Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6642

Search results for: energy diplomacy

6642 Strategy of Balancing in Russian Energy Diplomacy toward Middle East

Authors: Davood Karimipour

Abstract:

Since long ago, Russia has been one of the most influential actors in regional equations in South West Asia. The geographic affinity of its vital interests with Western Asia has caused Moscow to have a high sensitivity to the balance of power in the Middle East, as its role in the Syrian crisis clearly demonstrated the importance. In recent years, Moscow has tried to use the energy diplomacy tool in maintaining the balance of power between the major powers in the region. The paper, based on the qualitative case study method, investigates how Russia’s energy diplomacy plays a role in the balance of regional forces in the Middle East, studying the country’s conduct towards Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Israel. The hypothesis presented that Russia, using energy tools, is trying to push the regional powers toward cooperation in order to increase the influence in the region, increase power in global markets, and controlling the US to restore power balance in the region. Its cooperation in the Iranian gas industry, the country’s relations with Saudis in the framework of OPEC, cooperation with the Turkish Kurds and the presence in the Israeli gas industry are an example of these Russian energy diplomacy initiatives in West Asia, which is the common point of the Moscow approach to South West Asia.

Keywords: Russia, balance of power, energy diplomacy, Middle East

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6641 China Health Diplomacy in Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health diplomacy in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and foreign relations and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, china’s health diplomacy, COVID-19, bilateral relations

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6640 China’s Health Silk Road in the Middle East and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Middle East and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. And findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success, and Beijing has assumed a leadership role in the world’s health governance. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: china’s health silk road, COVID-19, europe, middle east

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6639 Role of Diplomacy toward Social Welfare, Equity and Economic Growth: Case Study of President Joko Widodo's Economic Diplomacy in Investment Sector in Indonesia

Authors: Raihan Zahirah Mauludy Ridwan, Frisca Devi Choirina

Abstract:

Indonesia with its former presidents has enhanced the bilateral cooperation also multilateral cooperation in terms of economy but the result was not significant towards eradicating poverty, unemployment, income inequality, and economic growth. To eradicate these problems, President Joko Widodo through his several points of Nawacita wants to boost Indonesia’s economic relationship and cooperation which manifested in “Economic Diplomacy” as one of Indonesia’s foreign policy priority and he pitches it in international forums. The economic diplomacy does not only attracts prospective countries but also attracts the foreign businessman and investors. The economic diplomacy includes four sectors which are vital for economic growth, one of them is investment. This paper would like to answer how economic diplomacy can have significant impact towards social welfare, equity and economic growth especially in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of economic diplomacy and its impact toward Indonesia’s welfare, equity, and economic growth. This paper uses the theory of economic diplomacy to link the current international political economic sphere and the impact of economic diplomacy for Indonesia through case study method. The paper affirms that economic diplomacy in investment sector does have significant impact, especially in the development of infrastructures, foreign direct investment in several sectors, and food security.

Keywords: economic diplomacy, economic growth, equity, Indonesia, Joko Widodo, social welfare

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6638 Creative Peace Diplomacy Model by the Perspective of Dialogue Management for International Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to keep peace all over the world. The study titled “peace diplomacy for international relations” is consist of three part. In the first part, peace diplomacy is going to be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. And, in this part, peace communication will be explained by international communication perspective. In the second part of the study,public relations events and communication campaigns will be developed originally for peace diplomacy. In this part, it is aimed original public communication dialogue management tools for peace diplomacy. the aim of the final part of the study, is to produce original public communication model for international relations. The model includes peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols, dialogue education, dialogue management strategies, peace actors, communication models, peace team management and public diplomacy steps. The creative part of the study aims to develop a model used for international relations for all countries. Creative Peace Diplomacy Model will be developed in the case of Turkey-Turkey-France and Turkey-Greece relations. So, communication and public relations events and campaigns are going to be developed as original for only this study.

