Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15496

Search results for: average sample number (ASN)

15496 The Correlation between Education, Food Intake, Exercise, and Medication Obedience with the Average of Blood Sugar in Indonesia

Authors: Aisyah Rahmatul Laily


Indonesia Ministry of Health is increasing their awareness on non communicable diseases. From the top ten causes of death, two of them are non communicable diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the two non communicable diseases above that have the increasing number of patient from year to year. From that problem, this research is made to determine the correlation between education, food intake, exercise, and the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar. In this research, the researchers used observational and cross-sectional studies. The sample that used in this research were 50 patients in Puskesmas Gamping I Yogyakarta who have suffered from Diabetes Mellitus in long period. The researcher doing anamnesis by using questionnaire to collect the data, then analyzed it with Chi Square to determine the correlation between each variable. The dependent variable in this research is the average of blood sugar, whereas the independent variables are education, food intake, do exercise, and the obedience of medication. The result shows a relation between education and average blood sugar level (p=0.029), a relation between food intake and average blood sugar level (p=0.009), and a relation between exercise and average blood sugar level (p=0.023). There is also a relation between the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar (p=0,002). The conclusion is that the positive correlations exist between education and average blood sugar level, between food intake and average blood sugar level, and between medication obedience and average blood sugar level.

Keywords: average of blood sugar, education, exercise, food intake, medication obedience

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
15495 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Belmiloud Mohamed Amine, Sad Chemloul Nord-Eddine


In this study we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity and the varying of the Richardson number on the variation of the average Nusselt number. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless governing equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra = 10000 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr = 0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number and emissivity affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: mixed convection, square cavity, wall emissivity, lid-driven, numerical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
15494 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Authors: Davood Shishebori, Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad, Sina Seifi


In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

Keywords: MDS sampling plan, RGS plan, sampling plan for resubmitted lots, process capability index (PCI), average sample number (ASN), Bayesian approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
15493 A Survey to Determine the Incidence of Piglets' Mortality in Outdoor Farms in New Zealand

Authors: Patrick C. H. Morel, Ian W. Barugh, Kirsty L. Chidgey


The aim of this study was to quantify the level of piglet deaths in outdoor farrowing systems in New Zealand. A total of 14 farms were visited, the farmers interviewed, and data collected. A total of 10,154 sows were kept on those farms representing an estimated 33% of the NZ sow herd or 80% of the outdoor sow herd in 2016. Data from 25,911 litters was available for the different analyses. The characteristics and reproductive performance for the years 2015-2016 from the 14 farms surveyed in this study were analysed, and the following results were obtained. The average percentage of stillbirths was 7.1% ranging between 3.5 and 10.7%, and the average pre-weaning live-born mortality was 16.7% ranging between 3.7% and 23.6%. The majority of piglet deaths (89%) occurred during the first week after birth, with 81% of deaths occurring up to day three. The number of piglets born alive was 12.3 (8.0 to 14.0), and average number of piglets weaned per sow per year was 22.4, range 10.5-27.3. The average stocking rate per ha (number of sows and mated gilts) was 15.3 and ranged from 2.8 to 28.6. The sow to boar ratio average was 20.9:1 and the range was 7.1: 1 to 63:1. The sow replacement rate ranged between 37% and 78%. There was a large variation in the piglet live-born mortality both between months within a farm and between farms within a given month. The monthly recorded piglet mortality ranged between 7.7% and 31.5%, and there was no statistically significant difference between months on the number of piglets born, born alive, weaned or on pre-weaning piglet mortality. Twelve different types of hut/farrowing systems were used on the 14 farms. No difference in piglet mortality was observed between A-Frame, A-Frame Modified and for Box-shape huts. There was a positive relationship between the average number of piglets born per litter and the number of piglets born alive (r=0.975) or the number weaned per litter (r=0.845). Moreover, as the average number of piglets born-alive increases, both pre-weaning live-born mortality rate and the number of piglets weaned increased. An increase of 1 piglet in the number born alive corresponds to an increase of 2.9% in live-born mortality and an increase of 0.56 piglets weaned. Farmers reported that staff are the key to success with the key attributes being: good and reliable with attention to detail and skills with the stock.

