Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Constantine

20 The Management of the Urban Project between Challenge and Need: The Case of the Modernization Project of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this article, and through the modernization project of metropolis of Constantine (PMMC) experience in Algeria, discussed to highlight the importance of management in an urban project at various levels: strategic and operational. The statement we attended to reach is to evaluate the modernization project of metropolis of Constantine in the light of management and prove the relation between a good urban management and the success of an urban project.

Keywords: urban project, strategic management, operational management, the modernization project of constantine

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19 Urban Governance in Major Development Projects: Challenges, Issues and Constraints - Case of Constantine

Authors: Chouabbia Khedidja, Lazri Youcef, Mouhoubi Nedjima

Abstract:

In optics and in ambition to break into the ranks of international metropolis cities, Constantine, a regional metropolis of eastern Algeria, is facing multiple challenges shared between the response to the urban crisis plaguing the city and the creation of territorial attractiveness in the metropolisation process. This ambition cannot be achieve in conditions of poor governance and lack of cooperation especially between the actors involved in major development projects, these last qualified by change and hope carriers to make the city more attractive and pleasant. Thus, governance or good governance has become not only a necessity but also a challenge for the city of Constantine. Through this example of Constantine. We will analyze the challenges facing a metropolis amongst other urban governance and the constraints that affect the smooth running of major development projects when governance is missing or inoperative.

Keywords: urban governance, metropolis, big development project, actors, constantine

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18 The Urban Project and the Urban Improvement to the Test of the Participation, Case: Project of Modernization of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In the framework of the modernization of the city of Constantine, and in order to restore its status as a regional metropolis and introduce it into the network of cities international metropolises, a major urban project was launched: project of modernization and of metropolitanization of the city of Constantine (PMMC). Our research project focuses on the management of the project for the modernization of the city of Constantine (PMMC) focusing on the management of some aspects of the urban project whose participation, with the objective assessment of the managerial approach business. Among the cases revealing taken into account in our research work on the question of participation of actors and their organizations, the operation relating to "the urban improvement in the city of the Brothers FERRAD in the district of Zouaghi". This operation with the objective of improving the living conditions of citizens has faced several challenges and obstacles that have been in major part the factors of its failure. Through this study, we examine the management process and the mode of organization of the actors of the project as well as the level of participation of the citizen to finally propose managerial solutions to conflict situations observed.

Keywords: the urban project, the urban improvement, participation, Constantine

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17 The Urban Project: Metropolization Tool and Sustainability Vector - Case of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad, Chouabbia Khedidja

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Cities grow, large or small; they seek to gain a place in the market competition, which talks to sell a product that is the city itself. The metropolis are large cities enjoying a legal status and assets providing their dominions elements on a territory larger than their range, do not escape this situation. Thus, the search for promising tool metropolises better development and durability meet the challenges as economic, social and environmental is timely. The urban project is a new way to build the city; it is involved in the metropolises of two ways, either to manage the crisis and to meet the internal needs of the metropolis, or by creating a regional attractiveness with their potential. This communication will address the issue of urban project as a tool that has and should find a place in the panoply of existing institutional tools. Based on the example of the modernization project of the metropolis of eastern Algeria "Constantine", we will examine what the urban project can bring to a city, the extent of its impact but also the relationship between the visions actors so metropolization a success.

Keywords: urban project, metropolis, institutional tools, Constantine

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16 A Lifeline Vulnerability Study of Constantine, Algeria

Authors: Mounir Ait Belkacem, Mehdi Boukri, Omar Amellal, Nacim Yousfi, Abderrahmane Kibboua, Med Naboussi Farsi, Mounir Naili

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The North of Algeria is located in a seismic zone, then earthquakes are probably the most likely natural disaster that would lead to major lifeline disruption. The adequate operation of lifelines is vital for the economic development of regions under moderate to high seismic activity. After an earthquake, the proper operation of all vital systems is necessary, for instance hospitals for medical attention of the wounded and highways for communication and assistance for victims.In this work we apply the knowledge of pipeline vulnerability to the water supply system, sanitary sewer pipelines (waste water), and telephone in Constantine (Algeria).