Keywords: peace diplomacy, public communication model, dialogue management, international relations

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6637 Defence Diplomacy and Collective Security in Africa: Case of Rwanda Defence Forces

Authors: Emmanuel Mugiraneza

Abstract:

Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to pursue international collective security through different mechanisms. This paper shows that with an intent of promoting international collective security, Rwanda has constituted its defense diplomacy policy in three standpoints. First, Rwanda has formed strategic cooperation alliances with state actors, regional and international Organizations that enables her to participate in and promote international collective peace, security and cooperation. Secondary, Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to foster cooperation in to pre-empt, minimize and neutralize potential triggers that would lead to the outbreak of international conflict. Thirdly, Rwanda implements defence diplomacy policy strategy through internationally recognized operational and tactical standards while dispelling hostilities, assisting the friendly nation’s forces and or building and maintaining public confidence and trust in the areas where Rwanda Defence Force deploys for peacekeeping missions in Sudan, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Mozambique for a counterterrorism mission.

Keywords: defence diplomacy, collective security, Rwanda, Peacekeeping

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6636 Media Diplomacy in the Age of Social Networks towards a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Diplomatic Cyber Engagement

Authors: Mohamamd Ayish

Abstract:

This study addresses media diplomacy as an integral component of public diplomacy which emerged in the United States in the post-World War II era and found applications in other countries around the world. The study seeks to evolve a conceptual framework for understanding the practice of public diplomacy through social networks, often referred to as social engagement diplomacy. This form of diplomacy is considered far more ahead of the other two forms associated with both government controlled and independent media. The cases of the Voice of America Arabic Service and the 1977 CBS interviews with the late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin are cited in this study as reflecting the two traditional models. The new social engagement model sees public diplomacy as an act of communication that seeks to effect changes in target audiences through a process of persuasion shaped by discourse orientations and technological features. The proposed conceptual framework for social, diplomatic engagement draws on an open communication environment, an empowered audience, an interactive and symmetrical process of communication, multimedia-based flows of information, direct and credible feedback, distortion and high risk. The writer believes this study would be helpful in providing appropriate knowledge pertaining to our understanding of social diplomacy and furnishing concrete insights into how diplomats could harness virtual space to maximize their goals in the global environment.

Keywords: diplomacy, engagement, social, globalization

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6635 Chinese “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy And Foreign Public Opinion

Authors: Chaohong Pan

Abstract:

Through public diplomacy on social media, governments have attempted to influence foreign public opinion. What is the impact of digital public diplomacy? Public diplomacy research often relies on content analysis to study the strategies employed by communicators but has rarely examined its actual impact on the audience. In addition, we do not know if giving a communicator an explicit label, as Twitter does with “government account”, would change the effects of the messages. Can the government label reduce the percussiveness of public diplomacy messages by sending a warning signal? Using a 2 × 2 survey experiment, the present paper contributes to the study of public diplomacy by randomly exposing American participants to four types of tweets from Chinese diplomats. The stimulus materials vary in terms of the tweets’ content (“positive-china” vs. “negative-US) and Twitter government labels (with vs. without the labels). I found that positive tweets about China have a significant positive effect on Americans’ attitudes toward China, whereas negative tweets about the US have little effect on their opinions. Furthermore, positive-China tweets are effective only on China-related issues, which indicates that Chinese diplomats’ tweets have limited effects on shaping a foreign audience’s attitudes toward their own country. Lastly, I find that labels largely have no impact on a diplomatic tweet’s effect. These results contribute to our understanding of the effects of public diplomacy in the digital age.

Keywords: public diplomacy, china, foreign public opinion, twitter

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6634 From Cultural Diversity to Cultural Diplomacy: The Practice of Normative Power Europe

Authors: Tzuli Lin

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore that the EU and Member State (UK) converges on cultural diplomacy to constitute an influential European external relations. It will address the development of EU cultural diplomacy and practice at Member state level. It also discusses the EU and Member States suffering in cultural resource overlapped. In contrast to the literature on the EU external relations, studies of the cultural dimension are rare. Thus, this paper will utilise the broad policy papers to explore how the cultural diversity among the Member States and the EU has a constructive progress at European level but not at Member State level. It can be argued that cultural component is the pivotal strategy for the stagnated EU external relations since the Euro crisis. The EU recognises that if it wants to promote the trade relations from the inside of Europe to outside, it requires the broad culture context among its traditional diplomacy, which brings the cultural component into a significant role. Even though in the area of Member State level, they share the fundamental value and idea, it does not elaborate Member States regarding the EU as a representative of European cultural diplomacy. In theory and practice, the discourse of Normative Power Europe (NPE) can be the analytic framework to construct the research of cultural diplomacy in Europe. NPE is an idea of the EU’s global role and spreading its norms to others. Moreover, Member States’ national interest has supreme priority rather than the EU. Therefore, this paper will utilise the UK as a case study to explore that cultural diplomacy shows fragmentation at European level. In the result, this paper will illustrate that the EU and the UK have mutual recognised each other as a partner not a leader.

