Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4861

Search results for: mechanical damage

4861 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

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4860 Thermomechanical Damage Modeling of F114 Carbon Steel

Authors: A. El Amri, M. El Yakhloufi Haddou, A. Khamlichi


The numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in academic institutes and in the industry. It is a useful tool to predict many phenomena present in the classical manufacturing forming processes such as fracture. But, the results of such numerical model depend strongly on the parameters of the constitutive behavior model. The influences of thermal and mechanical loads cause damage. The temperature and strain rate dependent materials’ properties and their modelling are discussed. A Johnson-Cook Model of damage has been selected for the numerical simulations. Virtual software called the ABAQUS 6.11 is used for finite element analysis. This model was introduced in order to give information concerning crack initiation during thermal and mechanical loads.

Keywords: thermo-mechanical fatigue, failure, numerical simulation, fracture, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4859 Experimental Study Damage in a Composite Structure by Vibration Analysis- Glass / Polyester

Authors: R. Abdeldjebar, B. Labbaci, L. Missoum, B. Moudden, M. Djermane


The basic components of a composite material made him very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. This work focuses on the detection of damage by vibration analysis, whose main objective is to exploit the dynamic response of a structure to detect understand the damage. The experimental results are compared with those predicted by numerical models to confirm the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: experimental, composite, vibration analysis, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
4858 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
4857 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4856 Dynamic Response and Damage Modeling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Pipes: Numerical Investigation

Authors: Ammar Maziz, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Said Rechak


The high mechanical performance of composite pipes can be adversely affected by their low resistance to impact loads. Loads in dynamic origin are dangerous and cause consequences on the operation of pipes because the damage is often not detected and can affect the structural integrity of composite pipes. In this work, an advanced 3-D finite element (FE) model, based on the use of intralaminar damage models was developed and used to predict damage under low-velocity impact. The performance of the numerical model is validated with the confrontation with the results of experimental tests. The results show that at low impact energy, the damage happens mainly by matrix cracking and delamination. The model capabilities to simulate the low-velocity impact events on the full-scale composite structures were proved.

Keywords: composite materials, low velocity impact, FEA, dynamic behavior, progressive damage modeling

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4855 An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Approach to Develop an Electronic Instrument to Study Apple Bruise Damage

Authors: Paula Pascoal-Faria, Rúben Pereira, Elodie Pinto, Miguel Belbut, Ana Rosa, Inês Sousa, Nuno Alves


Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact, the latter being the most common source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important challenge. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to better understand the impact caused when an apple is dropped from different heights onto a plastic surface and a conveyor belt. Results showed that the extent of fruit damage is significantly higher for plastic surface, being dependent on the height. In order to support the development of a biomimetic electronic device for the determination of fruit damage, the mechanical properties of the apple fruit were determined using mechanical tests. Preliminary results showed different values for the Young’s modulus according to the zone of the apple tested. Along with the mechanical characterization of the apple fruit, the development of the first two prototypes is discussed and the integration of the results obtained to construct the final element model of the apple is presented. This work will help to reduce significantly the bruise damage of fruits or vegetables during the entire processing which will allow the introduction of exportation destines and consequently an increase in the economic profits in this sector.

Keywords: apple, fruit damage, impact during crop and post-crop, mechanical characterization of the apple, numerical evaluation of fruit damage, electronic device

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4854 A Fully Coupled Thermo-Hydraulic Mechanical Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Porous Fractured Medium during CO₂ Injection

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui


A dual-porosity finite element-code will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO₂ injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered to the model. The Finite Element Method (FEM) will be validated using experimental results from literature or from experiments that are planned to be undertaken at Newcastle University. The main target of the research paper is to present a constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO₂ in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elastoplastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) model will determine the pressure and temperature of the injected CO₂ as well as the size of the radius of the wellbore that can make the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) procedure more efficient.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, Wellbore stability, elastoplastic damage response for rock, constitutive THM model, fully coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical model

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4853 Multi-Scale Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Sheet Molding Compound Composites Subjected to Fatigue, Dynamic, and Post-Fatigue Dynamic Loadings