Keywords: lifeline, earthquake, vulnerability, pipelines

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15 Molecular Detection of Leishmania from the Phlebotomus Genus: Tendency towards Leishmaniasis Regression in Constantine, North-East of Algeria

Authors: K. Frahtia, I. Mihoubi, S. Picot

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Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease with a varied clinical expression caused by flagellate protozoa of the Leishmania genus. These diseases are transmitted to humans and animals by the sting of a vector insect, the female sandfly. Among the groups of dipteral disease vectors, Phlebotominae occupy a prime position and play a significant role in human pathology, such as leishmaniasis that affects nearly 350 million people worldwide. The vector control operation launched by health services throughout the country proves to be effective since despite the prevalence of the disease remains high especially in rural areas, leishmaniasis appears to be declining in Algeria. In this context, this study mainly concerns molecular detection of Leishmania from the vector. Furthermore, a molecular diagnosis has also been made on skin samples taken from patients in the region of Constantine, located in the North-East of Algeria. Concerning the vector, 5858 sandflies were captured, including 4360 males and 1498 females. Male specimens were identified based on their morphological. The morphological identification highlighted the presence of the Phlebotomus genus with a prevalence of 93% against 7% represented by the Sergentomyia genus. About the identified species, P. perniciosus is the most abundant with 59.4% of the male identified population followed by P. longicuspis with 24.7% of the workforce. P. perfiliewi is poorly represented by 6.7% of specimens followed by P. papatasi with 2.2% and 1.5% S. dreyfussi. Concerning skin samples, 45/79 (56.96%) collected samples were found positive by real-time PCR. This rate appears to be in sharp decline compared to previous years (alert peak of 30,227 cases in 2005). Concerning the detection of Leishmania from sandflies by RT-PCR, the results show that 3/60 PCR performed genus are positive with melting temperatures corresponding to that of the reference strain (84.1 +/- 0.4 ° C for L. infantum). This proves that the vectors were parasitized. On the other side, identification by RT-PCR species did not give any results. This could be explained by the presence of an insufficient amount of leishmanian DNA in the vector, and therefore support the hypothesis of the regression of leishmaniasis in Constantine.

Keywords: Algeria, molecular diagnostic, phlebotomus, real time PCR

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14 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

Abstract:

Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: adjunct faculty, professional development, self-study methodology, teaching

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13 Urban Seismic Risk Reduction in Algeria: Adaptation and Application of the RADIUS Methodology

Authors: Mehdi Boukri, Mohammed Naboussi Farsi, Mounir Naili, Omar Amellal, Mohamed Belazougui, Ahmed Mebarki, Nabila Guessoum, Brahim Mezazigh, Mounir Ait-Belkacem, Nacim Yousfi, Mohamed Bouaoud, Ikram Boukal, Aboubakr Fettar, Asma Souki

Abstract:

The seismic risk to which the urban centres are more and more exposed became a world concern. A co-operation on an international scale is necessary for an exchange of information and experiments for the prevention and the installation of action plans in the countries prone to this phenomenon. For that, the 1990s was designated as 'International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)' by the United Nations, whose interest was to promote the capacity to resist the various natural, industrial and environmental disasters. Within this framework, it was launched in 1996, the RADIUS project (Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disaster), whose the main objective is to mitigate seismic risk in developing countries, through the development of a simple and fast methodological and operational approach, allowing to evaluate the vulnerability as well as the socio-economic losses, by probable earthquake scenarios in the exposed urban areas. In this paper, we will present the adaptation and application of this methodology to the Algerian context for the seismic risk evaluation in urban areas potentially exposed to earthquakes. This application consists to perform an earthquake scenario in the urban centre of Constantine city, located at the North-East of Algeria, which will allow the building seismic damage estimation of this city. For that, an inventory of 30706 building units was carried out by the National Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (CGS). These buildings were digitized in a data base which comprises their technical information by using a Geographical Information system (GIS), and then they were classified according to the RADIUS methodology. The study area was subdivided into 228 meshes of 500m on side and Ten (10) sectors of which each one contains a group of meshes. The results of this earthquake scenario highlights that the ratio of likely damage is about 23%. This severe damage results from the high concentration of old buildings and unfavourable soil conditions. This simulation of the probable seismic damage of the building and the GIS damage maps generated provide a predictive evaluation of the damage which can occur by a potential earthquake near to Constantine city. These theoretical forecasts are important for decision makers in order to take the adequate preventive measures and to develop suitable strategies, prevention and emergency management plans to reduce these losses. They can also help to take the adequate emergency measures in the most impacted areas in the early hours and days after an earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: seismic risk, mitigation, RADIUS, urban areas, Algeria, earthquake scenario, Constantine

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12 Photochemical Degradation of Ibuprofren in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Stavros Poulopoulos, Aphrodite Tetorou, Constantine Philippopoulos