Keywords: EU cultural diplomacy, cultural policy, cultural diversity, normative power

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6633 21st Century Gunboat Diplomacy and Strategic Sea Areas

Authors: Mustafa Avsever

Abstract:

Throughout history, states have attached great importance to seas in terms of economic and security. Advanced civilizations have always founded in coastal regions. Over time, human being has tended to trade and naturally always aimed get more and more. Seas by covering 71% of the earth, provide the greatest economic opportunities for access to raw material resources and the world market. As a result, seas have become the most important areas of conflict over the course of time. Coastal states, use seas as a tool for defense zone, trade, marine transportation and power transfer, they have acquired colonies overseas and increased their capital, raw materials and labor. Societies, have increased their economic prosperity, though their navies in order to retain their welfare and achieve their foreign policy objectives. Sometimes they have imposed their demands through the use or threat of limited naval force in accordance with their interests that is gunboat diplomacy. Today we can see samples of gunboat diplomacy used in the Eastern Mediterranean, during Ukraine crisis, in dispute between North Korea and South Korea and the ongoing power struggle in Asia-Pacific. Gunboat diplomacy has been and continues to be applied consistently in solving problems by the stronger side of the problem. The purpose of this article is to examine using navy under the gunboat diplomacy as an active instrument of foreign policy and security policy and reveal the strategic sea areas in which gunboat diplomacy is used effectively in the matrix of international politics in the 21st century.

Keywords: gunboat diplomacy, maritime strategy, sea power, strategic sea lands

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6632 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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6631 International Solar Alliance: A Case for Indian Solar Diplomacy

Authors: Swadha Singh

Abstract:

International Solar Alliance is the foremost treaty-based global organization concerned with tapping the potential of sun-abundant nations between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and enables co-operation among them. As a founding member of the International Solar Alliance, India exhibits its positioning as an upcoming leader in clean energy. India has set ambitious goals and targets to expand the share of solar in its energy mix and is playing a proactive role both at the regional and global levels. ISA aims to serve multiple goals- bring about scale commercialization of solar power, boost domestic manufacturing, and leverage solar diplomacy in African countries, amongst others. Against this backdrop, this paper attempts to examine the ways in which ISA as an intergovernmental organization under Indian leadership can leverage the cause of clean energy (solar) diplomacy and effectively shape partnerships and collaborations with other developing countries in terms of sharing solar technology, capacity building, risk mitigation, mobilizing financial investment and providing an aggregate market. A more specific focus of ISA is on the developing countries, which in the absence of a collective, are constrained by technology and capital scarcity, despite being naturally endowed with solar resources. Solar rich but finance-constrained economies face political risk, foreign exchange risk, and off-taker risk. Scholars argue that aligning India’s climate change discourse and growth prospects in its engagements, collaborations, and partnerships at the bilateral, multilateral and regional level can help promote trade, attract investments, and promote resilient energy transition both in India and in partner countries. For developing countries, coming together in an action-oriented way on issues of climate and clean energy is particularly important since it is developing and underdeveloped countries that face multiple and coalescing challenges such as the adverse impact of climate change, uneven and low access to reliable energy, and pressing employment needs. Investing in green recovery is agreed to be an assured way to create resilient value chains, create sustainable livelihoods, and help mitigate climate threats. If India is able to ‘green its growth’ process, it holds the potential to emerge as a climate leader internationally. It can use its experience in the renewable sector to guide other developing countries in balancing multiple similar objectives of development, energy security, and sustainability. The challenges underlying solar expansion in India have lessons to offer other developing countries, giving India an opportunity to assume a leadership role in solar diplomacy and expand its geopolitical influence through inter-governmental organizations such as ISA. It is noted that India has limited capacity to directly provide financial funds and support and is not a leading manufacturer of cheap solar equipment, as does China; however, India can nonetheless leverage its large domestic market to scale up the commercialization of solar power and offer insights and learnings to similarly placed abundant solar countries. The paper examines the potential of and limits placed on India’s solar diplomacy.

