Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Sassi Boudemagh Souad

43 The Management of the Urban Project between Challenge and Need: The Case of the Modernization Project of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this article, and through the modernization project of metropolis of Constantine (PMMC) experience in Algeria, discussed to highlight the importance of management in an urban project at various levels: strategic and operational. The statement we attended to reach is to evaluate the modernization project of metropolis of Constantine in the light of management and prove the relation between a good urban management and the success of an urban project.

Keywords: urban project, strategic management, operational management, the modernization project of constantine

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42 "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management

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41 The Urban Project: Metropolization Tool and Sustainability Vector - Case of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad, Chouabbia Khedidja

Abstract:

Cities grow, large or small; they seek to gain a place in the market competition, which talks to sell a product that is the city itself. The metropolis are large cities enjoying a legal status and assets providing their dominions elements on a territory larger than their range, do not escape this situation. Thus, the search for promising tool metropolises better development and durability meet the challenges as economic, social and environmental is timely. The urban project is a new way to build the city; it is involved in the metropolises of two ways, either to manage the crisis and to meet the internal needs of the metropolis, or by creating a regional attractiveness with their potential. This communication will address the issue of urban project as a tool that has and should find a place in the panoply of existing institutional tools. Based on the example of the modernization project of the metropolis of eastern Algeria "Constantine", we will examine what the urban project can bring to a city, the extent of its impact but also the relationship between the visions actors so metropolization a success.

Keywords: urban project, metropolis, institutional tools, Constantine

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40 The Urban Project and the Urban Improvement to the Test of the Participation, Case: Project of Modernization of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In the framework of the modernization of the city of Constantine, and in order to restore its status as a regional metropolis and introduce it into the network of cities international metropolises, a major urban project was launched: project of modernization and of metropolitanization of the city of Constantine (PMMC). Our research project focuses on the management of the project for the modernization of the city of Constantine (PMMC) focusing on the management of some aspects of the urban project whose participation, with the objective assessment of the managerial approach business. Among the cases revealing taken into account in our research work on the question of participation of actors and their organizations, the operation relating to "the urban improvement in the city of the Brothers FERRAD in the district of Zouaghi". This operation with the objective of improving the living conditions of citizens has faced several challenges and obstacles that have been in major part the factors of its failure. Through this study, we examine the management process and the mode of organization of the actors of the project as well as the level of participation of the citizen to finally propose managerial solutions to conflict situations observed.

Keywords: the urban project, the urban improvement, participation, Constantine

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39 Case Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Sustainable Trophy Hunting Programme on Local Community of Sassi-Haramosh Conservancy, Gilgit District, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Abbas, Rehmat Ali, Muhammad Akbar

Abstract:

This study has been conducted in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, under the Conservation Leadership Programme of Fauna and Flora International. The main objectives of the study were to assess the socio-economic impact of community-based conservation in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy and identify effects of trophy hunting on the conservation of wildlife in the area. The first trophy hunting program of Astor Markhor was held in year February 21, 2015, and the second on February 21, 2016. The community received a share of 49200 USD and 52400 USD from the first and second hunting, and the total earning was 101600 USD which are Rs. 10,871,200 in Pak Rs. The amounts from the trophy hunting are being managed by the Wildlife Conservation and Social Development Organization (WCSDO) Sassi. The village-based organization WCSDO is spending 50% of the trophy hunting amount in the protection of wildlife, its habitat and other natural resources, 30% in developmental sectors of the village and 20% of the amount in the office expenses. Several developmental projects, like construction of 300 KVA hydropower stations, purchase of 8 acres of land for agriculture, potable water supply project, construction of treks, and other social welfare activities have been carried in the village utilizing the trophy hunting grant. These developmental activities have uplifted the socio-economic conditions of the conservancy. Furthermore, trophy hunting program has positive impacts on the wildlife in the area, as the population of Markhor and Ibex has been increased, results in increasing number of other carnivores in the area. The WCSDO has banned any illegal activities in the habitat of wildlife and grazing of livestock in the core habitats. The program raised the level of awareness in communities and reduced poaching, illegal hunting, cutting of shrubs and extraction of Artemisia species from the pastures.