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Day after day more pharmaceutical compounds that are not efficiently removed by conventional treatment methods are found in treated wastewaters and drinking waters. Due to their refractory nature, they escape conventional wastewater treatment facilities, and thus advanced oxidation processes have to be utilized to effectively eliminate them. In the present study, the removal of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions containing the commercial drug Algofren (non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory) using UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, titanium dioxide and ferric ions was examined. All experiments were conducted in a batch photoreactor operated for 120 min. The main target was to select the most effective operating conditions for the mineralization of the solutions treated. The combination of Fe(III)/ H₂O₂/UV proved to be very efficient in terms of total organic carbon removal and ibuprofen conversion. For solutions containing 5 mg/L ibuprofen and initial total carbon 51.1 mg/L, complete mineralization was achieved by means of 2.2 ppm Fe(III) and 333 mg/L H₂O₂.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, photocatalytic, photo-Fenton, TiO₂

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11 Inventory and Pollinating Role of Bees (Hymenoptera: apoidea) on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) in Constantine Area (Algeria)

Authors: Benachour Karima

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Pollination is a key factor in crop production and the presence of insect pollinators, mainly wild bees, is essential for improving yields. In this work, visiting apoids of two vegetable crops, the turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) were recorded during flowering times of 2003 and 2004 in Constantine area (36°22’N 06°37’E, 660 m). The observations were conducted in a plot of approximately 308 m2 of the Institute of Nutrition, Food and Food Technology (University of Mentouri Brothers). To estimate the density of bees (per 100 flowers or m2), 07 plots (01m2 for each one) are defined from the edge of the culture and in the first two rows. From flowering and every two days, foraging insects are recorded from 09 am until 17 pm (Gmt+1).The purpose of visit (collecting nectar, pollen or both) and pollinating efficiency (estimated by the number of flowers visited per minute and the number of positive visits) were noted for the most abundant bees on flowers. The action of pollinating insects is measured by comparing seed yields of 07 plots covered with tulle with 07 other accessible to pollinators. 04 families of Apoidea: Apidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae and Megachilidae were observed on the two plants. On turnip, the honeybee is the most common visitor (on average 214visites/ m2), it is followed by the Halictidae Lasioglossum mediterraneum whose visits are less intense (20 individuals/m2). Visits by Andrenidae, represented by several species such as Andrena lagopus, A.flavipes, A.agilissima and A.rhypara were episodic. The honeybee collected mainly nectar, its visits were all potentially fertilizing (contact with stigma) and more frequent (on average 14 flowers/min. L.mediterraneum visited only 05 flrs/min, it collected mostly the two products together and all its visits were also positive. On radish, the wild bee Ceratina cucurbitina recorded the highest number of visits (on average 06 individuals/100flo wers), the Halictidae represented mainly by L.mediterraneum, and L.malachurum, L.pauxillum were less abundant. C.cucurbitina visited on average 10 flowers /min and all its visits are positive. Visits of Halictidae were less frequent (05-06 flowers/min) and not all fertilizing. Seed yield of Brassica rapa (average number of pods /plant, seeds/ pods and average weight of 1000 seeds) was significantly higher in the presence of pollinators. Similarly, the pods of caged plants gave a percentage of aborted seeds (10.3%) significantly higher than that obtained on free plants (4.12%), the pods of caged plants also gave a percentage of malformed seeds (1.9%) significantly higher than that of the free plants (0.9%). For radish, the seed yield in the presence and absence of insects are almost similar. Only the percentage of malformed seeds (3.8%) obtained from the pods of caged plants was significantly higher in comparison with pods of free plants (1.9%). Following these results, it is clear that pollinators especially bees are essential for the production and improvement of crop yields and therefore it is necessary to protect this fauna increasingly threatened.

Keywords: foraging behavior, honey bee, radish, seed yield, turnip, wild bee

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10 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri

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Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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9 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

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Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies

Keywords: crop yield, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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8 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model 1: Description

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies.

Keywords: runoff, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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7 Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Zamouche Meriem, Mehcene Ismahan, Temmine Manel, Bencheikh Lehocine Mosaab, Meniai Abdeslam Hassen

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In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).

Keywords: adsorption, chemical activation, malachite green, sewage sludge

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6 Study and Modeling of Flood Watershed in Arid and Semi Arid Regions of Algeria

Authors: Belagoune Fares, Boutoutaou Djamel

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The study on floods in Algeria established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH) shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semiarid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm).The duration of the flood is of the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damage caused by these floods were still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid and arid south and Algeria. THERE are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2), highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2) and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2). The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2.Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc.) require the raw data which is often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas. This makes it very difficult to schedules and managers working in the field of hydraulic studies. The objective of this study and propose a methodology for determining flows in the absence of observations in the semi-arid and arid south eastern Algeria. The objective of the study is to propose a methodology for these areas of flood calculation for ungauged rivers.

