Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Davood Shishebori

27 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Authors: Davood Shishebori, Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad, Sina Seifi


In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

Keywords: MDS sampling plan, RGS plan, sampling plan for resubmitted lots, process capability index (PCI), average sample number (ASN), Bayesian approach

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26 Micro-CT Imaging Of Hard Tissues

Authors: Amir Davood Elmi


From the earliest light microscope to the most innovative X-ray imaging techniques, all of them have refined and improved our knowledge about the organization and composition of living tissues. The old techniques are time consuming and ultimately destructive to the tissues under the examination. In recent few decades, thanks to the boost of technology, non-destructive visualization techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), and optical projection tomography (OPT), have come to the forefront. Among these techniques, CT is excellent for mineralized tissues such as bone or dentine. In addition, CT it is faster than other aforementioned techniques and the sample remains intact. In this article, applications, advantages, and limitations of micro-CT is discussed, in addition to some information about micro-CT of soft tissue.

Keywords: Micro-CT, hard tissue, bone, attenuation coefficient, rapid prototyping

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25 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani


In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: AGM, analytical solution, porous media, thermo-hydro-mechanical, unsaturated soils

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24 Effects of Daily Temperature Changes on Transient Heat and Moisture Transport in Unsaturated Soils

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Ali Pak, Mehrdad Jafarzadeh


This research contains the formulation of a two-dimensional analytical solution to transient heat, and moisture flow in a semi-infinite unsaturated soil environment under the influence of daily temperature changes. For this purpose, coupled energy conservation and mass fluid continuity equations governing hydrothermal behavior of unsaturated soil media are presented in terms of temperature and volumetric moisture content. In consideration of the soil environment as an infinite half-space and by linearization of the governing equations, Laplace–Fourier transformation is conducted to convert differential equations with partial derivatives (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The obtained ODEs are solved, and the inverse transformations are calculated to determine the solution to the system of equations. Results indicate that heat variation induces moisture transport in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Keywords: analytical solution, heat conduction, hydrothermal analysis, laplace–fourier transformation, two-dimensional

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23 Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company Approach on Energy Efficiency by the Development of Renewable Energy to Achieving the Sustainable Development Legal Principle

Authors: Mohammad Parvaresh, Mahdi Babaee, Bahareh Arghand, Roushanak Fahimi Hanzaee, Davood Nourmohammadi


Today, the intelligent network of water and wastewater as one of the key steps in realizing the smart city in the world. Use of pressure relief valves in urban water networks in order to reduce the pressure is necessary in Tehran city. But use these pressure relief valves lead to waste water, more power consumption, and environmental pollution because Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. use a quarter of industry 's electricity. In this regard, Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. identified solutions to reduce direct and indirect costs in energy use in the process of production, transmission and distribution of water because this company has extensive facilities and high capacity to realize green economy and industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the new project in water and wastewater industry to reach sustainable development.

Keywords: Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company, water network efficiency, sustainable development, International Environmental Law

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22 Synthesis of α-Diimin Nickel(II) Catalyst Supported on Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Ethylene Slurry Polymerization

Authors: Mehrji Khosravan, Mostafa Fathali-Sianib, Davood Soudbar, Sasan Talebnezhad, Mohammad-Reza Ebrahimi


The late transition metal catalyst of the end group of transition metals in the periodic table as Ni, Fe, Co, and Pd was grown up rapidly in polyolefin industries recently. These metals with suitable ligands exhibited special characteristic properties and appropriate activities in the production of polyolefins. The ligand 1,4-bis (2,6-diisopropyl phenyl) acenaphthene was synthesized by reaction of 2,6-diisopropyl aniline and acenaphthenequinone. The ligand was added to nickel (II) dibromide salt for synthesis the 1,4-bis (2,6 diisopropylphenyl) acenaphthene nickel (II) dibromide catalyst. The structure of the ligand characterized by IR technique. The catalyst then deposited on graphene and graphene oxide by vander walss-attachment for use in Ethylene slurry polymerization process in the presence of catalyst activator such as methylaluminoxane (MAO) in hexane solvent. The structure of the catalyst characterized by IR and TEM techniques and some of the polymers were characterized by DSC. The highest activity was achieved at 600 C for catalyst.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complex, graphene as supported catalyst, late transition metal, ethylene polymerization

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21 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin


Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polyhydroxybutyrate, biocompatible, scaffold, porous, tissue engineering

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20 The Effect of Austempering Temperature on Anisotropy of TRIP Steel