Keywords: Markhor, trophy hunting, Sassi-Haramosh, Gilgit

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38 Evaluation and Analysis of the Regulations of Health and Safety in the Construction Industry: A Case of Study in Skikda, Algeria

Authors: Khorief Ouissem, Sassi Boudmagh Souad, Mahimoud Aissa

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The health and safety problem in the construction companies has been a major subject of research in Algeria for many years. The latest statistics of the Algerian National Social Security Fund (CNAS) shows that a third of accidents recorded at the national level are originated from construction activities. It is becoming increasingly essential and urgent to investigate and address its causes in order to find measures to overcome the deficiencies in this area. Thus, this paper takes in investigating this problem through a study conducted in the city of Skikda, Algeria. The study was carried out through questionnaire where twenty construction companies were taking into consideration. First, the study identifies the regulations and the laws related to the health and safety in the construction sector in Algeria. Then it goes on to assess and evaluate the implementation of the identified regulations in the companies selected. The result of the assessment indicates that the majority of the construction companies considered do not meet the health and safety standards and regulations. To extract the main causes of the failure of the system to control this industry, the observations and the evaluation were analyzed using the 5M or Ichikawa diagram method. This method is based on identifying the causes of the problem in terms of purpose, the list of potential causes for families. These families often correspond to 5M (Labor, Material, Methods, Middle, and Management). Finally, having identified the primary motives, the present authors propose a list of actions to move towards a more controlled and effective health and safety system for the construction industry.

Keywords: health and safety, construction industry, performance measurement, Algeria

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37 Identifying Coloring in Graphs with Twins

Authors: Souad Slimani, Sylvain Gravier, Simon Schmidt

Abstract:

Recently, several vertex identifying notions were introduced (identifying coloring, lid-coloring,...); these notions were inspired by identifying codes. All of them, as well as original identifying code, is based on separating two vertices according to some conditions on their closed neighborhood. Therefore, twins can not be identified. So most of known results focus on twin-free graph. Here, we show how twins can modify optimal value of vertex-identifying parameters for identifying coloring and locally identifying coloring.

Keywords: identifying coloring, locally identifying coloring, twins, separating

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36 An Adaptive CFAR Algorithm Based on Automatic Censoring in Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Naime Boudemagh

Abstract:

In this work, we aim to improve the detection performances of radar systems. To this end, we propose and analyze a novel censoring technique of undesirable samples, of priori unknown positions, that may be present in the environment under investigation. Therefore, we consider heterogeneous backgrounds characterized by the presence of some irregularities such that clutter edge transitions and/or interfering targets. The proposed detector, termed automatic censoring constant false alarm (AC-CFAR), operates exclusively in a Gaussian background. It is built to allow the segmentation of the environment to regions and switch automatically to the appropriate detector; namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR), the censored mean level CFAR (CMLD-CFAR) or the order statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR). Monte Carlo simulations show that the AC-CFAR detector performs like the CA-CFAR in a homogeneous background. Moreover, the proposed processor exhibits considerable robustness in a heterogeneous background.

Keywords: CFAR, automatic censoring, heterogeneous environments, radar systems

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35 Radar Signal Detection Using Neural Networks in Log-Normal Clutter for Multiple Targets Situations

Authors: Boudemagh Naime

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Automatic radar detection requires some methods of adapting to variations in the background clutter in order to control their false alarm rate. The problem becomes more complicated in non-Gaussian environment. In fact, the conventional approach in real time applications requires a complex statistical modeling and much computational operations. To overcome these constraints, we propose another approach based on artificial neural network (ANN-CMLD-CFAR) using a Back Propagation (BP) training algorithm. The considered environment follows a log-normal distribution in the presence of multiple Rayleigh-targets. To evaluate the performances of the considered detector, several situations, such as scale parameter and the number of interferes targets, have been investigated. The simulation results show that the ANN-CMLD-CFAR processor outperforms the conventional statistical one.