Keywords: climate diplomacy, energy security, solar diplomacy, renewable energy

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6630 Indonesia’s Defense Diplomacy Strength Towards China’s Aggressive Maritime Policy

Authors: Pangihutan Panjaitan, Helda Risman, Devindra Oktaviano

Abstract:

This research is departed from the security issues generated from China’s unilateral claims in the South China Sea conflict. The diplomacy challenges come from Indonesia’s relations with China as well as with ASEAN-member countries involved in the conflict. It is estimated that the conflict in the South China Sea region will become an endless conflict. Comprehensively, Indonesia is implementing a gradual shift in diplomatic approach in creating positive and constructive ties among Indonesia, China, and ASEAN. In line with the rapid-changing world order, the conventional military approach becomes less significant in today’s modern inter-state interactions. This research is conducted in a qualitative literature review to explain how Indonesia’s recent soft diplomacy approach applied in the South China Sea conflict. This type of diplomacy theoretically assumed as one of the most preferred ways to establish mutual trust and confidence among conflicting parties. Maritime issues found its significance in contemporary foreign policy since the world’s most dynamic region has moved to the archipelagic Asia-Pacific. As mentioned by rationalists, every country, including Indonesia, has surely formulated its own prominent national interest, such as the defense aspect. Finally, this research will provide a deep analysis on Indonesia’s centrality in ASEAN as an effective way to ensure Indonesia’s strategic policy in the region well accommodated.

Keywords: soft diplomacy, south China sea, national defense, China

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6629 The Role of KontraS as Track-6 on Multi Track Diplomacy for Conflict Resolution: Case Study Human Rights Crisis in Myanmar in 2015

Authors: Hardi Alunaza, Mauidhotu Rofiq

Abstract:

This research is attempted to describe the role of KontraS as track-6 on multi track diplomacy for conflict resolution in Myanmar in 2015. The researcher took the specific interest on multi track diplomacy and transnational advocacy concepts to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this essay is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website in supporting the explanation of this research. The result of this research is divided into two important points in explaining the role of KontraS in cases of human rights crisis in Myanmar. First, KontraS as human rights NGO in Indonesia was able to advocate against human rights violence that occurred in other countries by encouraging Indonesian Government to take part in the resolution of human rights issues affecting the Rohingya people in Burma. Also, KontraS take advantages of transnational advocacy networks as a form of politics and accountabilities responsibility of Non-Governmental Organization against human rights crisis in other countries.

Keywords: conflict resolution, human rights crisis, multi track diplomacy, transnational advocacy

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6628 Common Sense Leadership in the Example of Turkish Political Leader Devlet Bahçeli

Authors: B. Gültekin, T. Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to maintain peace all over the World. This study consists of three parts. In the first part, the leadership of Devlet Bahçeli, leader of the Nationalist Movement Party, will be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. Also, in this part, peace communication will be explained by the peace leadership traits of Devlet Bahçeli, who is one of the efficient political leaders representing the concepts of compromise and agreement on different sides of politics. In the second part of study, it is aimed to analyze Devlet Bahçeli’s leadership within the frame of peace communication and the final part of this study is about creating an original public communication model for public diplomacy based on Devlet Bahçeli as an example. As a result, the main purpose of this study is to develop an original peace communication model including peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols exhibited in the policies of Devlet Bahçeli. The political leadership represented by Devlet Bahçeli inspires political leaders to provide peace communication. In this study, principles and policies of peace leadership of Devlet Bahçeli will be explained as an original model on a peace communication platform.

Keywords: public diplomacy, dialogue management, peace leadership, peace diplomacy

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6627 Soft Power Building through International Education: Indonesia's KNB Scholarship Scheme

Authors: Ratih Indraswari

Abstract:

As it occupies a new status in international relations, Indonesia needs to re-organize its resources in projecting the preferred image internationally. Attractiveness becomes crucial as Indonesia needs to maintain its posture as a reliable contributor to the world. This paper tries to scrutinize the un-tap potential of ideational powers Indonesia possesses. Herein the ideational power is assumed to be translated into a soft power, intangible and rely on its influential degree to persuade and attract other countries, through its public diplomacy activities. A specific correlation will be dedicated to the effort of Indonesia public diplomacy on international education. It is believed that international education progresses mutual understanding in disseminating Indonesia values and engages public audience. As a result these exchanges and engagements support the attainment of Indonesia’s interests and forwarding Indonesia’s foreign policies. A case study on KNB (Kemitraan Negara berkembang) scholarship scheme will be provided and its impact towards building people-to-people connections.