Authors: Abdolreza Heidari Noosh Abad, Amir Abedi, Davood Mirahmadi khaki


The high strength and flexibility of TRIP steels are the major reasons for them being widely used in the automobile industry. Deep drawing is regarded as a common metal sheet manufacturing process is used extensively in the modern industry, particularly automobile industry. To investigate the potential of deep drawing characteristic of materials, steel sheet anisotropy is studied and expressed as R-Value. The TRIP steels have a multi-phase microstructure consisting typically of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite. The retained austenite appears to be the most effective phase in the microstructure of the TRIP steels. In the present research, Taguchi method has been employed to study investigates the effect of austempering temperature parameters on the anisotropy property of the TRIP steel. To achieve this purpose, a steel with chemical composition of 0.196C -1.42Si-1.41Mn, has been used and annealed at 810oC, and then austempered at 340-460oC for 3, 6, and 9 minutes. The results shows that the austempering temperature has a direct relationship with R-value, respectively. With increasing austempering temperature, residual austenite grain size increases as well as increased solubility, which increases the amount of R-value. According to the results of the Taguchi method, austempering temperature’s p-value less than 0.05 is due to effective on R-value.

Keywords: Taguchi method, hot rolling, thermomechanical process, anisotropy, R-value

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19 Strategy of Balancing in Russian Energy Diplomacy toward Middle East

Authors: Davood Karimipour


Since long ago, Russia has been one of the most influential actors in regional equations in South West Asia. The geographic affinity of its vital interests with Western Asia has caused Moscow to have a high sensitivity to the balance of power in the Middle East, as its role in the Syrian crisis clearly demonstrated the importance. In recent years, Moscow has tried to use the energy diplomacy tool in maintaining the balance of power between the major powers in the region. The paper, based on the qualitative case study method, investigates how Russia’s energy diplomacy plays a role in the balance of regional forces in the Middle East, studying the country’s conduct towards Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Israel. The hypothesis presented that Russia, using energy tools, is trying to push the regional powers toward cooperation in order to increase the influence in the region, increase power in global markets, and controlling the US to restore power balance in the region. Its cooperation in the Iranian gas industry, the country’s relations with Saudis in the framework of OPEC, cooperation with the Turkish Kurds and the presence in the Israeli gas industry are an example of these Russian energy diplomacy initiatives in West Asia, which is the common point of the Moscow approach to South West Asia.

Keywords: Russia, balance of power, energy diplomacy, Middle East

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18 Estimation of Optimum Parameters of Non-Linear Muskingum Model of Routing Using Imperialist Competition Algorithm (ICA)

Authors: Davood Rajabi, Mojgan Yazdani


Non-linear Muskingum model is an efficient method for flood routing, however, the efficiency of this method is influenced by three applied parameters. Therefore, efficiency assessment of Imperialist Competition Algorithm (ICA) to evaluate optimum parameters of non-linear Muskingum model was addressed through this study. In addition to ICA, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) were also used aiming at an available criterion to verdict ICA. In this regard, ICA was applied for Wilson flood routing; then, routing of two flood events of DoAab Samsami River was investigated. In case of Wilson flood that the target function was considered as the sum of squared deviation (SSQ) of observed and calculated discharges. Routing two other floods, in addition to SSQ, another target function was also considered as the sum of absolute deviations of observed and calculated discharge. For the first floodwater based on SSQ, GA indicated the best performance, however, ICA was on first place, based on SAD. For the second floodwater, based on both target functions, ICA indicated a better operation. According to the obtained results, it can be said that ICA could be used as an appropriate method to evaluate the parameters of Muskingum non-linear model.

Keywords: Doab Samsami river, genetic algorithm, imperialist competition algorithm, meta-exploratory algorithms, particle swarm optimization, Wilson flood

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17 Assessment the Correlation of Rice Yield Traits by Simulation and Modelling Methods

Authors: Davood Barari Tari


In order to investigate the correlation of rice traits in different nitrogen management methods by modeling programming, an experiment was laid out in rice paddy field in an experimental field at Caspian Coastal Sea region from 2013 to 2014. Variety used was Shiroudi as a high yielding variety. Nitrogen management was in two methods. Amount of nitrogen at four levels (30, 60, 90, and 120 Kg N ha-1 and control) and nitrogen-splitting at four levels (T1: 50% in base + 50% in maximum tillering stage, T2= 33.33% basal +33.33% in maximum tillering stage +33.33% in panicle initiation stage, T3=25% basal+37.5% in maximum tillering stage +37.5% in panicle initiation stage, T4: 25% in basal + 25% in maximum tillering stage + 50% in panicle initiation stage). Results showed that nitrogen traits, total grain number, filled spikelets, panicle number per m2 had a significant correlation with grain yield. Results related to calibrated and validation of rice model methods indicated that correlation between rice yield and yield components was accurate. The correlation between panicle length and grain yield was minimum. Physiological indices was simulated with low accuracy. According to results, investigation of the correlation between rice traits in physiological, morphological and phenological characters and yield by modeling and simulation methods are very useful.

