Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6726

Search results for: electromagnetic field

6726 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed


The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
6725 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
6724 Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Capacitive Deionization Performance

Authors: Alibi Kilybay, Emad Alhseinat, Ibrahim Mustafa, Abdulfahim Arangadi, Pei Shui, Faisal Almarzooqi


In this work, the electromagnetic field has been used for improving the performance of the capacitive deionization process. The effect of electromagnetic fields on the efficiency of the capacitive deionization (CDI) process was investigated experimentally. The results showed that treating the feed stream of the CDI process using an electromagnetic field can enhance the electrosorption capacity from 20% up to 70%. The effect of the degree of time of exposure, concentration, and type of ions have been examined. The electromagnetic field enhanced the salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of the Ca²⁺ ions by 70%, while the SAC enhanced 20% to the Na⁺ ions. It is hypnotized that the electrometric field affects the hydration shell around the ions and thus reduces their effective size and enhances the mass transfer. This reduction in ion effective size and increase in mass transfer enhanced the electrosorption capacity and kinetics of the CDI process.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, desalination, electromagnetic treatment, water treatment

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6723 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Clement Temaneh-Nyah, Josiah Makiche, Josephine Nujoma


This paper considers the characterisation of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognised body such as the International commission on non-ionising radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: complex electromagnetic environment, electric field strength, mathematical models, multiple sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
6722 A Comprehensive Approach in Calculating the Impact of the Ground on Radiated Electromagnetic Fields Due to Lightning

Authors: Lahcene Boukelkoul


The influence of finite ground conductivity is of great importance in calculating the induced voltages from the radiated electromagnetic fields due to lightning. In this paper, we try to give a comprehensive approach to calculate the impact of the ground on the radiated electromagnetic fields to lightning. The vertical component of lightning electric field is calculated with a reasonable approximation assuming a perfectly conducting ground in case the observation point does not exceed a few kilometres from the lightning channel. However, for distant observation points the radiated vertical component of lightning electric field is attenuated due finitely conducting ground. The attenuation is calculated using the expression elaborated for both low and high frequencies. The horizontal component of the electric field, however, is more affected by a finite conductivity of a ground. Besides, the contribution of the horizontal component of the electric field, to induced voltages on an overhead transmission line, is greater than that of the vertical component. Therefore, the calculation of the horizontal electric field is great concern for the simulation of lightning-induced voltages. For field to transmission lines coupling the ground impedance is calculated for early time behaviour and for low frequency range.

Keywords: power engineering, radiated electromagnetic fields, lightning-induced voltages, lightning electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
6721 Therapeutic Application of Light and Electromagnetic Fields to Reduce Hyper-Inflammation Triggered by COVID-19

Authors: Blanche Aguida, Marootpong Pooam, Nathalie Jourdan, Margaret Ahmad


COVID-19-related morbidity is associated with exaggerated inflammation and cytokine production in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory failure. The cellular mechanisms underlying these so-called ‘cytokine storms’ are regulated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both light (photobiomodulation) and magnetic fields (e.g., pulsed electromagnetic field) stimulation are non-invasive therapies known to confer anti-inflammatory effects and regulate ROS signaling pathways. Here we show that daily exposure to two 10-minute intervals of moderate-intensity infra-red light significantly lowered the inflammatory response induced via the TLR4 receptor signaling pathway in human cell cultures. Anti-inflammatory effects were likewise achieved by electromagnetic field exposure of cells to daily 10-minute intervals of either pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or to low-level static magnetic fields. Because current illumination and electromagnetic field therapies have no known side effects and are already approved for some medical uses, we have here developed protocols for verification in clinical trials of COVID 19 infection. These treatments are affordable, simple to implement, and may help to resolve the acute respiratory distress of COVID 19 patients both in the home and in the hospital.