Authors: M. Shirinbayan, J. Fitoussi, N. Abbasnezhad, A. Lucas, A. Tcharkhtchi


Sheet Molding Compounds (SMCs) with special microstructures are very attractive to use in automobile structures especially when they are accidentally subjected to collision type accidents because of their high energy absorption capacity. These are materials designated as standard SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds (A-SMC), Low-Density SMC (LD-SMC) and etc. In this study, testing methods have been performed to compare the mechanical responses and damage phenomena of SMC, LD-SMC, and A-SMC under quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests. The paper also aims at investigating the effect of an initial pre-damage induced by fatigue on the tensile dynamic behavior of A-SMC. In the case of SMCs and A-SMCs, whatever the fibers orientation and applied strain rate are, the first observed phenomenon of damage corresponds to decohesion of the fiber-matrix interface which is followed by coalescence and multiplication of these micro-cracks and their propagations. For LD-SMCs, damage mechanisms depend on the presence of Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) and fibers orientation.

Keywords: SMC, Sheet Molding Compound, LD-SMC, Low-Density SMC, A-SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds, HGM, Hollow Glass Microspheres, damage

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4852 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie


Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, rock mechanics, THM effects on rock, constitutive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4851 Investigation of Damage in Glass Subjected to Static Indentation Using Continuum Damage Mechanics

Authors: J. Ismail, F. Zaïri, M. Naït-Abdelaziz, Z. Azari


In this work, a combined approach of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and fracture mechanics is applied to model a glass plate behavior under static indentation. A spherical indenter is used and a CDM based constitutive model with an anisotropic damage tensor was selected and implemented into a finite element code to study the damage of glass. Various regions with critical damage values were predicted in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. In these regions, the directions of crack propagation, including both cracks initiating on the surface as well as in the bulk, were predicted using the strain energy density factor.

Keywords: finite element modeling, continuum damage mechanics, indentation, cracks

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4850 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis


An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electro-mechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: concrete reinforcement, damage detection, electromechanical admittance, experimental measurements, finite element method, guided waves, PZT

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4849 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun


With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage location

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4848 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam


Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

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4847 A Meso Macro Model Prediction of Laminated Composite Damage Elastic Behaviour

Authors: A. Hocine, A. Ghouaoula, S. M. Medjdoub, M. Cherifi


The present paper proposed a meso–macro model describing the mechanical behaviour composite laminates of staking sequence [+θ/-θ]s under tensil loading. The behaviour of a layer is ex-pressed through elasticity coupled to damage. The elastic strain is due to the elasticity of the layer and can be modeled by using the classical laminate theory, and the laminate is considered as an orthotropic material. This means that no coupling effect between strain and curvature is considered. In the present work, the damage is associated to cracking of the matrix and parallel to the fibers and it being taken into account by the changes in the stiffness of the layers. The anisotropic damage is completely described by a single scalar variable and its evolution law is specified from the principle of maximum dissipation. The stress/strain relationship is investigated in plane stress loading.

Keywords: damage, behavior modeling, meso-macro model, composite laminate, membrane loading

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4846 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti


Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Nepal earthquake, damage analysis, damage assessment, damage scales

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4845 MXene-Based Self-Sensing of Damage in Fiber Composites

Authors: Latha Nataraj, Todd Henry, Micheal Wallock, Asha Hall, Christine Hatter, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi


Multifunctional composites with enhanced strength and toughness for superior damage tolerance are essential for advanced aerospace and military applications. Detection of structural changes prior to visible damage may be achieved by incorporating fillers with tunable properties such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high aspect ratios and more surface-active sites. While 2D graphene with large surface areas, good mechanical properties, and high electrical conductivity seems ideal as a filler, the single-atomic thickness can lead to bending and rolling during processing, requiring post-processing to bond to polymer matrices. Lately, an emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, MXenes, has attracted much attention since their discovery in 2011. Metallic electronic conductivity and good mechanical properties, even with increased polymer content, coupled with hydrophilicity make MXenes a good candidate as a filler material in polymer composites and exceptional as multifunctional damage indicators in composites. Here, we systematically study MXene-based (Ti₃C₂) coated on glass fibers for fiber reinforced polymer composite for self-sensing using microscopy and micromechanical testing. Further testing is in progress through the investigation of local variations in optical, acoustic, and thermal properties within the damage sites in response to strain caused by mechanical loading.