Keywords: flood, watershed, specific flow, coefficient of variation, arid

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5 Evaluation of Quality of Rhumel Wadi Waters by Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters

Authors: Djeddi Hamssa, Kherief Necereddine Saliha, Mehennaoui Fatima Zohra

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The objectives of this study are to use different parameters to assess the current pollution status of sediments in Rhumel wadi located in the North-East of Algeria (Constantine), two stations were selected in strategic points and sampled at three occasions on Sptember 2014, Junary 2015 and April 2015. Parameters used in this study were a physico-chimical analysis of water (pH, CE, Dissolved O2), sediments (pH, CE, CaCo3, MO) and contamination level of sediments by cadmium, completed by biological testing and analysis of existing benthic community. The results of the physico-chemical parameters show that the water temperature is average and seasonal, the pH value is acidic, does not exceed 6.64. The amplitude variation may be important from upstream to downstream. The generally high electrical conductivity, for the carbonate nature of the watershed increases from upstream to downstream. The waters of the Rhumel wadi are excessively mineralized, dissolved oxygen, a vital factor for benthic community wildlife downstream decreases with increasing organic loading; oxygen is consumed by the microorganisms to its degradation. Analysis of the benthic fauna and calculating the biotic index show a clear excessive pollution for both upstream and downstream stations.

Keywords: biological analysis, benthic fauna, sediments contamination, cadmium

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4 The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation on the Second Language Learners’ Writing Skill: The Case of Third Year Students of English at Constantine 1 University

Authors: Chadia Nasri

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Researches in the field of foreign language learning have indicated the importance of the mastery of the four language skills; speaking, listening, writing and reading. As far as writing is concerned, recent studies have shown that this skill is unavoidable for learning a second language successfully. Writing is characterized as a complex system not easy to achieve. Writing has been proved to be affected by a variety of factors, particularly psychological ones; anxiety, intrinsic motivation, aptitude, etc. Intrinsic motivation is said to be the most influential factors in the foreign language learning process and is considered as the key factor for success. To investigate these two aspects; writing and intrinsic motivation, and the positive correlation between them, our hypothesis is designed on the basis that the degree of learners’ intrinsic motivation helps in facilitating their engagement in the writing tasks. Two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students, have been carried out to check the validity of the research hypothesis. As for the teachers’ questionnaire, the results have indicated their awareness of the importance of intrinsic motivation in the learning process and the role it plays in the mastery of their students’ writing skill. In addition, teachers have mentioned various procedures aiming at raising their students’ intrinsic motivation to write. The students’ questionnaire, on the other hand, has investigated students’ reasons for learning a foreign language with regard to their attitudes towards writing as an important skill that they need to master. Their answers to the questionnaire together with the marks they got in the second term test they have had in the writing module have been compared to see whether students’ writing proficiency can be determined by the degree of their intrinsic motivation. The comparison of the collected data has shown the positive correlation between both aspects.

Keywords: foreign language learning, intrinsic motivation, motivation, writing proficiency

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3 Orthostatic Hypotension among Patients Aged above 65 Years Admitted to Medical Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Sri Lanka

Authors: G. R. Constantine, M.C.K. Thilakasiri, V.S. Mohottala, T.V. Soundaram, D.S. Rathnayake, E.G.H.E. De Silva, A.L.S. Mohamed, V.R. Weerasekara

Abstract:

Orthostatic hypotension is prevalent in the elderly population, and it is an important risk factor contributing to falls in the elderly. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in hospitalized elderly patients, changes in blood pressure during the hospital stay, morbidities associated with it and its association with falls in the elderly. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) in a sample of 120 patients of age 65 years or above who were admitted to the medical wards. The demographic, clinical data was obtained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Two validated questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and effects of orthostatic hypotension and risk factors associated with falls. Orthostatic hypotension on admission and after 3 days of hospital stay was measured by bed-side mercury sphygmomanometer. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension among the study population was 63.3%(76 patients). But no significant change in the orthostatic hypotension noted after 3 days of hospital admission (SND 0.61, SE= 5.59, p=0.27). There was no significant association found between orthostatic hypotension and its symptoms (dizziness and vertigo, vision problems, malaise, fatigue, poor concentration, neck stiffness), impact on standing or walking and non-communicable diseases. Falls were experienced by 27.5 % (33 patients) of the study population and prevalence of patients with orthostatic hypotension who had experienced falls was 25.9% (28 patients). In conclusions, orthostatic hypotension is more prevalent among elderly patients, but It wasn’t associated with symptoms, and non-communicable diseases, or as a risk factor for falls in elderly.