Keywords: mortality, piglets, outdoor, pig farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
15492 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya


This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: electrohydrodynamics (EHD), swirling flow, convective heat transfer, solid sample

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
15491 An EWMA P-Chart Based on Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: Saowanit Sukparungsee


Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: number of defects, exponentially weighted moving average, average run length, square root transformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
15490 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost


Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
15489 Forecasting Model to Predict Dengue Incidence in Malaysia

Authors: W. H. Wan Zakiyatussariroh, A. A. Nasuhar, W. Y. Wan Fairos, Z. A. Nazatul Shahreen


Forecasting dengue incidence in a population can provide useful information to facilitate the planning of the public health intervention. Many studies on dengue cases in Malaysia were conducted but are limited in modeling the outbreak and forecasting incidence. This article attempts to propose the most appropriate time series model to explain the behavior of dengue incidence in Malaysia for the purpose of forecasting future dengue outbreaks. Several seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were developed to model Malaysia’s number of dengue incidence on weekly data collected from January 2001 to December 2011. SARIMA (2,1,1)(1,1,1)52 model was found to be the most suitable model for Malaysia’s dengue incidence with the least value of Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC) for in-sample fitting. The models further evaluate out-sample forecast accuracy using four different accuracy measures. The results indicate that SARIMA (2,1,1)(1,1,1)52 performed well for both in-sample fitting and out-sample evaluation.

Keywords: time series modeling, Box-Jenkins, SARIMA, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
15488 Effect of the Average Kits Birth Weight and of the Number of Born Alive per Liter on the Milk Production of Algerian Rabbit Raised in Aures Area

Authors: S. Moumen, M. Melizi


In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria; a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10-15 min between the 2 weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240, and 2801g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, litter size, rabbit, Aures area, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
15487 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah


Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
15486 Determining Optimal Number of Trees in Random Forests

Authors: Songul Cinaroglu


Background: Random Forest is an efficient, multi-class machine learning method using for classification, regression and other tasks. This method is operating by constructing each tree using different bootstrap sample of the data. Determining the number of trees in random forests is an open question in the literature for studies about improving classification performance of random forests. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is an optimal number of trees in Random Forests and how performance of Random Forests differ according to increase in number of trees using sample health data sets in R programme. Method: In this study we analyzed the performance of Random Forests as the number of trees grows and doubling the number of trees at every iteration using “random forest” package in R programme. For determining minimum and optimal number of trees we performed Mc Nemar test and Area Under ROC Curve respectively. Results: At the end of the analysis it was found that as the number of trees grows, it does not always means that the performance of the forest is better than forests which have fever trees. In other words larger number of trees only increases computational costs but not increases performance results. Conclusion: Despite general practice in using random forests is to generate large number of trees for having high performance results, this study shows that increasing number of trees doesn’t always improves performance. Future studies can compare different kinds of data sets and different performance measures to test whether Random Forest performance results change as number of trees increase or not.

Keywords: classification methods, decision trees, number of trees, random forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
15485 Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater Resources under Uncertainty: A Retrospective Optimization Approach