Keywords: damage sensing, fiber composites, MXene, self-sensing

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4844 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery

Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft


Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.

Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanics

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4843 Attribute Index and Classification Method of Earthquake Damage Photographs of Engineering Structure

Authors: Ming Lu, Xiaojun Li, Bodi Lu, Juehui Xing


Earthquake damage phenomenon of each large earthquake gives comprehensive and profound real test to the dynamic performance and failure mechanism of different engineering structures. Cognitive engineering structure characteristics through seismic damage phenomenon are often far superior to expensive shaking table experiments. After the earthquake, people will record a variety of different types of engineering damage photos. However, a large number of earthquake damage photographs lack sufficient information and reduce their using value. To improve the research value and the use efficiency of engineering seismic damage photographs, this paper objects to explore and show seismic damage background information, which includes the earthquake magnitude, earthquake intensity, and the damaged structure characteristics. From the research requirement in earthquake engineering field, the authors use the 2008 China Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake photographs, and provide four kinds of attribute indexes and classification, which are seismic information, structure types, earthquake damage parts and disaster causation factors. The final object is to set up an engineering structural seismic damage database based on these four attribute indicators and classification, and eventually build a website providing seismic damage photographs.

Keywords: attribute index, classification method, earthquake damage picture, engineering structure

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4842 Damage Cost for Private Property by Extreme Wind over the past 10 Years in Korea

Authors: Gou-Moon Choi, Woo-Young Jung, Chan-Young Yune


Recently, the natural disaster has increased worldwide. In Korea, the damage to life and property caused by a typhoon, heavy rain, heavy snow, and an extreme wind also increases every year. Among natural disasters, the frequency and the strength of wind have increased because sea surface temperature has risen due to the increase of the average temperature of the Earth. In the case of extreme wind disaster, it is impossible to control or reduce the occurrence, and the recovery cost always exceeds the damage cost. Therefore, quantitative estimation of the damage cost for extreme wind needs to be established beforehand to install proactive countermeasures. In this study, the damage cost for private properties was analyzed based on the data for the past 10 years in Korea. The damage cost curve was also suggested for the metropolitan cities and provinces. The result shows the possibility for the regional application of the damage cost curve because the damage cost of the regional area is estimated based on the cost of cities and provinces.

Keywords: damage cost, extreme wind, natural disaster, private property

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4841 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner


In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, damage detection, shaking table test, structural health monitoring

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4840 Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Transport Properties of SCCs Composites: Influence of Mechanical Damage

Authors: Davood Niknezhad, Siham Kamali-Bernard


Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures in aggressive environments. It is now common knowledge that the transport properties of a concrete, i.e; permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient are important indicators of its durability. The development of microcracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the influence of mineral admixtures and impact of compressive cracks by mechanical uniaxial compression up to 80% of the ultimate strength on transport properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with the eco-materials (metakaolin, fly ash, slag HF). The chloride resistance and binding capacity of the different SCCs produced with the different admixtures in damaged and undamaged state are measured using a chloride migration test accelerated by an external applied electrical field. Intrinsic permeability is measured using the helium gas and one permeameter at constant load. Klinkenberg approach is used for the determination of the intrinsic permeability. Based on the findings of this study, the use of mineral admixtures increases the resistance of SCC to chloride ingress and reduces their permeability. From the impact of mechanical damage, we show that the Gas permeability is more sensitive of concrete damaged than chloride diffusion. A correlation is obtained between the intrinsic permeability and chloride migration coefficient according to the damage variable for the four studied mixtures.

Keywords: SCC, concrete durability, transport properties, gas permeability, chloride diffusion, mechanical damage, mineral admixtures

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4839 Damage Assessment and Repair for Older Brick Buildings

Authors: Tim D. Sass


The experience of engineers and architects practicing today is typically limited to current building code requirements and modern construction methods and materials. However, many cities have a mix of new and old buildings with many buildings constructed over one hundred years ago when building codes and construction methods were much different. When a brick building sustains damage, a structural engineer is often hired to determine the cause of damage as well as determine the necessary repairs. Forensic studies of dozens of brick buildings shows an appreciation of historical building methods and materials is needed to correctly identify the cause of damage and design an appropriate repair. Damage on an older, brick building can be mistakenly attributed to storms or seismic events when the real source of the damage is deficient original construction. Assessing and remediating damaged brickwork on older brick buildings requires an understanding of the original construction, an understanding of older repair methods, and, an understanding of current building code requirements.