Keywords: COVID 19, electromagnetic fields therapy, inflammation, photobiomodulation therapy

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6720 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu


Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
6719 Parallel Magnetic Field Effect on Copper Cementation onto Rotating Iron Rod

Authors: Hamouda M. Mousa, M. Obaid, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim


The rate of copper cementation on iron rod was investigated. The study was mainly dedicated to illustrate the effect of application of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the rate of cementation. The magnetic flux was placed parallel to the iron rod and different magnetic field strength was studied. The results showed that without EMF, the rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 1.36 Re0. 098 Sc0.33. The application of EMF enhanced the time required to reach high percentage copper cementation by 50%. The rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 2.29 Re0. 95 Sc0.33, with applying EMF. This work illustrates that the enhancement of copper recovery in presence of EMF is due to the induced motion of Fe+n in the solution which is limited in the range of rod rotation speed of 300~900 rpm. The calculation of power consumption of EMF showed that although the application of EMF partially reduced the cementation time, the reduction of power consumption due to utilization of magnetic field is comparable to the increase in power consumed by introducing magnetic field of 2462 A T/m.

Keywords: copper cementation, electromagnetic field, copper ions, iron cylinder

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6718 Exposure Analysis of GSM Base Stations in Industrial Area

Authors: A. D. Usman, W. F. Wan Ahmad, H. H. Danjuma


Exposure due to GSM frequencies is subject of daily debate. Though regulatory bodies provide guidelines for exposure, people still exercise fear on the possible health hazard that may result due to long term usage. In this study, exposure due to electromagnetic field emitted by GSM base stations in industrial areas was investigated. The aimed was to determine whether industrial area exposure is higher as compared to residential as well as compliance with ICNIRP guidelines. Influence of reflection and absorption with respect to inverse square law was also investigated. Measurements from GSM base stations were performed at various distances in far field region. The highest measured peak power densities as well as the calculated values at GSM 1.8 GHz were 6.05 and 90 mW/m2 respectively. This corresponds to 0.07 and 1% of ICNIRP guidelines. The highest peak power densities as well as the calculated values at GSM 0.9 GHz were 11.92 and 49.7 mW/m2 respectively. These values were 0.3 and 1.1% of ICNIRP guidelines.

Keywords: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Electromagnetic Field (EMF), far field, power density, Radiofrequency (RF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
6717 Health and Safety Risk Assesment with Electromagnetic Field Exposure for Call Center Workers

Authors: Dilsad Akal


Aim: Companies communicate with each other and with their costumers via call centers. Call centers are defined as stressful because of their uncertain working hours, inadequate relief time, performance based system and heavy workload. In literature, this sector is defined as risky as mining sector by means of health and safety. The aim of this research is to enlight the relatively dark area. Subject and Methods: The collection of data for this study completed during April-May 2015 for the two selected call centers in different parts of Turkey. The applied question mostly investigated the health conditions of call center workers. Electromagnetic field measurements were completed at the same time with applying the question poll. The ratio of employee accessibility noted as 73% for the first call center and 87% for the second. Results: The results of electromagnetic field measurements were as between 371 V/m-32 V/m for the first location and between 370 V/m-61 V/m for the second. The general complaints of the employees for both workplaces can be counted as; inadequate relief time, inadequate air conditioning, disturbance, poor thermal conditions, inadequate or extreme lighting. Furthermore, musculoskeletal discomfort, stress, ear and eye discomfort are main health problems of employees. Conclusion: The measured values and the responses to the question poll were found parallel with the other similar research results in literature. At the end of this survey, a risk map of workplace was prepared in terms of safety and health at work in general and some suggestions for resolution were provided.

Keywords: call center, health and safety, electromagnetic field, risk map

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6716 Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Behavior in the Vicinity of High-Voltage Power Lines

Authors: Tourab Wafa, Nemamcha Mohamed, Babouri Abdessalem


This paper consists on an experimental and analytical characterization of the electromagnetic environment in the in the medium surrounding a circuit of two 220 Kv power lines running in parallel. The analysis presented in this paper is divided into two main parts. The first part concerns the experimental study of the behavior of the electric field and magnetic field generated by the selected double-circuit at ground level (0 m). While the second part simulate and calculate the fields profiles generated by the both lines at different levels above the ground, from (0 m) to the level close to the lines conductors (20 m above the ground) using the electrostatic and magneto-static modules of the COMSOL multi-physics software. The implications of the results are discussed and compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational and non occupational exposures.