Keywords: Indonesia, international education, KNB (Kemitraan Negara Berkembang), public diplomacy

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6626 Globalisation and Diplomacy: How Can Small States Improve the Practice of Diplomacy to Secure Their Foreign Policy Objectives?

Authors: H. M. Ross-McAlpine

Abstract:

Much of what is written on diplomacy, globalization and the global economy addresses the changing nature of relationships between major powers. While the most dramatic and influential changes have resulted from these developing relationships the world is not, on deeper inspection, governed neatly by major powers. Due to advances in technology, the shifting balance of power and a changing geopolitical order, small states have the ability to exercise a greater influence than ever before. Increasingly interdependent and ever complex, our world is too delicate to be handled by a mighty few. The pressure of global change requires small states to adapt their diplomatic practices and diversify their strategic alliances and relationships. The nature and practice of diplomacy must be re-evaluated in light of the pressures resulting from globalization. This research examines: how small states can best secure their foreign policy objectives? Small state theory is used as a foundation for exploring the case study of New Zealand. The research draws on secondary sources to evaluate the existing theory in relation to modern practices of diplomacy. As New Zealand lacks the required economic and military power to play an active, influential role in international affairs what strategies are used to exert influence? Furthermore, New Zealand lies in a remote corner of the Pacific and is geographically isolated from its nearest neighbors how does this affect security and trade priorities? The findings note a significant shift since the 1970’s in New Zealand’s diplomatic relations. This shift is arguably a direct result of globalization, regionalism and a growing independence from the traditional bi-lateral relationships. The need to source predictable trade, investment and technology are an essential driving force for New Zealand’s diplomatic relations. A lack of hard power aligns New Zealand’s prosperity with a secure, rules-based international system that increases the likelihood of a stable and secure global order. New Zealand’s diplomacy and prosperity has been intrinsically reliant on its reputation. A vital component of New Zealand’s diplomacy is preserving a reputation for integrity and global responsibility. It is the use of this soft power that facilitates the influence that New Zealand enjoys on the world stage. To weave a comprehensive network of successful diplomatic relationships, New Zealand must maintain a reputation of international credibility. Globalization has substantially influenced the practice of diplomacy for New Zealand. The current world order places economic and military might in the hands of a few, subsequently requiring smaller states to use other means for securing their interests. There are clear strategies evident in New Zealand’s diplomacy practice that draw attention to how other smaller states might best secure their foreign policy objectives. While these findings are limited, as with all case study research, there is value in applying the findings to other small states struggling to secure their interests in the wake of rapid globalization.

Keywords: diplomacy, foreign policy, globalisation, small state

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6625 Film Diplomacy: An Approach to International Relations

Authors: Lawrence Akande

Abstract:

Despite the efforts of African countries' governments and the foreign countries' governments, there are cautions between the people of Africa and the people of other countries. The cautions are based on the ideology of misconception, which comes from the narratives about Africa and African people and narratives about other people also. The film is a medium of educating people about people from foreign countries they have never been to. Negative or misconceived narratives about a people will affect the relations between the peoples, despite the efforts of the government. Using pop-culture medium of film as a diplomatic tool will promote mutual understanding and respect.

Keywords: film diplomacy, international relations, narratives, Nollywood, partnership

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6624 Indian Diplomacy in a Post Pandemic World

Authors: Esha Banerji

Abstract:

This paper attempts an assessment of India's behaviour as a foreign policy actor amidst the COVID 19 pandemic by briefly surveying the various introductions and alterations made to India's foreign policy. First, the paper attempts to establish the key strategic pillars of Indian foreign policy after reviewing the existing works. It then proceeds to assess the prominent part played by Health Diplomacy ("Vaccine Maitri") in India's bilateral and multilateral relations during the pandemic and the role of the Indian diaspora in shaping India's foreign policy. This is followed by examining "India's Neighbourhood First policy" and the way it's been employed by the Indian government to extend India’s strategic influence during the pandemic. An empirical assessment will be done to examine the changing dynamics of India's relation with different regional groupings like SAARC, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, etc. The paper also explores the new alliances formed post-pandemic and India's role in them. This paper analyses the contemporary challenges that the largest nation in South Asia faces with the onset of a global pandemic and how Ancient Indian values like "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" have influenced India's foreign policy, especially during the pandemic. It also attempts to grasp the changes within the negotiation style of the Indian government, and the role played by various stakeholders in shaping India's position in the present geopolitical landscape. The study has been conducted using data collected from government records, External Affairs Ministry database, and other available literature. The paper concludes with an attempt to predict the far-reaching strategic implications that the policy, as mentioned above, may have for India.