Keywords: brick, damage, deterioration, facade

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4838 Model Updating-Based Approach for Damage Prognosis in Frames via Modal Residual Force

Authors: Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri, Mojtaba Jafarian Abyaneh, Ali Zare Hosseinzadeh


This paper presents an effective model updating strategy for damage localization and quantification in frames by defining damage detection problem as an optimization issue. A generalized version of the Modal Residual Force (MRF) is employed for presenting a new damage-sensitive cost function. Then, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is utilized for solving suggested inverse problem and the global extremums are reported as damage detection results. The applicability of the presented method is investigated by studying different damage patterns on the benchmark problem of the IASC-ASCE, as well as a planar shear frame structure. The obtained results emphasize good performance of the method not only in free-noise cases, but also when the input data are contaminated with different levels of noises.

Keywords: frame, grey wolf optimization algorithm, modal residual force, structural damage detection

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4837 Analysis of a Damage-Control Target Displacement of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier for Seismic Design

Authors: Mohd Ritzman Abdul Karim, Zhaohui Huang


A current focus in seismic engineering practice is the development of seismic design approach that focuses on the performance-based design. Performance-based design aims to design the structures to achieve specified performance based on the damage limit states. This damage limit is more restrictive limit than life safety and needs to be carefully estimated to avoid damage in piers due to failure in transverse reinforcement. In this paper, a different perspective of damage limit states has been explored by integrating two damage control material limit state, concrete and reinforcement by introduced parameters such as expected yield stress of transverse reinforcement where peak tension strain prior to bar buckling is introduced in a recent study. The different perspective of damage limit states with modified yield displacement and the modified plastic-hinge length is used in order to predict damage-control target displacement for reinforced concreate (RC) bridge pier. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model has been developed for estimating damage target displacement to validate proposed damage limit states. The result from 3D FE analysis was validated with experimental study found in the literature. The validated model then was applied to predict the damage target displacement for RC bridge pier and to validate the proposed study. The tensile strain on reinforcement and compression on concrete were used to determine the predicted damage target displacement and compared with the proposed study. The result shows that the proposed damage limit states were efficient in predicting damage-control target displacement consistent with FE simulations.

Keywords: damage-control target displacement, damage limit states, reinforced concrete bridge pier, yield displacement

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4836 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investiagation

Authors: Mohamed Elassaly


The damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings, is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story R.C. building.

Keywords: damage, frequency content, ground motion, PGA, RC building, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4835 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi


The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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4834 Retrospective Analysis of the Damage of Agricultural Crops from Hail in Eastern Georgia

Authors: Valerian Omsarashvili, Nino Jamrishvili


Georgia is one of the hail-dangerous countries of world. The work on action on hail processes in Georgia was conducted in 1960-1989 (East Georgia) over the total area of approximately 1.2 million hectares with average positive economic effect near 75 %. In 2015 in East Georgia, the anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, for the estimation of the effectiveness of action on the hail processes at present, arose the need for the detailed analysis of damage from the hail in the past. The work presents the analysis of the data about the number of days with the hail, the areas of damage of agricultural crops (general and to 100 %), and also the economic damage from the hail, of the caused loss to agricultural crops on the territories land of 123 separate populated areas of into 1982 and 1984-1989. In particular, on the average to one populated area, the total area of agricultural crops damaged from the hail was approximately 140 hectares, to 100% damage - 60 hectares, economic damage - 120 thousand US dollars. The corresponding maps of the distribution of the damaged areas on the investigated territory with the use of GIS-technologies are obtained.

Keywords: damage to agricultural crops, hail, Georgia, economic damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
4833 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar


This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: expected damage cost, limit states, loss estimation, performance based design

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
4832 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero


The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures

Keywords: optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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