Keywords: HV power lines, low frequency electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic compatibility, inductive and capacitive coupling, standards

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6715 Numerical Analysis of 3D Electromagnetic Fields in Annular Induction Plasma

Authors: Abderazak Guettaf


The mathematical models of the physical phenomena interacting in inductive plasma were described by the physics equations of the continuous mediums. A 3D model based on magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation is used. The finished volume method is applied to electromagnetic equation, to obtain the field distribution inside the plasma. The numerical results of the method developed on a basic model designed starting from a real three-dimensional model were exposed. From the mathematical model 3D spreading assumptions and boundary conditions, we evaluated the electric field in the load and we have developed a numerical code made under the MATLAB environment, all verifying the effectiveness and validity of this code.

Keywords: electric field, 3D magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation, finished volumes, annular plasma

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6714 A Review of Protocols and Guidelines Addressing the Exposure of Occupants to Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Radiation in Buildings

Authors: Shabnam Monadizadeh, Charles Kibert, Jiaxuan Li, Janghoon Woo, Ashish Asutosh, Samira Roostaei, Maryam Kouhirostami


A significant share of the technology that has emerged over the past several decades produces electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. Communications devices, household appliances, industrial equipment, and medical devices all produce EMF radiation with a variety of frequencies, strengths, and ranges. Some EMF radiation, such as Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), Radio Frequency (RF), and the ionizing range have been shown to have harmful effects on human health. Depending on the frequency and strength of the radiation, EMF radiation can have health effects at the cellular level as well as at brain, nervous, and cardiovascular levels. Health authorities have enacted regulations locally and globally to set critical values to limit the adverse effects of EMF radiation. By introducing a more comprehensive field of EMF radiation study and practice, architects and designers can design for a safer electromagnetic (EM) indoor environment, and, as building and construction specialists, will be able to monitor and reduce EM radiation. This paper identifies the nature of EMF radiation in the built environment, the various EMF radiation sources, and its human health effects. It addresses European and US regulations for EMF radiation in buildings and provides a preliminary action plan. The challenges of developing measurement protocols for the various EMF radiation frequency ranges and determining the effects of EMF radiation on building occupants are discussed. This paper argues that a mature method for measuring EMF radiation in building environments and linking these measurements to human health impacts occupant health should be developed to provide adequate safeguards for human occupants of buildings for future research.

Keywords: biological affection, electromagnetic field, building regulation, human health, healthy building, clean construction

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6713 Electromagnetic Radiation Generation by Two-Color Sinusoidal Laser Pulses Propagating in Plasma

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha


Generation of the electromagnetic radiation oscillating at the frequencies in the terahertz range by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization, and spectroscopic techniques. Due to nonionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals, when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser-plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the study of the enhanced electromagnetic radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through the magnetized plasma. The two lasers pulse orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through the homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, electromagnetic radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary modes

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6712 Analysis of the Scattered Fields by Dielectric Sphere Inside Different Dielectric Mediums: The Case of the Source and Observation Point Is Reciprocal

Authors: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin, Nezahat Günenç Tuncel, A. Hami̇t Serbest


The electromagnetic scattering from a canonical structure is an important issue in electromagnetic theory. In this study, the electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric sphere with oblique incidence is investigated. The incident field is considered as a plane wave with H polarized. The scattered and transmitted field expressions with unknown coefficients are written. The unknown coefficients are obtained by using exact boundary conditions. Then, the sphere is considered as having frequency dependent dielectric permittivity. The frequency dependence is shown by Cole-Cole model. The far scattered field expressions are found respect to different incidence angles in the 1-8 GHz frequency range. The observation point is the angular distance of pi from an incident wave. While an incident wave comes with a certain angle, observation point turns from 0 to 360 degrees. According to this, scattered field amplitude is maximum at the location of the incident wave, scattered field amplitude is minimum at the across incident wave. Also, the scattered fields are plotted versus frequency to show frequency-dependence explicitly. Graphics are shown for some incident angles compared with the Harrington's solution. Thus, the results are obtained faster and more reliable with reciprocal rotation. It is expected that when there is another sphere with different properties in the outer sphere, the presence and location of the sphere will be detected faster. In addition, this study leads to use for biomedical applications in the future.