Authors: Julius M. Ndambuki, Gislar E. Kifanyi, Samuel N. Odai, Charles Gyamfi


Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources is a challenging task due to the spatial and temporal variability nature of hydrology as well as hydrogeology of the water storage systems. Surface water-groundwater hydrogeology is highly uncertain; thus it is imperative that this uncertainty is explicitly accounted for, when managing water resources. Various methodologies have been developed and applied by researchers in an attempt to account for the uncertainty. For example, simulation-optimization models are often used for conjunctive water resources management. However, direct application of such an approach in which all realizations are considered at each iteration of the optimization process leads to a very expensive optimization in terms of computational time, particularly when the number of realizations is large. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to introduce and apply an efficient approach referred to as Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA) that can be used for optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater over a multiple hydrogeological model simulations. This work is based on stochastic simulation-optimization framework using a recently emerged technique of sample average approximation (SAA) which is a sampling based method implemented within the Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA) approach. The ROA approach solves and evaluates a sequence of generated optimization sub-problems in an increasing number of realizations (sample size). Response matrix technique was used for linking simulation model with optimization procedure. The k-means clustering sampling technique was used to map the realizations. The methodology is demonstrated through the application to a hypothetical example. In the example, the optimization sub-problems generated were solved and analysed using “Active-Set” core optimizer implemented under MATLAB 2014a environment. Through k-means clustering sampling technique, the ROA – Active Set procedure was able to arrive at a (nearly) converged maximum expected total optimal conjunctive water use withdrawal rate within a relatively few number of iterations (6 to 7 iterations). Results indicate that the ROA approach is a promising technique for optimizing conjunctive water use of surface water and groundwater withdrawal rates under hydrogeological uncertainty.

Keywords: conjunctive water management, retrospective optimization approximation approach, sample average approximation, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
15484 Influence of Natural Rubber on the Frictional and Mechanical Behavior of the Composite Brake Pad Materials

Authors: H. Yanar, G. Purcek, H. H. Ayar


The ingredients of composite materials used for the production of composite brake pads play an important role in terms of safety braking performance of automobiles and trains. Therefore, the ingredients must be selected carefully and used in appropriate ratios in the matrix structure of the brake pad materials. In the present study, a non-asbestos organic composite brake pad materials containing binder resin, space fillers, solid lubricants, and friction modifier was developed, and its fillers content was optimized by adding natural rubber with different rate into the specified matrix structure in order to achieve the best combination of tribo-performance and mechanical properties. For this purpose, four compositions with different rubber content (2.5wt.%, 5.0wt.%, 7.5wt.% and 10wt.%) were prepared and then test samples with the diameter of 20 mm and length of 15 mm were produced to evaluate the friction and mechanical behaviors of the mixture. The friction and wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disc type test rig which was designed according to NF-F-11-292 French standard. All test samples were subjected to two different types of friction tests defined as periodic braking and continuous braking (also known as fade test). In this way, the coefficient of friction (CoF) of composite sample with different rubber content were determined as a function of number of braking cycle and temperature of the disc surface. The results demonstrated that addition of rubber into the matrix structure of the composite caused a significant change in the CoF. Average CoF of the composite samples increased linearly with increasing rubber content into the matrix. While the average CoF was 0.19 for the rubber-free composite, the composite sample containing 20wt.% rubber had the maximum CoF of about 0.24. Although the CoF of composite sample increased, the amount of specific wear rate decreased with increasing rubber content into the matrix. On the other hand, it was observed that the CoF decreased with increasing temperature generated in-between sample and disk depending on the increasing rubber content. While the CoF decreased to the minimum value of 0.15 at 400 °C for the rubber-free composite sample, the sample having the maximum rubber content of 10wt.% exhibited the lowest one of 0.09 at the same temperature. Addition of rubber into the matrix structure decreased the hardness and strength of the samples. It was concluded from the results that the composite matrix with 5 wt.% rubber had the best composition regarding the performance parameters such as required frictional and mechanical behavior. This composition has the average CoF of 0.21, specific wear rate of 0.024 cm³/MJ and hardness value of 63 HRX.