Keywords: rice, physiology, modelling, simulation, yield traits

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16 Comprehensive Investigation of Solving Analytical of Nonlinear Differential Equations at Chemical Reactions to Design of Reactors by New Method “AGM”

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza khalili, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji


In this symposium, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving of the complicate non-linear differential at the reaction chemical in the catalyst reactor (heterogeneous reaction). Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at chemical engineering and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach which entitled ‘’Akbari-Ganji's Method’’ or ‘’AGM’’. In this paper we solve many examples of nonlinear differential equations of chemical reactions and its investigate. The chemical reactor with the energy changing (non-isotherm) in two reactors of mixed and plug are separately studied and the nonlinear differential equations obtained from the reaction behavior in these systems are solved by a new method. Practically, the reactions with the energy changing (heat or cold) have an important effect on designing and function of the reactors. This means that possibility of reaching the optimal conditions of operation for the maximum conversion depending on nonlinear nature of the reaction velocity toward temperature, results in the complexity of the operation in the reactor. In this case, the differential equation set which governs the reactors can be obtained simultaneous solution of mass equilibrium and energy and temperature changing at concentration.

Keywords: new method (AGM), nonlinear differential equation, tubular and mixed reactors, catalyst bed

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15 Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Transport Properties of SCCs Composites: Influence of Mechanical Damage

Authors: Davood Niknezhad, Siham Kamali-Bernard


Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures in aggressive environments. It is now common knowledge that the transport properties of a concrete, i.e; permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient are important indicators of its durability. The development of microcracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the influence of mineral admixtures and impact of compressive cracks by mechanical uniaxial compression up to 80% of the ultimate strength on transport properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with the eco-materials (metakaolin, fly ash, slag HF). The chloride resistance and binding capacity of the different SCCs produced with the different admixtures in damaged and undamaged state are measured using a chloride migration test accelerated by an external applied electrical field. Intrinsic permeability is measured using the helium gas and one permeameter at constant load. Klinkenberg approach is used for the determination of the intrinsic permeability. Based on the findings of this study, the use of mineral admixtures increases the resistance of SCC to chloride ingress and reduces their permeability. From the impact of mechanical damage, we show that the Gas permeability is more sensitive of concrete damaged than chloride diffusion. A correlation is obtained between the intrinsic permeability and chloride migration coefficient according to the damage variable for the four studied mixtures.

Keywords: SCC, concrete durability, transport properties, gas permeability, chloride diffusion, mechanical damage, mineral admixtures

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14 Scrutiny and Solving Analytically Nonlinear Differential at Engineering Field of Fluids, Heat, Mass and Wave by New Method AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


As all experts know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially heat, fluid and mass, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex and sometimes impossible like (fluids and gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure a innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and so compare to other methods such as HPM, ADM,… and exact solutions. Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations(ODE and PDE). In this paper, we investigate and solve 4 types of the nonlinear differential equation with AGM method : 1-Heat and fluid, 2-Unsteady state of nonlinear partial differential, 3-Coupled nonlinear partial differential in wave equation, and 4-Nonlinear integro-differential equation.

Keywords: new method AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear equations at engineering field, waves equations, integro-differential, fluid and thermal

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13 Effects of Hierarchy on Poisson’s Ratio and Phononic Bandgaps of Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Structures

Authors: Davood Mousanezhad, Ashkan Vaziri


As a traditional cellular structure, hexagonal honeycombs are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Here, we introduce a class of fractal-appearing hierarchical metamaterials by replacing the vertices of the original non-hierarchical hexagonal grid with smaller hexagons and iterating this process to achieve higher levels of hierarchy. It has been recently shown that the isotropic in-plane Young's modulus of this hierarchical structure at small deformations becomes 25 times greater than its regular counterpart with the same mass. At large deformations, we find that hierarchy-dependent elastic buckling introduced at relatively early stages of deformation decreases the value of Poisson's ratio as the structure is compressed uniaxially leading to auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson's ratio) in subsequent stages of deformation. We also show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the propagation of elastic waves within the structure. We find that the hierarchy tends to shift the existing phononic bandgaps (defined as frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation) to lower frequencies while opening up new bandgaps. Deformation is also demonstrated as another mechanism for opening more bandgaps in hierarchical structures. The results provide new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating mechanical properties of materials at both the static and dynamic regimes.