Keywords: Indian foreign policy, COVID19, diplomacy, post pandemic world

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6623 Conceptualizing Conflict in the Gray Zone: A Comparative Analysis of Diplomatic, Military and Political Lenses

Authors: John Hardy, Paul Lushenko

Abstract:

he twenty-first century international security order has been fraught with challenges to the credibility and stability of the post-Cold War status quo. Although the American-led international system has rarely been threatened directly by dissatisfied states, an underlying challenge to the international security order has emerged in the form of a slow-burning abnegation of small but significant aspects of the status quo. Meanwhile, those security challenges which have threatened to destabilize order in the international system have not clearly belonged to the traditional notions of diplomacy and armed conflict. Instead, the main antagonists have been both states and non-state actors, the issues have crossed national and international boundaries, and contestation has occurred in a ‘gray zone’ between peace and war. Gray zone conflicts are not easily categorized as military operations, national security policies or political strategies, because they often include elements of diplomacy, military operations, and statecraft in complex combinations. This study applies three approaches to conceptualizing the gray zone in which many contemporary conflicts take place. The first approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of coercive diplomacy, in which armed force is used to add credibility and commitment to political threats. The second approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of discrete military operation, in which armed force is used sparingly and is limited to a specific issue. The third approach frames gray zones conflicts as a form of proxy war, in which armed force is used by or through third parties, rather than directly between belligerents. The study finds that each approach to conceptualizing the gray zone accounts for only a narrow range of issues which fall within the gap between traditional notions of peace and war. However, in combination, all three approaches are useful in explicating the gray zone and understanding the character of contemporary security challenges which defy simple categorization. These findings suggest that coercive diplomacy, discrete military operations, and proxy warfare provide three overlapping lenses for conceptualizing the gray zone and for understanding the gray zone conflicts which threaten international security in the early twenty-first century.

Keywords: gray zone, international security, military operations, national security, strategy

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6622 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: intercultural communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

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6621 Diplomacy in Times of Disaster: Management through Reputational Capital

Authors: Liza Ireni-Saban

Abstract:

The 6.6 magnitude quake event that occurred in 2003 (Bam, Iran) made it impossible for the Iranian government to handle disaster relief efforts domestically. In this extreme event, the Iranian government reached out to the international community, and this created a momentum that had to be carried out by trust-building efforts on all sides, often termed ‘Disaster Diplomacy’. Indeed, the circumstances were even more critical when one considers the increasing political and economic isolation of Iran within the international community. The potential for transformative political space to be opened by disaster has been recognized by dominant international political actors. Despite the fact that Bam 2003 post-disaster relief efforts did not catalyze any diplomatic activities on all sides, it is suggested that few international aid agencies have successfully used disaster recovery to enhance their popular legitimacy and reputation among the international community. In terms of disaster diplomacy, an actor’s reputational capital may affect his ability to build coalitions and alliances to achieve international political ends, to negotiate and build understanding and trust with foreign publics. This study suggests that the post-disaster setting may benefit from using the ecology of games framework to evaluate the role of bridging actors and mediators in facilitating collaborative governance networks. Recent developments in network theory and analysis provide means of structural embeddedness to explore how reputational capital can be built through brokerage roles of actors engaged in a disaster management network. This paper then aims to structure the relations among actors that participated in the post-disaster relief efforts in the 2003 Bam earthquake (Iran) in order to assess under which conditions actors may be strategically utilized to serve as mediating organizations for future disaster events experienced by isolated nations or nations in conflict. The results indicate the strategic use of reputational capital by the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as key broker to build a successful coordinative system for reducing disaster vulnerabilities. International aid agencies rarely played brokerage roles to coordinate peripheral actors. U.S. foreign assistance (USAID), despite coordination capacities, was prevented from serving brokerage roles in the system.