Keywords: scattering, dielectric sphere, oblique incidence, reciprocal rotation

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6711 Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: B. Ladghem Chikouche


The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.

Keywords: exact analytical calculation, finite-element method, magnetic field distribution, permanent magnet machines performance, stator slot wedges permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
6710 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau


Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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6709 Influence of 50 Hz, 1m Tesla Electromagnetic Fields on Serum Male Sex Hormones of Male Rats

Authors: Randa M. Mostafa, Y. Moustafa


During our daily life, we are continuously exposed to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances. The possible relation between exposure to (ELF-MFs) and adverse health effects has attracted and passed through long debate sessions. Extremely low frequency is a term used to describe radiation frequencies below 300 Hertz (Hz).It is very important for public health because of the widespread use of electrical power at 50-60 Hz in most countries. This study set out to investigate the impact of chronic exposure of male rats to 50- Hz, 1 mTesla (ELF-EMF) of over periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks on concentration of serum FSH, LH, and testosterone hormones. 60 male albino rats were divided into 6 groups and were continuously exposed to 50-Hz, 1 m Tesla (ELF-EMF) generated by magnetic field chamber for periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks. For each experimental point, sham treated group was used as a control. Assay of serum testosterone LH, and FSHwere performed. Serum testosterone showed no significant changes. FSH showed significant increase than sham exposed group after 1 week of field exposure. LH showed significant increase than sham exposed group only after 4 weeks of field exposure. A future detailed molecular studies must be carried out to figure out and may be able to explain the possible interactions between ELF-EMF and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis.

Keywords: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone, LH

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6708 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau


The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.

Keywords: the light–effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons-optical phonon scattering

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6707 Reducing Weight and Fuel Consumption of Civil Aircraft by EML

Authors: Luca Bertola, Tom Cox, Pat Wheeler, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan


Electromagnetic launch systems have been proposed for military applications to accelerate jet planes on aircraft carriers. This paper proposes the implementation of similar technology to aid civil aircraft take-off, which can provide significant economic, environmental and technical benefits. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing ground noise and emissions near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. This paper presents a take-off performance analysis for an Airbus A320-200 taking off with and without the assistance of the electromagnetic catapult. Assisted take-off allows for a significant reduction in take-off field length, giving more capacity with existing airport footprints and reducing the necessary footprint of new airports, which will both reduce costs and increase the number of suitable sites. The electromagnetic catapult may allow the installation of smaller engines with lower rated thrust. The consequent fuel consumption and operational cost reduction are estimated. The potential of reducing the aircraft operational costs and the runway length required making electromagnetic launch system an attractive solution to the air traffic growth in busy airports.

Keywords: electromagnetic launch, fuel consumption, take-off analysis, weight reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6706 Strip Size Optimization for Spiral Type Actuator Coil Used in Electromagnetic Flat Sheet Forming Experiment

Authors: M. A. Aleem, M. S. Awan


Flat spiral coil for electromagnetic forming system has been modelled in FEMM 4.2 software. Copper strip was chosen as the material for designing the actuator coil. Relationship between height to width ratio (S-factor) of the copper strip and coil’s performance has been studied. Magnetic field intensities, eddy currents, and Lorentz force were calculated for the coils that were designed using six different 'S-factor' values (0.65, 0.75, 1.05, 1.25, 1.54 and 1.75), keeping the cross-sectional area of strip the same. Results obtained through simulation suggest that actuator coil with S-factor ~ 1 shows optimum forming performance as it exerts maximum Lorentz force (84 kN) on work piece. The same coils were fabricated and used for electromagnetic sheet forming experiments. Aluminum 6061 sheets of thickness 1.5 mm have been formed using different voltage levels of capacitor bank. Smooth forming profiles were obtained with dome heights 28, 35 and 40 mm in work piece at 800, 1150 and 1250 V respectively.