Keywords: brake pad composite, friction and wear, rubber, friction materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
15483 Socio-Emotional Skills of Children with Learning Disability, Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement

Authors: P. Maheshwari, M. Brindavan


The present research aimed to study the level of socio-emotional skills and perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability. The study further investigated the relationship between the levels of socio-emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement of children with learning disability. The sample comprised of 40 children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai. Purposive or Judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability. A self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale and Child’s Social and Emotional Skills Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy and their level of social and emotional skill respectively. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into a percentage. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. Spearman rho or Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the multiple relationships between child’s perceived self-efficacy, child’s social and emotional skills and child’s academic achievement. The findings revealed majority (27) of the children with learning disability perceived themselves having above average level of social and emotional skills while 13 out of 40 perceived their level of social and emotional skills at an average level. Domain wise analyses revealed that, in the domain of self- management (26) and relationship skills (22) more number of the children perceived themselves as having average or below average level of social and emotional skills indicating that they perceived themselves as having average or below average skills in regulating their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations, establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse groups and individuals. With regard to perceived self-efficacy, the majority of the children with learning disability perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Looking at the data domain wise it was found that, in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy, 50% of the children perceived themselves at average or below average level, indicating that they perceived themselves as average on competencies like organizing academic activities, structuring environment to make it conducive for learning, expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner. Further, the correlations were computed, and significant positive correlations were found between children’s social and emotional skills and academic achievement (r=.378, p < .01), and between children’s social and emotional skills and child’s perceived self-efficacy (r = .724, p < .01) and a positive significant correlation was also found between children’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Results of the study emphasize on planning intervention for children with learning disability focusing on improving self-management and relationship skills, self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy.

Keywords: learning disability, social and emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy, academic achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
15482 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik


This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after the 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, Negative binomial, Zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, Negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
15481 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: A. Ghafouri, N. Pourmahmoud, I. Mirzaee


In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: nanofluid, nanoparticle diameter, heat transfer enhancement, square enclosure, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
15480 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Yupaporn Areepong


The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: average run length, optimal parameters, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), control chart

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
15479 The Attitude and Willingness to Use Telecare for Arthritis Patients

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang


Nowadays, the population is aging, the number of people who need to be taken care of is increased, but the manpower and funding are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to explore the attitudes and willingness of arthritis patients to adopt telecare and to take a large medical institution in the central area of Taiwan as a sample hospital. A structured questionnaire (using the Likert five-point scale) was used to collect chronic patients over 20 years old as sample data, and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were effectively collected. The SPSS 18.0 statistical software was used for reliability analysis and independent sample t-test to explore the differences in attitudes and willingness to use telecare for arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients. The Cronbach's alpha value of this study questionnaire was above 0.94, showing good reliability. Arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients had statistically significant differences in attitudes toward telecare, while the willingness to use did not reach statistically significant differences. In addition, the average attitude and intention of arthritis patients for telecare are 3.38 and 3.41, respectively, indicating that arthritis patients have a certain degree of attitude and willingness to adopt telecare, which is worthy of follow-up research and practical industry push.

Keywords: telecare, arthritis patients, attitudes, intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
15478 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
15477 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard


In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
15476 Evaluation of Milk Production of an Algerian Rabbit Population Raised in Aures Area

Authors: Moumen Souad, Melizi Mohamed


In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10–15 min between the two weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21 g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240 and 2801 g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation, respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, litter size, rabbit, Aures area, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
15475 A Comparative Analysis of Grade Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Non Board Passers and Board Passers

Authors: Rob Gesley Capistrano, Jasper James Isaac, Rose Mae Moralda, Therese Anne Peleo, Danica Rillo, Maria Virginia Santillian


One of the valuable things that shows the intelligence among individuals is the academic background specifically their Grade Weighted Average and the significant result of the Comprehensive Examination. The general objective of the researchers to this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between General Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Psychometrician Board Passers and Non-Board Passers. The respondents of this study composed of board passers and non-board passers. The researchers used purposive sampling technique. The result utilized by using T-test Independent Sample to determine the comparison of General Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Board Passers and Non Board Passers. At the end, it concluded that the General Weighted Average of Board Passers and Non-Board Passers shows that there is no significant difference, but the average showed a minimal variation. The Comprehensive Examination Result of Board Passers and Non-Board Passers result revealed that there is a significant difference. The performance of comprehensive examination that will test the overall knowledge of an individual and will determine whose more proficient will likely to have a higher score. The result of the comprehensive examination had an impact in the passing performance of board examination.

