ways for improved service delivery. Flexibility provides a mechanism for reducing variability in service encounters and improved performance. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the organization to cope with changing circumstances or instability caused by the environment. Patient satisfaction is an important performance outcome of healthcare organizations. However, the paucity of information exists in healthcare delivery context to examine the impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. The present study is an attempt to develop a conceptual foundation for investigating overall impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Several dimensions of flexibility in healthcare context are examined and proposed to have a significant impact on patient satisfaction and intention. Furthermore, the study involves a critical examination of determinants of patient satisfaction and development of a comprehensive view the relationship between flexibility, patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Finally, theoretical contributions and implications for healthcare professionals are suggested from flexibility perspective. Downloads 227
##### 31 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Abstract:

Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs. Downloads 242
##### 30 Numerical Study of Jet Impingement Heat Transfer

Authors: A. M. Tiara, Sudipto Chakraborty, S. K. Pal

Abstract:

Impinging jets and their different configurations are important from the viewpoint of the fluid flow characteristics and their influence on heat transfer from metal surfaces due to their complex flow characteristics. Such flow characteristics results in highly variable heat transfer from the surface, resulting in varying cooling rates which affects the mechanical properties including hardness and strength. The overall objective of the current research is to conduct a fundamental investigation of the heat transfer mechanisms for an impinging coolant jet. Numerical simulation of the cooling process gives a detailed analysis of the different parameters involved even though employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the real time process, being a relatively new research area, poses many challenges. The heat transfer mechanism in the current research is actuated by jet cooling. The computational tool used in the ongoing research for simulation of the cooling process is ANSYS Workbench software. The temperature and heat flux distribution along the steel strip with the effect of various flow parameters on the heat transfer rate can be observed in addition to determination of the jet impingement patterns, which is the major aim of the present analysis. Modelling both jet and air atomized cooling techniques using CFD methodology and validating with those obtained experimentally- including trial and error with different models and comparison of cooling rates from both the techniques have been included in this work. Finally some concluding remarks are made that identify some gaps in the available literature that have influenced the path of the current investigation. Downloads 175