Keywords: coordination, disaster diplomacy, international aid organizations, Iran

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6620 Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Official Recognition of Palestine State in Europe

Authors: Bilgehan Gultekin, Tuba Gultekin

Abstract:

Diplomatic public relations gives an ideal concept for recognition of palestine state in all over the europe. The first step of official recognition is approval of palestine state in international political organisations such as United Nations and Nato. So, diplomatic public relations provides a recognition process in communication scale. One of the aims of the study titled “Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Recognition of Palestine State in Europe” is to present some communication projects on diplomatic way. The study also aims at showing communication process at diplomatic level. The most important level of such kind of diplomacy is society based diplomacy. Moreover,The study provides a wider perspective that gives some creative diplomatic communication strategies for attracting society. To persuade the public for official recognition also is key element of this process. The study also finds new communication routes including persuasion techniques for society. All creative projects are supporting parts in original persuasive process of official recognition of Palestine.

Keywords: diplomatic public relations, diplomatic communication strategies, diplomatic communication, public relations

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6619 The Nation as Brand: Postcolonial Construction of National Identity in Late 20th/21st Century Qatar

Authors: Ryunhye Kim

Abstract:

Despite its relatively short history as an independent state, Qatar has emerged as a highly regarded Gulf state and global power. Since its independence in September 1971, the state has employed deliberate policy initiatives designed to put Qatar on the map and distinguish it from other Gulf states. Because Qatar and its neighbors are resource-poor apart from energy, whoever is first to introduce a unique aspect of branding not only takes the lead but assumes what is often an insurmountable advantage. This study examines three specific modes of branding undertaken by Qatar: (1) energy policies to utilize its natural gas to become a dominant supplier; (2) the deliberate construction of a distinct cultural brand utilizing sports, architecture, museums, and media; and (3) ‘niche diplomacy’ to serve as a mediator in regional and intra-national conflicts, especially as interlocutor between the United States and Arab regimes and Muslim groups. Gleaning data from a range of sources, this study analyzes the effectiveness and significance of Qatar’s place branding on the global stage, as well as potential disadvantages and limits in this branding, including problems encountered before and after the ‘Qatar crisis.’

Keywords: national branding, national-identity, Qatar, soft-power

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6618 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Abstract:

Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

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6617 Mechanisms for the Art of Food: Tourism with Thainess and a Multi-Stakeholder Participation Approach

Authors: Jutamas Wisansing, Thanakarn Vongvisitsin, Udom Hongchatikul

Abstract:

Food could be used to open up a dialogue about local heritage. Contributing to the world sustainable consumption mission, this research aims to explore the linkages between agriculture, senses of place and performing arts. Thailand and its destination marketing ‘Discover Thainess’ was selected as a working principle, enabling a case example of how the three elements could be conceptualized. The model offered an integrated institutional arrangement where diverse entities could be formed to design how Thainess (local heritage) could be interpreted and embedded into an art of food. Using case study research approach, three areas (Chiangmai, Samutsongkram and Ban Rai Gong King) representing 3 different scales of tourism development were selected. Based on a theoretical analysis, a working model was formulated. An action research was then designed to experiment how the model could be materialized. Brainstorming elicitation and in-depth interview were employed to reflect on how each element could be integrated. The result of this study offered an innovation on how food tourism could be profoundly interpreted and how tourism development could enhance value creation for agricultural based community. The outcomes of the research present co-creative multi-stakeholder model and the value creation method through the whole supply chain of Thai gastronomy. The findings have been eventually incorporated into ‘gastro-diplomacy’ strategy for Thai tourism.

Keywords: community-based tourism, gastro-diplomacy, gastronomy tourism, sustainable tourism development

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6616 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi

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Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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6615 National Branding through Education: South Korean Image in Romania through the Language Textbooks for Foreigners