Keywords: radat detection, ANN-CMLD-CFAR, log-normal clutter, statistical modelling

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34 Automatic Censoring in K-Distribution for Multiple Targets Situations

Authors: Naime Boudemagh, Zoheir Hammoudi

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The parameters estimation of the K-distribution is an essential part in radar detection. In fact, presence of interfering targets in reference cells causes a decrease in detection performances. In such situation, the estimate of the shape and the scale parameters are far from the actual values. In the order to avoid interfering targets, we propose an Automatic Censoring (AC) algorithm of radar interfering targets in K-distribution. The censoring technique used in this work offers a good discrimination between homogeneous and non-homogeneous environments. The homogeneous population is then used to estimate the unknown parameters by the classical Method of Moment (MOM). The AC algorithm does not need any prior information about the clutter parameters nor does it require both the number and the position of interfering targets. The accuracy of the estimation parameters obtained by this algorithm are validated and compared to various actual values of the shape parameter, using Monte Carlo simulations, this latter show that the probability of censing in multiple target situations are in good agreement.

Keywords: parameters estimation, method of moments, automatic censoring, K distribution

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33 Hierarchical Checkpoint Protocol in Data Grids

Authors: Rahma Souli-Jbali, Minyar Sassi Hidri, Rahma Ben Ayed

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Grid of computing nodes has emerged as a representative means of connecting distributed computers or resources scattered all over the world for the purpose of computing and distributed storage. Since fault tolerance becomes complex due to the availability of resources in decentralized grid environment, it can be used in connection with replication in data grids. The objective of our work is to present fault tolerance in data grids with data replication-driven model based on clustering. The performance of the protocol is evaluated with Omnet++ simulator. The computational results show the efficiency of our protocol in terms of recovery time and the number of process in rollbacks.

Keywords: data grids, fault tolerance, clustering, chandy-lamport

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32 Control Law Design of a Wheeled Robot Mobile

Authors: Ghania Zidani, Said Drid, Larbi Chrifi-Alaoui, Abdeslam Benmakhlouf, Souad Chaouch

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In this paper, we focus on the study for path tracking control of unicycle-type Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMR), by applying the Backstepping technic. The latter is a relatively new technic for nonlinear systems. To solve the problem of constraints nonholonomics met in the path tracking of such robots, an adaptive Backstepping based nonlinear controller is developed. The stability of the controller is guaranteed, using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results show that the proposed controller achieves the objective and ensures good path tracking.

Keywords: Backstepping control, kinematic and dynamic controllers, Lyapunov methods, nonlinear control systems, Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR).

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31 The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane

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The localization information is crucial for the operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict requirements on hardware; thus, it is expensive to be implemented in practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios. In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the simulating results.

Keywords: WSN, localization, DV-Hop, RSSI

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30 Numerical Simulation of Rayleigh Benard Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Enclosure

Authors: Raoudha Chaabane, Faouzi Askri, Sassi Ben Nasrallah

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A new numerical algorithm is developed to solve coupled convection-radiation heat transfer in a two dimensional enclosure. Radiative heat transfer in participating medium has been carried out using the control volume finite element method (CVFEM). The radiative transfer equations (RTE) are formulated for absorbing, emitting and scattering medium. The density, velocity and temperature fields are calculated using the two double population lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). In order to test the efficiency of the developed method the Rayleigh Benard convection with and without radiative heat transfer is analyzed. The obtained results are validated against available works in literature and the proposed method is found to be efficient, accurate and numerically stable.

Keywords: participating media, LBM, CVFEM- radiation coupled with convection

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29 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi

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Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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28 Forecasting Direct Normal Irradiation at Djibouti Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmed Kayad Abdourazak, Abderafi Souad, Zejli Driss, Idriss Abdoulkader Ibrahim

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In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the solar irradiation in Djibouti for the first Time that is useful to the integration of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and sites selections for new or future solar plants as part of solar energy development. An ANN algorithm was developed to establish a forward/reverse correspondence between the latitude, longitude, altitude and monthly solar irradiation. For this purpose the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) data of eight Djibouti sites were used as training and testing in a standard three layers network with the back propagation algorithm of Lavenber-Marquardt. Results have shown a very good agreement for the solar irradiation prediction in Djibouti and proves that the proposed approach can be well used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar irradiation by providing so helpful information concerning sites selection, design and planning of solar plants.