Keywords: orthostatic hypotension, elderly falls, emergency geriatric, Sri Lanka

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2 Treated Wastewater Reuse in Algeria: Overview, Mobilization Potential and Challenges

Authors: Dairi Sabri, Mrad Dounia, Djebbar Yassine, Abida Habib

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Food security, which may be ensured by important agricultural production, needs huge amounts of water for irrigation. Recognizing this, the Algerian government made enormous efforts to mobilize water resources. Every drop of water collected, regardless of its origin, is needed to strengthen agricultural production. The present irrigated area in Algeria is about 1 million hectares while the potential agricultural area all over the country exceeds 9 million ha. This clearly shows the need for non-conventional water resources in Algeria, especially treated wastewater reuse. The use of treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation is still at the experimental stage in Algeria. While 20 million hectares worldwide are irrigated with treated wastewater, only 2300 hectares in Algeria are irrigated on an experimental basis in the regions of Setif, Constantine, Mila Telemcen, Tougourt and Boumerdès. The volume of wastewater discharged nationwide is estimated to be around 750 million cubic meters and is expected to exceed 1.5 billion m3 in 2020. An ambitious program of providing treatment facilities has been initiated in this direction to increase the treatment capacity to 2.5 million m3 per day in 2030. In order to optimize the use of this resource, specific research actions interested in defining treated wastewater reuse opportunities and standards are undertaken. The objective of this study is basically to examine the different components of treated wastewater reuse, including standards, treatment processes, agricultural opportunities and potentials as well as technical and economic aspects governing the feasibility of this technology in Algeria based on Geographic Information System (GIS).

Keywords: wastewater reuse, integrated management, irrigation, GIS

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1 Seismotectonics and Seismology the North of Algeria

Authors: Djeddi Mabrouk

Abstract:

The slow coming together between the Afro-Eurasia plates seems to be the main cause of the active deformation in the whole of North Africa which in consequence come true in Algeria with a large zone of deformation in an enough large limited band, southern through Saharan atlas and northern through tell atlas. Maghrebin and Atlassian Chain along North Africa are the consequence of this convergence. In junction zone, we have noticed a compressive regime NW-SE with a creases-faults structure and structured overthrust. From a geological point of view the north part of Algeria is younger then Saharan platform, it’s changing so unstable and constantly in movement, it’s characterized by creases openly reversed, overthrusts and reversed faults, and undergo perpetually complex movement vertically and horizontally. On structural level the north of Algeria it's a part of erogenous alpine peri-Mediterranean and essentially the tertiary age It’s spread from east to the west of Algeria over 1200 km.This oogenesis is extended from east to west on broadband of 100 km.The alpine chain is shaped by 3 domains: tell atlas in north, high plateaus in mid and Saharan atlas in the south In extreme south we find the Saharan platform which is made of Precambrian bedrock recovered by Paleozoic practically not deformed. The Algerian north and the Saharan platform are separated by an important accident along of 2000km from Agadir (Morocco) to Gabes (Tunisian). The seismic activity is localized essentially in a coastal band in the north of Algeria shaped by tell atlas, high plateaus, Saharan atlas. Earthquakes are limited in the first 20km of the earth's crust; they are caused by movements along faults of inverted orientation NE-SW or sliding tectonic plates. The center region characterizes Strong Earthquake Activity who locates mainly in the basin of Mitidja (age Neogene).The southern periphery (Atlas Blidéen) constitutes the June, more Important seism genic sources in the city of Algiers and east (Boumerdes region). The North East Region is also part of the tellian area, but it is characterized by a different strain in other parts of northern Algeria. The deformation is slow and low to moderate seismic activity. Seismic activity is related to the tectonic-slip earthquake. The most pronounced is that of 27 October 1985 (Constantine) of seismic moment magnitude Mw = 5.9. North-West region is quite active and also artificial seismic hypocenters which do not exceed 20km. The deep seismicity is concentrated mainly a narrow strip along the edge of Quaternary and Neogene basins Intra Mountains along the coast. The most violent earthquakes in this region are the earthquake of Oran in 1790 and earthquakes Orléansville (El Asnam in 1954 and 1980).

Keywords: alpine chain, seismicity north Algeria, earthquakes in Algeria, geophysics, Earth

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