Keywords: cellular structures, honeycombs, hierarchical structures, metamaterials, multifunctional structures, phononic crystals, auxetic structures

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12 Study and Solving High Complex Non-Linear Differential Equations Applied in the Engineering Field by Analytical New Approach AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


In this paper, three complicated nonlinear differential equations(PDE,ODE) in the field of engineering and non-vibration have been analyzed and solved completely by new method that we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method (AGM) . As regards the previous published papers, investigating this kind of equations is a very hard task to do and the obtained solution is not accurate and reliable. This issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical Method. Based on the comparisons which have been made between the gained solutions by AGM and Numerical Method (Runge-Kutta 4th), it is possible to indicate that AGM can be successfully applied for various differential equations particularly for difficult ones. Furthermore, It is necessary to mention that a summary of the excellence of this method in comparison with the other approaches can be considered as follows: It is noteworthy that these results have been indicated that this approach is very effective and easy therefore it can be applied for other kinds of nonlinear equations, And also the reasons of selecting the mentioned method for solving differential equations in a wide variety of fields not only in vibrations but also in different fields of sciences such as fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, chemical engineering, etc. Therefore, a solution with high precision will be acquired. With regard to the afore-mentioned explanations, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison with the other methods. And also one of the important position that is explored in this paper is: Trigonometric and exponential terms in the differential equation (the method AGM) , is no need to use Taylor series Expansion to enhance the precision of the result.

Keywords: new method (AGM), complex non-linear partial differential equations, damping ratio, energy lost per cycle

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11 Optimization, Characterization and Stability of Trachyspermum copticum Essential Oil Loaded in Niosome Nanocarriers

Authors: Mohadese Hashemi, Elham Akhoundi Kharanaghi, Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mojgan Yazdani, Omid Javani, Mahboobe Sharafodini, Davood Rajabi


Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles in aqueous media resulting in closed bilayer structures that can be used as carriers of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The use of niosomes for encapsulation of essential oils (EOs) is an attractive new approach to overcome their physicochemical stability concerns include sensibility to oxygen, light, temperature, and volatility, and their reduced bioavailability which is due to low solubility in water. EOs are unstable and fragile volatile compounds which have strong interest in pharmaceutical due to their medicinal properties such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antioxidant activities without side effects. Trachyspermum copticum (ajwain) is an annual aromatic plant with important medicinal properties that grows widely around Mediterranean region and south-west Asian countries. The major components of the ajwain oil were reported as thymol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, and carvacrol which provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to formulate ajwain essential oil-loaded niosomes to improve water solubility of natural product and evaluate its physico-chemical features and stability. Ajwain oil was obtained through steam distillation using a clevenger-type apparatus and GC/MS was applied to identify the main components of the essential oil. Niosomes were prepared by using thin film hydration method and nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, dispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and morphology.

Keywords: trachyspermum copticum, ajwain, niosome, essential oil, encapsulation

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10 Modified Adaptive Discrete-Time Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control for Quad-Rotors in the Presence of Motor Faults

Authors: Karim Ahmadi, Davood Asadi, Seyed Yaser Nabavi-Chashmi, Onder Tutsoy


Unmanned air vehicles are intrinsically non-linear, unstable, uncertain, and prone to a variety of faults, most commonly motor faults. In this paper, a new trajectory tracking adaptive discrete-time incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control is modified to stabilize and control quad-rotors in case of partial motor faults. To track the desired trajectory, a cascade controller, consisting of a modified incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion (MINDI) as the baseline augmented with a discrete-time nonlinear adaptive algorithm, is designed. The incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion is essentially a sensor measurement-based control approach and necessitates angular accelerations where the differentiation of the angular rates amplifies the high-frequency noises produced by the gyroscopes. In addition, the application of the derivative filters causes unavoidable internal state delays. Henceforth, the performance of the controller developed for the unstable and uncertain quadrotors degrades considerably. To address this drawback, this paper proposes the MINDI control approach which derives the angular accelerations from the estimation of the angular moments. Furthermore, to increase the robustness of the MINDI in the presence of the motor faults, a discrete-time adaptive controller has been incorporated. The performance of the proposed controllers is verified through the nonlinear simulations and testbed experiments and the results are compared with a recent efficient algorithm, which had been implemented on a quadrotor model.