Keywords: artificial neural network, solar irradiation, concentrated solar power, Lavenberg-Marquardt

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27 Impact of the Xanthan Gum on Rheological Properties of Ceramic Slip

Authors: Souad Hassene Daouadji, Larbi Hammadi, Abdelkrim Hazzab

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The slips intended for the manufacture of ceramics must have rheological properties well-defined in order to bring together the qualities required for the casting step (good fluidity for feeding the molds easily settles while generating a regular settling of the dough and for the dehydration phase of the dough in the mold a setting time relatively short is required to have a sufficient refinement which allows demolding both easy and fast). Many additives haveadded in slip of ceramic in order to improve their rheological properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of xanthan gumon rheological properties of ceramic Slip. The modified Cross model is used to fit the stationary flow curves of ceramic slip at different concentration of xanthan added. The thixotropic behavior studied of mixture ceramic slip-xanthan gumat constant temperature is analyzed by using a structural kinetic model (SKM) in order to account for time dependent effect.

Keywords: ceramic slip, xanthan gum, modified cross model, thixotropy, viscosity

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26 Sliding Mode MRAS Observer for Optimized Backstepping Control of Induction Motor

Authors: Chaouch Souad, Abdou Latifa, Larbi Chrifi Alaoui

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This paper deals with sensorless backstepping control of induction motor using MRAS technique associated to sliding mode approach. A high order genetic algorithm structure is used to approximate a control law designed by the Backstepping technique, and to find the best parameters globally optimized. However, the Backstepping control approach is unsuitable for high performance applications because the need of a speed sensor for increased accuracy and the absence of any error decay mechanism. In this paper a nonlinear observer, obtained by combining sliding mode structure and model reference adaptive system (MRAS), is designed for the rotor flux and rotor speed estimations. To validate the proposed method, the results are presented for showing the improved drive characteristics and performances.

Keywords: Backstepping Control, Induction Motor, Genetic Algorithm, Sliding Mode observer

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25 Experimental Measurement for Vehicular Communication Evaluation Using Obu Arada System

Authors: Aymen Sassi

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The equipment of vehicles with wireless communication capabilities is expected to be the key to the evolution to next generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The IEEE community has been continuously working on the development of an efficient vehicular communication protocol for the enhancement of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). Vehicular communication systems, called V2X, support vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. The efficiency of such communication systems depends on several factors, among which the surrounding environment and mobility are prominent. Accordingly, this study focuses on the evaluation of the real performance of vehicular communication with special focus on the effects of the real environment and mobility on V2X communication. It starts by identifying the real maximum range that such communication can support and then evaluates V2I and V2V performances. The Arada LocoMate OBU transmission system was used to test and evaluate the impact of the transmission range in V2X communication. The evaluation of V2I and V2V communication takes the real effects of low and high mobility on transmission into account.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11p, V2I, V2X, mobility, PLR, Arada LocoMate OBU, maximum range

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24 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Genista cephalantha Spach. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Chebbah Kaoutar, Marchioni Eric, Menad Ahmed, Mekkiou Ratiba, Sarri Djamel, Ameddah Souad, Boumaza Ouahiba, Seghiri Ramdane, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila

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This study was designed to estabilish a preliminary phytochemical screening, evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid content according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and aluminum chloride method respectively and to determine qualitatively, using HPLC-UV method, the most important products present in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of the aerial parts of Genista cephalantha Spach. from East Algeria. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was spectrophotometrically tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical and by β-Carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Evaluated extracts showed a good activity in both antioxidant system assays.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, flavonoids, HPLC-DAD-UV, antioxidant activity, genista cephalantha, fabaceae

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23 Perception of Training Actors on the Effectiveness of Training Carried Out within the Company

Authors: Oussedik Lydia, Zaouani-Denoux Souâd

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In an economic context characterized by intense competition and the impact of new technologies, companies have a constant need to adapt to the environment and the changes imposed. This situation leads companies to take training actions to develop employees’ required skills. Further, training is considered as a strategic lever for the company's growth. Accordingly, an increasing number of companies are adopting training to ensure continuous employees qualification. Thus, the aim of this research is to understand the process of training engineering occurring in the context of a company's continuous training, which will help to identify the gaps that can hinder or promote the development of employees' knowledge and skills. The research methodology is based on a mixed-method approach. Interviews and questionnaires are implemented to collect qualitative and quantitative data. The study results can help managers to identify gaps at each stage of training design. Finally, the research findings provide important information to help design a training plan to support the development of employees' knowledge and performance.