Keywords: board passers, comprehensive examination result, grade weighted average, non board passers

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
15474 The Brand Value of Cosmetics in the View of Customers in Thailand

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn


The purpose of this research is to study the relationship customer perception and brand value of cosmetics in the view of customers in Thailand. The research is quantitative research using the survey method by questionnaire. Data were collected from female cosmetics consumer that residents in Bangkok, aged between 25-55 years. Researchers have determined the size of the sample by using Taro Yamane technic a total of 400 people. The study found the Shiseido cosmetics brand image always come with the new products innovation is in the height level. The average was 3.812, second is Shiseido brand has used innovation to produce the product for 3.792. And brand Shiseido looks luxury with an average of 3.707 respectively. In additional in terms of Lancôme cosmetic brand found the brand image is luxury at the height levels for 4.170 average. The seductive glamor is considered in the moderate with an average of 3.822 respectively.

Keywords: brand image, international fashion dress, values, working women

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15473 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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15472 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Household Accounting of People in Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram

Authors: Khajeerat Phumpurk


This research aims to study the knowledge, attitude toward household accounting of people in Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram. The sample use in this study was the people in tambol bangkeao Mueang Samut songkhram province. The Sample size for 100 household by using the accidental sampling and data collection was a questionnaire. Statistical analysis for frequency, percentage, mean, minimum, maximum value and standard deviation. It was found that the most of the respondent are farmers for 63.4. Most of them are male, with average of age 49.54 years. The education is vocational. The average household income is 60,873.74 per year. The respondent has the debt with the bank for 64.4 percent. The greatest influence to do the household accounting of farmers is the bank expertise. All the advice about doing household accounts get it from the staff of the bank for agriculture and agricultural cooperatives. The farmers for 57.3 do household accounting during the night time.

Keywords: Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram, household accounting, knowledge, sufficiency economy

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15471 The Development of Online-Class Scheduling Management System Conducted by the Case Study of Department of Social Science: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Wipada Chaiwchan, Patcharee Klinhom


This research is aimed to develop the online-class scheduling management system and improve as a complex problem solution, this must take into consideration in various conditions and factors. In addition to the number of courses, the number of students and a timetable to study, the physical characteristics of each class room and regulations used in the class scheduling must also be taken into consideration. This system is developed to assist management in the class scheduling for convenience and efficiency. It can provide several instructors to schedule simultaneously. Both lecturers and students can check and publish a timetable and other documents associated with the system online immediately. It is developed in a web-based application. PHP is used as a developing tool. The database management system was MySQL. The tool that is used for efficiency testing of the system is questionnaire. The system was evaluated by using a Black-Box testing. The sample was composed of 2 groups: 5 experts and 100 general users. The average and the standard deviation of results from the experts were 3.50 and 0.67. The average and the standard deviation of results from the general users were 3.54 and 0.54. In summary, the results from the research indicated that the satisfaction of users was in a good level. Therefore, this system could be implemented in an actual workplace and satisfy the users’ requirement effectively

Keywords: timetable, schedule, management system, online

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15470 Performance Evaluation of Diverging Diamond Interchange Compared to Single Point Diamond Interchange in Riyadh City

Authors: Maged A. Mogalli, Abdullah I. Al-Mansour, Seongkwan Mark Lee


In the last decades, population growth has gradually exceeded transportation infrastructure growth, and today’s transportation professionals are facing challenge on how to meet the mobility needs of a rising population especially in the absence of adequate public transport, as is the case in Saudi Arabia. The traffic movement congestion can be decreased by carrying out some appropriate alternative designs of interchanges such as diverging diamond interchange (DDI) and single diamond interchange (SPDI). In this paper, evaluation of newly implemented DDIs at the interchange of Makkah road with Prince Turki road and the interchange of King Khaled road with Prince Saud Ibn Mohammed Ibn Mugrin road in Riyadh city was carried out. The comparison between the DDI and SPDI is conducted by evaluating different measures of effectiveness (MOE) such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. In this connection, each interchange type was evaluated for traffic flow at peak hours using micro-simulation program namely 'Synchro/SimTarffic' to measure its effectiveness such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The results of this study show that DDI provides a better result when compared with SPDI in terms of stope delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The stop delay for the SPDI is greater than DDI by three times. Also, the average queue length is approximately twice that of the SPDI when compared to the DDI. Furthermore, the number of stops for the SPDI is about twice as the DDI.