Keywords: adaptive control, drone, fault tolerant, incremental nonlinear dynamic, trajectory tracking

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9 Oral Betahistine Versus Intravenous Diazepam in Acute Peripheral Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: Saeed Abbasi, Davood Farsi, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh


Objectives: Peripheral vertigo is a common complaint of patients who are visited in emergency departments. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the effect of betahistine as an oral drug vs. intravenous diazepam for the treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. We also wanted to see the possibility of substitution of parenteral drug with an oral one with fewer side effects. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 101 patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided in two groups in a double-blind randomized manner. Group A took oral placebo and 10 mg of intravenous diazepam. Group B received 8mg of oral betahistine and intravenous placebo. Patients’ symptoms and signs (Vertigo severity, Nausea, Vomiting, Nistagmus and Gate) were evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6 hours by emergency physicians and data were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In both groups, there was significant improvement in vertigo (betahistine group P=0.02 and Diazepam group P=0.03). Analysis showed more improvement in vertigo severity after 4 hours of treatment in betahistine group comparing to diazepam group (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in patients receiving diazepam after 2 and 6 hours (P=0.02 & P=0.03).No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in nistagmus, equilibrium & vertigo duration. Conclusion: The results of this randomized trial showed that both drugs had acceptable therapeutic effects in peripheral vertigo, although betahistine was significantly more efficacious after 4 hours of drug intake. As for higher nausea and vomiting in betahistine group, physician should consider these side effects before drug prescription.

Keywords: acute peripheral vertigo, betahistine, diazepam, emergency department

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8 Improving Performance of K₂CO₃ Sorbent Using Core/Shell Alumina-Based Supports in a Multicycle CO₂ Capture Process

Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Amir H. Soleimanisalim, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey


The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is expected to have great impacts on the climate. In order to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere, an efficient and cost-effective technique is required. Using regenerable solid sorbents, especially K2CO3 is a promising method for low-temperature CO2 capture. Pure K2CO3 is a delinquent substance that requires modifications before it can be used for cyclic operations. For this purpose, various types of additives and supports have been used to improve the structure of K2CO3. However, hydrophilicity and reactivity of the support materials with K2CO3 have a negative effect on the CO2 capture capacity of the sorbents. In this research, two kinds of alumina supports (γ-Alumina and Boehmite) were used. In order to decrease the supports' hydrophilicity and reactivity with K2CO3, nonreactive additives such as Titania, Zirconia and Silisium were incorporated into their structures. These materials provide a shell around the alumina to protect it from undesirable reactions and improve its properties. K2CO3-based core/shell-supported sorbents were fabricated using two preparation steps. The sol-gel method was applied for shelling the supports. Then the shelled supports were impregnated on K2CO3. The physicochemical properties of the sorbents were determined using SEM and BET analyses, and their CO2 capture capacity was quantified using a thermogravimetric analyzer. It was shown that type of the shell's material had an important effect on the water adsorption capacity of the sorbents. Supported K2CO3 modified by Titania shell showed the lowest hydrophilicity among the prepared samples. Based on the obtained results, incorporating nonreactive additives in Boehmite had an outstanding impact on the CO2 capture performance of the sorbent. Incorporation of Titania into the Boehmite-supported K2CO3 enhanced its CO2 capture capacity significantly. Therefore, further study of this novel fabrication technique is highly recommended. In the second phase of this research project, the CO2 capture performance of the sorbents in fixed and fluidized bed reactors will be investigated.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, core/shell support, K₂CO₃, post-combustion

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7 Image-Based UAV Vertical Distance and Velocity Estimation Algorithm during the Vertical Landing Phase Using Low-Resolution Images

Authors: Seyed-Yaser Nabavi-Chashmi, Davood Asadi, Karim Ahmadi, Eren Demir


The landing phase of a UAV is very critical as there are many uncertainties in this phase, which can easily entail a hard landing or even a crash. In this paper, the estimation of relative distance and velocity to the ground, as one of the most important processes during the landing phase, is studied. Using accurate measurement sensors as an alternative approach can be very expensive for sensors like LIDAR, or with a limited operational range, for sensors like ultrasonic sensors. Additionally, absolute positioning systems like GPS or IMU cannot provide distance to the ground independently. The focus of this paper is to determine whether we can measure the relative distance and velocity of UAV and ground in the landing phase using just low-resolution images taken by a monocular camera. The Lucas-Konda feature detection technique is employed to extract the most suitable feature in a series of images taken during the UAV landing. Two different approaches based on Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been proposed, and their performance in estimation of the relative distance and velocity are compared. The first approach uses the kinematics of the UAV as the process and the calculated optical flow as the measurement; On the other hand, the second approach uses the feature’s projection on the camera plane (pixel position) as the measurement while employing both the kinematics of the UAV and the dynamics of variation of projected point as the process to estimate both relative distance and relative velocity. To verify the results, a sequence of low-quality images taken by a camera that is moving on a specifically developed testbed has been used to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm. The case studies show that the quality of images results in considerable noise, which reduces the performance of the first approach. On the other hand, using the projected feature position is much less sensitive to the noise and estimates the distance and velocity with relatively high accuracy. This approach also can be used to predict the future projected feature position, which can drastically decrease the computational workload, as an important criterion for real-time applications.