Authors: Raluca-Ioana Antonescu

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The paper treats about the Korean public diplomacy and national branding strategies, and how the Korean language textbooks were used in order to construct the Korean national image. The field research of the paper stands at the intersection between Linguistics and Political Science, while the problem of the research is the role of language and culture in national branding process. The research goal is to contribute to the literature situated at the intersection between International Relations and Applied Linguistics, while the objective is to conceptualize the idea of national branding by emphasizing a dimension which is not much discussed, and that would be the education as an instrument of the national branding and public diplomacy strategies. In order to examine the importance of language upon the national branding strategies, the paper will answer one main question, How is the Korean language used in the construction of national branding?, and two secondary questions, How are explored in literature the relations between language and national branding construction? and What kind of image of South Korea the language textbooks for foreigners transmit? In order to answer the research questions, the paper starts from one main hypothesis, that the language is an essential component of the culture, which is used in the construction of the national branding influenced by traditional elements (like Confucianism) but also by modern elements (like Western influence), and from two secondary hypothesis, the first one is that in the International Relations literature there are little explored the connections between language and national branding, while the second hypothesis is that the South Korean image is constructed through the promotion of a traditional society, but also a modern one. In terms of methodology, the paper will analyze the textbooks used in Romania at the universities which provide Korean Language classes during the three years program B.A., following the dialogs, the descriptive texts and the additional text about the Korean culture. The analysis will focus on the rank status difference, the individual in relation to the collectivity, the respect for the harmony, and the image of the foreigner. The results of the research show that the South Korean image projected in the textbooks convey the Confucian values and it does not emphasize the changes suffered by the society due to the modernity and globalization. The Westernized aspect of the Korean society is conveyed more in an informative way about the Korean international companies, Korean internal development (like the transport or other services), but it does not show the cultural changed the society underwent. Even if the paper is using the textbooks which are used in Romania as a teaching material, it could be used and applied at least to other European countries, since the textbooks are the ones issued by the South Korean language schools, which other European countries are using also.

Keywords: confucianism, modernism, national branding, public diplomacy, traditionalism

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6614 India’s Foreign Policy toward its South Asian Neighbors: Retrospect and Prospect

Authors: Debasish Nandy

Abstract:

India’s foreign policy towards all of her neighbor countries is determinate on the basis of multi-dimensional factors. India’s relations with its South Asian neighbor can be classified into three categories. In the first category, there are four countries -Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Afghanistan- whose bilateral relationships have encompassed cooperation, irritants, problems and crisis at different points in time. With Pakistan, the relationship has been perpetually adversarial. The third category includes Bhutan and Maldives whose relations are marked by friendship and cooperation, free of any bilateral problems. It is needless to say that Jawaharlal Nehru emphasized on friendly relations with the neighboring countries. The subsequent Prime Ministers of India especially I.K. Gujral had advocated in making of peaceful and friendly relations with the subcontinental countries. He had given a unique idea to foster bilateral relations with the neighbors. His idea is known as ‘Gujral Doctrine’. A dramatical change has been witnessed in Indian foreign policy since 1991.In the post-Cold War period, India’s national security has been vehemently threatened by terrorism, which originated from Pakistan-Afghanistan and partly Bangladesh. India has required a cooperative security, which can be made by mutual understanding among the South Asian countries. Additionally, the countries of South Asia need to evolve the concept of ‘Cooperative Security’ to explain the underlying logic of regional cooperation. According to C. Rajamohan, ‘cooperative security could be understood, as policies of governments, which see themselves as former adversaries or potential adversaries to shift from or avoid confrontationist policies.’ A cooperative security essentially reflects a policy of dealing peacefully with conflicts, not merely by abstention from violence or threats but by active engagement in negotiation, a search for practical solutions and with a commitment to preventive measures. Cooperative assumes the existence of a condition in which the two sides possess the military capabilities to harm each other. Establishing cooperative security runs into a complex process building confidence. South Asian nations often engaged with hostility to each other. Extra-regional powers have been influencing their powers in this region since a long time. South Asian nations are busy to purchase military equipment. In spite of weakened economic systems, these states are spending a huge amount of money for their security. India is the big power in this region in every aspect. The big states- small states syndrome is a negative factor in this respect. However, India will have to an initiative to extended ‘track II diplomacy’ or soft diplomacy for its security as well as the security of this region.Confidence building measures could help rejuvenate not only SAARC but also build trust and mutual confidence between India and its neighbors in South Asia. In this paper, I will focus on different aspects of India’s policy towards it, South-Asian neighbors. It will also be searched that how India is dealing with these countries by using a mixed type of diplomacy – both idealistic and realistic points of view. Security and cooperation are two major determinants of India’s foreign policy towards its South Asian neighbors.

Keywords: bilateral, diplomacy, infiltration, terrorism

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6613 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 317