Keywords: single point diamond interchange, diverging diamond interchange, measures of effectiveness, simulation

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15469 Performance Analysis of PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems based on Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) Technique

Authors: Alcardo Alex Barakabitze, Tan Xiaoheng


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a special case of Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) technique which transmits a stream of data over a number of lower data rate subcarriers. OFDM splits the total transmission bandwidth into a number of orthogonal and non-overlapping subcarriers and transmit the collection of bits called symbols in parallel using these subcarriers. This paper explores the Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) using the Partial Transmit Sequence technique. We provide the distribution analysis and the basics of OFDM signals and then show how the PAPR increases as the number of subcarriers increases. We provide the performance analysis of CCDF and PAPR expressed in decibels through MATLAB simulations. The simulation results show that, in PTS technique, the performance of PAPR reduction in OFDM systems improves significantly as the number of sub-blocks increases. However, by keeping the same number of sub-blocks variation, oversampling factor and the number of OFDM blocks’ iteration for generating the CCDF, the OFDM systems with 128 subcarriers have an improved performance in PAPR reduction compared to OFDM systems with 256, 512 or >512 subcarriers.

Keywords: OFDM, peak to average power reduction (PAPR), bit error rate (BER), subcarriers, wireless communications

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15468 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Vertical Cylinder under an External Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Maache, R. Bessaih


In this study, the effect of the magnetic field direction on the free convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder filled with an Al₂O₃ nanofluid is investigated numerically. The external magnetic field is applied in either direction axial and radial on a cylinder having an aspect ratio H/R0=5, bounded by the top and the bottom disks at temperatures Tc and Th and by an adiabatic side wall. The equations of continuity, Navier Stocks and energy are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by the finite volume method. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed and compared with the numerical results found in the literature. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: The Hartmann number (Ha=0, 5, 10, …, 40), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0, 0.025, …,0.1) and Rayleigh number (Ra=103, Ra=104 and Ra=105). The behavior of average Nusselt number, streamlines and temperature contours are illustrated. The results revel that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number. Depending on the magnetic field direction and on the values of Hartmann and Rayleigh numbers, an increase of the solid volume fraction may result enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance in the nanofluid.

Keywords: natural convection, nanofluid, magnetic field, vertical cylinder

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15467 A Study on the False Alarm Rates of MEWMA and MCUSUM Control Charts When the Parameters Are Estimated

Authors: Umar Farouk Abbas, Danjuma Mustapha, Hamisu Idi


It is now a known fact that quality is an important issue in manufacturing industries. A control chart is an integrated and powerful tool in statistical process control (SPC). The mean µ and standard deviation σ parameters are estimated. In general, the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) and multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) are used in the detection of small shifts in joint monitoring of several correlated variables; the charts used information from past data which makes them sensitive to small shifts. The aim of the paper is to compare the performance of Shewhart xbar, MEWMA, and MCUSUM control charts in terms of their false rates when parameters are estimated with autocorrelation. A simulation was conducted in R software to generate the average run length (ARL) values of each of the charts. After the analysis, the results show that a comparison of the false alarm rates of the charts shows that MEWMA chart has lower false alarm rates than the MCUSUM chart at various levels of parameter estimated to the number of ARL0 (in control) values. Also noticed was that the sample size has an advert effect on the false alarm of the control charts.

Keywords: average run length, MCUSUM chart, MEWMA chart, false alarm rate, parameter estimation, simulation

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