Keywords: altitude estimation, drone, image processing, trajectory planning

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6 Environmental Justice and Citizenship Rights in the Tehran Health Plan

Authors: Mohammad Parvaresh, Mahdi Babaee, Bahareh Arghand, Davood Nourmohammadi


Environmental degradation is caused by social inequalities and the inappropriate use of nature and a factor in the violation of human rights. Indeed, the right to a safe, healthy and ecologically-balanced environment is an independent human right. Therefore, the relationship between human rights and environmental protection is crucial for the study of social justice and sustainable development, and environmental problems are a result of the failure to realize social and economic justice. In this regard, 'article 50 of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a general principle have many of the concepts of sustainable development, including: the growth and improvement of human life, the rights of present and future generations, and the integrity of the inner and outer generation, the prohibition of any environmental degradation'. Also, Charter on Citizen’s Rights, which was conveyed by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Mr. Rouhani refers to the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. In this regard in 2013, Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. defined a plan called 'Tehran’s Health Line' was includes Western and Eastern part by about 26 kilometers of water transferring pipelines varied 1000 to 2000 mm diameters. This project aims to: (1) Transfer water from the northwest water treatment plant to the southwest areas, which suffer from qualitative and quantitative water, in order to mix with the improper wells’ water; (2) Reducing the water consumption provided by harvesting from wells which results in improving the underground water resources, causing the large settlements and stopping the immigrating slums into the center or north side of the city. All of the financial resources accounted for 53,000,000 US$ which is mobilized by Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. to expedite the work. The present study examines the Tehran Health Line plan and the purpose of implementation of this plan to achieve environmental protection, environmental justice and citizenship rights for all people who live in Tehran.

Keywords: environmental justice, international environmental law, erga omnes, charter on citizen's rights, Tehran health line

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5 Identification of 332G>A Polymorphism in Exon 3 of the Leptin Gene and Partially Effects on Body Size and Tail Dimension in Sanjabi Sheep

Authors: Roya Bakhtiar, Alireza Abdolmohammadi, Hadi Hajarian, Zahra Nikousefat, Davood, Kalantar-Neyestanaki


The objective of the present study was to determine the polymorphism in the leptin (332G>A) and its association with biometric traits in Sanjabi sheep. For this purpose, blood samples from 96 rams were taken, and tail length, width tail, circumference tail, body length, body width, and height were simultaneously recorded. PCR was performed using specific primer to amplify 463 bp fragment including exon 3 of leptin gene, and PCR products were digested by Cail restriction enzymes. The 332G>A (at 332th nucleotide of exon 3 leptin gene) that caused an amino acid change from Arg to Gln was detected by Cail (CAGNNNCTG) endonuclease, as the endonuclease cannot cut this region if G nucleotide is located in this position. Three genotypes including GG (463), GA (463, 360and 103 bp) and GG (360 bp and 103 bp) were identified after digestion by enzyme. The estimated frequencies of three genotypes including GG, GA, and AA for 332G>A locus were 0.68, 0.29 and 0.03 and those were 0.18 and 0.82 for A and G alleles, respectively. In the current study, chi-square test indicated that 332G>A positions did not deviate from the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) equilibrium. The most important reason to show HW equation was that samples used in this study belong to three large local herds with a traditional breeding system having random mating and without selection. Shannon index amount was calculated which represent an average genetic variation in Sanjabi rams. Also, heterozygosity estimated by Nei index indicated that genetic diversity of mutation in the leptin gene is moderate. Leptin gene polymorphism in the 332G>A had significant effect on body length (P<0.05) trait, and individuals with GA genotype had significantly the higher body length compared to other individuals. Although animals with GA genotype had higher body width, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This non-synonymous SNP resulted in different amino acid changes at codon positions111(R/Q). As leptin activity is localized, at least in part, in domains between amino acid residues 106-1406, it is speculated that the detected SNP at position 332 may affect the activity of leptin and may lead to different biological functions. Based to our results, due to significant effect of leptin gene polymorphism on body size traits, this gene may be used a candidate gene for improving these traits.