Keywords: training engineering, training needs, training plan, competences, continuing training, perception

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22 The Use of Multivariate Statistical and GIS for Characterization Groundwater Quality in Laghouat Region, Algeria

Authors: Rouighi Mustapha, Bouzid Laghaa Souad, Rouighi Tahar

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Due to rain Shortage and the increase of population in the last years, wells excavation and groundwater use for different purposes had been increased without any planning. This is a great challenge for our country. Moreover, this scarcity of water resources in this region is unfortunately combined with rapid fresh water resources quality deterioration, due to salinity and contamination processes. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the studies about groundwater quality in Algeria. In this work consists in the identification of the factors which influence the water quality parameters in Laghouat region by using statistical analysis Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and geographic information system (GIS) in an attempt to discriminate the sources of the variation of water quality variations. The results of PCA technique indicate that variables responsible for water quality composition are mainly related to soluble salts variables; natural processes and the nature of the rock which modifies significantly the water chemistry. Inferred from the positive correlation between K+ and NO3-, NO3- is believed to be human induced rather than naturally originated. In this study, the multivariate statistical analysis and GIS allows the hydrogeologist to have supplementary tools in the characterization and evaluating of aquifers.

Keywords: cluster, analysis, GIS, groundwater, laghouat, quality

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21 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad

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This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

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20 Removal of Oxytetracycline Using Sonophotocatalysis: Parametric Study

Authors: Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Chabani Malika, Bensmaili Aicha

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Water treatment and especially, medicament pollutants are nowadays important problems. Degradation of oxytetracycline was carried out using combined process of low-frequency ultrasound (US), ultraviolet irradiation and a catalyst. The effectiveness of the coupled processes has been evaluated by studying the effects of various operating parameters including initial OTC concentration, solution pH and catalyst mass. For the photolysis process, the monochromatic ultraviolet light wavelength utilized was 365 nm. The sonolysis experiments were performed with ultrasound at a frequency of 40 kHz. The heterogeneous photocatalysis was studied in the presence of TiO2. The processes were employed individually, and simultaneously to examine the details of the processes and to investigate the contribution of each process. Low UV intensity (12W), low pH and high mass of TiO2 conditions enhanced the sono-photocatalytic degradation of OTC. The results showed that the individual contribution sonochemical and photochemical reactions are very low, however, their coupling increases the degradation rate of 8 times compared to photolysis and 2 times compared to sonolysis. There is a synergistic effect between the two modes of radiation, UV and U.S. leading to 82.04% degradation yield. An application of these combined processes on the treatment of a real pharmaceutical wastewater was examined.

Keywords: sonolysis, photocatalysis, combined process, antibiotic

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19 Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties

Authors: Maizatulnisa Othman, Mohamad Bukhari, Zahurin Halim, Souad A. Muhammad, Khalisani Khalid

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Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 Gpa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.

Keywords: sandwich structure composite, epoxy, aluminium, kenaf fiber

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18 Evaluation of Milk Production of an Algerian Rabbit Population Raised in Aures Area

Authors: Moumen Souad, Melizi Mohamed

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In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10–15 min between the two weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21 g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240 and 2801 g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation, respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, litter size, rabbit, Aures area, Algeria

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17 Frailty Models for Modeling Heterogeneity: Simulation Study and Application to Quebec Pension Plan

Authors: Souad Romdhane, Lotfi Belkacem

Abstract:

When referring to actuarial analysis of lifetime, only models accounting for observable risk factors have been developed. Within this context, Cox proportional hazards model (CPH model) is commonly used to assess the effects of observable covariates as gender, age, smoking habits, on the hazard rates. These covariates may fail to fully account for the true lifetime interval. This may be due to the existence of another random variable (frailty) that is still being ignored. The aim of this paper is to examine the shared frailty issue in the Cox proportional hazard model by including two different parametric forms of frailty into the hazard function. Four estimated methods are used to fit them. The performance of the parameter estimates is assessed and compared between the classical Cox model and these frailty models through a real-life data set from the Quebec Pension Plan and then using a more general simulation study. This performance is investigated in terms of the bias of point estimates and their empirical standard errors in both fixed and random effect parts. Both the simulation and the real dataset studies showed differences between classical Cox model and shared frailty model.

Keywords: life insurance-pension plan, survival analysis, risk factors, cox proportional hazards model, multivariate failure-time data, shared frailty, simulations study

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16 The Correlation between Territory Planning and Logistics Development: Methodological Approach

Authors: Ebtissem Sassi, Abdellatif Benabdelhafid, Sami Hammami

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Congestion, pollution and space misuse are the major risks in the hinterland. Management of these risks is a major issue for all the actors intervening in territory management. A good mastery of these risks is based on the consideration of environmental and physical constraints since the implementation of a policy integrates simultaneously an efficient use, territorial resources, and financial resources which become increasingly rare. Yet, this balance can be difficult to establish simultaneously by all the actors. Indeed, every actor has often the tendency to favor these objectives in detriment to others. In this framework, we have fixed the objective of designing and achieving a model which will centralize multidisciplinary data and serve the analysis tool as well as a decision support tool. In this article, we will elaborate some methodological axes allowing the good management of the territory system through (i) determination of the structural factors of the decision support system, (ii) integration of methods tools favoring the territorial decisional process. Logistics territory geographic information system is a model dealing with this issue. The objective of this model is to facilitate the exchanges between the actors around a common question which was the research subject of human sciences researchers (geography, economy), nature sciences (ecology) as well as finding an optimal solution for simultaneous responses to all these objectives.

Keywords: complexity, territory, logistics, territory planning, conceptual model, GIS, MCA

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15 Histological Changes in the Culex pipiens Mosquito Larvae Treated by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

Authors: Fatma Sahir- Halouane, Sonia Hamid, Farida Tihar-Benzina, Fatiha Bouhlali, Souad Lourchane

Abstract:

The Culicidae are biting insects, the most harmful to people, they are almost all bloodsuckers, and they are responsible of the spread of many important diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and elephantiasis. Entomopathogenic microorganisms occupy an important place among the alternative methods of fighting against pests insect. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic agent naturally present in the ecosystems. It offers a very interesting potential for controlling populations of mosquitoes. This study aimed to show the histological changes that occured in Culex pipiens larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana. The 4th instar larvae were infected with B. bassiana in 10-7 spore/ml dilution, the histological section was studied showing that the fungi infected all the body parts specially Cuticle, Epiderms, fat bodies and midgut. After then the insect have a white appearance and covered with a thick coat of hyphea. The obtained results show that the application of Beauveria bassiana on cuticle of the fourth stage larvae of Culex pipiens was dependent of an apparent disturbance on the structure of the cuticle or there has been the degeneration of its different parts, infection of the fungus does not stop at the body walls. Therefore, it affects even the Adipose tissue, epidermal cells and intestine.

Keywords: Culex pipiens, Beauveria bassiana, histological changes, cuticle, intestine and adipose tissue

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14 High Resolution Solid State NMR Structural Study of a Ternary Hydraulic Mixture

Authors: Rym Sassi, Franck Fayon, Mohend Chaouche, Emmanuel Veron, Valerie Montouillout

Abstract:

The chemical phenomena occurring during cement hydration are complex and interdependent, and even after almost two centuries of studies, they are still difficult to solve for complex mixtures combining different hydraulic binders. Powder-XRD has been widely used for characterizing the crystalline phases in both anhydrous and hydrated cement, but only limited information is obtained in the case of strongly disordered and amorphous phases. In contrast, local spectroscopies like solid-state NMR can provide a quantitative description of noncrystalline phases. In this work, the structural modifications occurring during hydration of a fast-setting ternary binder based on white Portland cement, white calcium aluminate cement, and calcium sulfate were investigated using advanced solid-state NMR methods. We particularly focused on the early stage of the hydration up to 28 days, working with samples whose hydration was controlled and stopped. ²⁷Al MQ-MAS as well as {¹H}-²⁷Al and {¹H}-²⁹Si Cross- Polarization MAS NMR techniques were combined to distinguish all of the aluminum and silicon species formed during the hydration. The NMR quantification of the different phases was conducted in parallel with the XRD analyses. The consumption of initial products, as well as the precipitation of hydraulic phases (ettringite, monosulfate, strätlingite, CSH, and CASH), were unambiguously quantified. Finally, the drawing of the consumption and formation of phases was correlated with mechanical strength measurements.

Keywords: cement, hydration, hydrates structure, mechanical strength, NMR

Procedia PDF Downloads 82