Keywords: body size, Leptin gene, PCR-RFLP, Sanjabi sheep

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4 Using GIS and AHP Model to Explore the Parking Problem in Khomeinishahr

Authors: Davood Vatankhah, Reza Mokhtari Malekabadi, Mohsen Saghaei


Function of urban transportation systems depends on the existence of the required infrastructures, appropriate placement of different components, and the cooperation of these components with each other. Establishing various neighboring parking spaces in city neighborhood in order to prevent long-term and inappropriate parking of cars in the allies is one of the most effective operations in reducing the crowding and density of the neighborhoods. Every place with a certain application attracts a number of daily travels which happen throughout the city. A large percentage of the people visiting these places go to these travels by their own cars; therefore, they need a space to park their cars. The amount of this need depends on the usage function and travel demand of the place. The study aims at investigating the spatial distribution of the public parking spaces, determining the effective factors in locating, and their combination in GIS environment in Khomeinishahr of Isfahan city. Ultimately, the study intends to create an appropriate pattern for locating parking spaces, determining the request for parking spaces of the traffic areas, choosing the proper places for providing the required public parking spaces, and also proposing new spots in order to promote quality and quantity aspects of the city in terms of enjoying public parking spaces. Regarding the method, the study is based on applied purpose and regarding nature, it is analytic-descriptive. The population of the study includes people of the center of Khomeinishahr which is located on Northwest of Isfahan having about 5000 hectares of geographic area and the population of 241318 people are in the center of Komeinishahr. In order to determine the sample size, Cochran formula was used and according to the population of 26483 people of the studied area, 231 questionnaires were used. Data analysis was carried out by usage of SPSS software and after estimating the required space for parking spaces, initially, the effective criteria in locating the public parking spaces are weighted by the usage of Analytic Hierarchical Process in the Arc GIS software. Then, appropriate places for establishing parking spaces were determined by fuzzy method of Order Weighted Average (OWA). The results indicated that locating of parking spaces in Khomeinishahr have not been carried out appropriately and per capita of the parking spaces is not desirable in relation to the population and request; therefore, in addition to the present parking lots, 1434 parking lots are needed in the area of the study for each day; therefore, there is not a logical proportion between parking request and the number of parking lots in Khomeinishahr.

Keywords: GIS, locating, parking, khomeinishahr

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3 Investigation a New Approach "AGM" to Solve of Complicate Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations at All Engineering Field and Basic Science

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza Khalili, Davood Domiri Danji


In this conference, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving of the complicated non-linear partial differential. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at basic science and engineering field and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach. As we know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially basic science and engineering field, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex, and sometimes impossible like (Fluids and Gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure an innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will emerge after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear partial differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving all nonlinear differential equations. Advantages and ability of this method (AGM) as follow: (a) Non-linear Differential equations (ODE, PDE) are directly solvable by this method. (b) In this method (AGM), most of the time, without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s) by any boundary or initial condition number. (c) AGM method always is convergent in boundary or initial condition. (d) Parameters of exponential, Trigonometric and Logarithmic of the existent in the non-linear differential equation with AGM method no needs Taylor expand which are caused high solve precision. (e) AGM method is very flexible in the coding system, and can solve easily varieties of the non-linear differential equation at high acceptable accuracy. (f) One of the important advantages of this method is analytical solving with high accuracy such as partial differential equation in vibration in solids, waves in water and gas, with minimum initial and boundary condition capable to solve problem. (g) It is very important to present a general and simple approach for solving most problems of the differential equations with high non-linearity in engineering sciences especially at civil engineering, and compare output with numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th) and Exact solutions.

Keywords: new approach, AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear differential equation, exact solutions, numerical

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2 Business Intelligence Dashboard Solutions for Improving Decision Making Process: A Focus on Prostate Cancer

Authors: Mona Isazad Mashinchi, Davood Roshan Sangachin, Francis J. Sullivan, Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann


Background: Decision-making processes are nowadays driven by data, data analytics and Business Intelligence (BI). BI as a software platform can provide a wide variety of capabilities such as organization memory, information integration, insight creation and presentation capabilities. Visualizing data through dashboards is one of the BI solutions (for a variety of areas) which helps managers in the decision making processes to expose the most informative information at a glance. In the healthcare domain to date, dashboard presentations are more frequently used to track performance related metrics and less frequently used to monitor those quality parameters which relate directly to patient outcomes. Providing effective and timely care for patients and improving the health outcome are highly dependent on presenting and visualizing data and information. Objective: In this research, the focus is on the presentation capabilities of BI to design a dashboard for prostate cancer (PC) data that allows better decision making for the patients, the hospital and the healthcare system related to a cancer dataset. The aim of this research is to customize a retrospective PC dataset in a dashboard interface to give a better understanding of data in the categories (risk factors, treatment approaches, disease control and side effects) which matter most to patients as well as other stakeholders. By presenting the outcome in the dashboard we address one of the major targets of a value-based health care (VBHC) delivery model which is measuring the value and presenting the outcome to different actors in HC industry (such as patients and doctors) for a better decision making. Method: For visualizing the stored data to users, three interactive dashboards based on the PC dataset have been developed (using the Tableau Software) to provide better views to the risk factors, treatment approaches, and side effects. Results: Many benefits derived from interactive graphs and tables in dashboards which helped to easily visualize and see the patients at risk, better understanding the relationship between patient's status after treatment and their initial status before treatment, or to choose better decision about treatments with fewer side effects regarding patient status and etc. Conclusions: Building a well-designed and informative dashboard is related to three important factors including; the users, goals and the data types. Dashboard's hierarchies, drilling, and graphical features can guide doctors to better navigate through information. The features of the interactive PC dashboard not only let doctors ask specific questions and filter the results based on the key performance indicators (KPI) such as: Gleason Grade, Patient's Age and Status, but may also help patients to better understand different treatment outcomes, such as side effects during the time, and have an active role in their treatment decisions. Currently, we are extending the results to the real-time interactive dashboard that users (either patients and doctors) can easily explore the data by choosing preferred attribute and data to make better near real-time decisions.

Keywords: business intelligence, dashboard, decision making, healthcare, prostate cancer, value-based healthcare

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1 Application of Alumina-Aerogel in Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey


Dependence of global economics on fossil fuels has led to a large growth in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Among the various GHGs, carbon dioxide is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect due to its huge emission amount. To mitigate the threatening effect of CO₂, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies have been studied widely in recent years. For the combustion processes, three main CO₂ capture techniques have been proposed such as post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. Post-combustion is the most commonly used CO₂ capture process as it can be readily retrofit into the existing power plants. Multiple advantages have been reported for the post-combustion by solid sorbents such as high CO₂ selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and low required regeneration energy. Chemical adsorption of CO₂ over alkali-metal-based solid sorbents such as K₂CO₃ is a promising method for the selective capture of diluted CO₂ from the huge amount of nitrogen existing in the flue gas. To improve the CO₂ capture performance, K₂CO₃ is supported by a stable and porous material. Al₂O₃ has been employed commonly as the support and enhanced the cyclic CO₂ capture efficiency of K₂CO₃. Different phases of alumina can be obtained by setting the calcination temperature of boehmite at 300, 600 (γ-alumina), 950 (δ-alumina) and 1200 °C (α-alumina). By increasing the calcination temperature, the regeneration capacity of alumina increases, while the surface area reduces. However, sorbents with lower surface areas have lower CO₂ capture capacity as well (except for the sorbents prepared by hydrophilic support materials). To resolve this issue, a highly efficient alumina-aerogel support was synthesized with a BET surface area of over 2000 m²/g and then calcined at a high temperature. The synthesized alumina-aerogel was impregnated on K₂CO₃ based on 50 wt% support/K₂CO₃, which resulted in the preparation of a sorbent with remarkable CO₂ capture performance. The effect of synthesis conditions such as types of alcohols, solvent-to-co-solvent ratios, and aging times was investigated on the performance of the support. The best support was synthesized using methanol as the solvent, after five days of aging time, and at a solvent-to-co-solvent (methanol-to-toluene) ratio (v/v) of 1/5. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of operating parameters such as carbonation temperature and H₂O-to-CO₂ flowrate ratio on the CO₂ capture capacity. The maximum CO₂ capture capacity, at the optimum amounts of operating parameters, was 7.2 mmol CO₂ per gram K₂CO₃. Cyclic behavior of the sorbent was examined over 20 carbonation and regenerations cycles. The alumina-aerogel-supported K₂CO₃ showed a great performance compared to unsupported K₂CO₃ and γ-alumina-supported K₂CO₃. Fundamental performance analyses and long-term thermal and chemical stability test will be performed on the sorbent in the future. The applicability of the sorbent for a bench-scale process will be evaluated, and a corresponding process model will be established. The fundamental material knowledge and respective process development will be delivered to industrial partners for the design of a pilot-scale testing unit, thereby facilitating the industrial application of alumina-aerogel.

Keywords: alumina-aerogel, CO₂ capture, K₂CO₃, optimization

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