Keywords: FEM modelling, electromagnetic forming, spiral coil, Lorentz force

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6705 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon


Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: electromagnetism, finite element method, sensitivity analysis, submarine power cables

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6704 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj


Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

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6703 Fast-Forward Problem in Asymmetric Double-Well Potential

Authors: Iwan Setiawan, Bobby Eka Gunara, Katshuhiro Nakamura


The theory to accelerate system on quantum dynamics has been constructed to get the desired wave function on shorter time. This theory is developed on adiabatic quantum dynamics which any regulation is done on wave function that satisfies Schrödinger equation. We show accelerated manipulation of WFs with the use of a parameter-dependent in asymmetric double-well potential and also when it’s influenced by electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: driving potential, Adiabatic Quantum Dynamics, regulation, electromagnetic field

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6702 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov


The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: analytical regularization method, electromagnetic theory evolutionary equations of time-domain, TM Field

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6701 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac


In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic(CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP), stainless wire mesh, electromagnetic shielding

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6700 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav


A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

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6699 Electromagnetic Fields Characterization of an Urban Area in Lagos De Moreno Mexico and Its Correlation with Public Health Hazards

Authors: Marco Vinicio Félix Lerma, Efrain Rubio Rosas, Fernando Ricardez Rueda, Victor Manuel Castaño Meneses


This paper reports a spectral analysis of the exposure levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields originating from a wide variety of telecommunications sources present in an urban area of Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico. The electromagnetic characterization of the urban zone under study was carried out by measurements in 118 sites. Measurements of TETRA,ISM434, LTE800, ISM868, GSM900, GSM1800, 3G UMTS,4G UMTS, Wlan2.4, LTE2.6, DECT, VHF Television and FM radio signals were performed at distances ranging over 10 to 1000m from 87 broadcasting towers concentrated in an urban area of about 3 hectares. The aim of these measurements is the evaluation of the electromagnetic fields power levels generated by communication systems because of their interaction with the human body. We found that in certain regions the general public exposure limits determined by ICNIRP (International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection) are overpassed from 5% up to 61% of the upper values, indicating an imminent health public hazard, whereas in other regions we found that these limits are not overpassed. This work proposes an electromagnetic pollution classification for urban zones according with ICNIRP standards. We conclude that the urban zone under study presents diverse levels of pollution and that in certain regions an electromagnetic shielding solution is needed in order to safeguard the health of the population that lives there. A practical solution in the form of paint coatings and fiber curtains for the buildings present in this zone is also proposed.

Keywords: electromagnetic field, telecommunication systems, electropollution, health hazards

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6698 Soil Salinity Mapping using Electromagnetic Induction Measurements

Authors: Fethi Bouksila, Nessrine Zemni, Fairouz Slama, Magnus Persson, Ronny Berndasson, Akissa Bahri


Electromagnetic sensor EM 38 was used to predict and map soil salinity (ECe) in arid oasis. Despite the high spatial variation of soil moisture and shallow watertable, significant ECe-EM relationships were developed. The low drainage network efficiency is the main factor of soil salinization

Keywords: soil salinity map, electromagnetic induction, EM38, oasis, shallow watertable

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6697 Impact of Iron Doping on Induction Heating during Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Hua Tan, David Salamon


In this study, γ-Al2O3 powders doped with various amounts of iron were sintered via SPS process. Two heating modes – auto and manual mode were applied to observe the role of electrical induction on heating. Temperature, electric current, and pulse pattern were experimented with grade iron γ-Al2O3 powders. Phase transformation of γ to α -Al2O3 serves as a direct indicator of internal temperature, independently on measured outside temperature. That pulsing in SPS is also able to induce internal heating due to its strong electromagnetic field when dopants are conductive metals (e.g., iron) is proofed during SPS. Density and microstructure were investigated to explain the mechanism of induction heating. In addition, the role of electric pulsing and strong electromagnetic field on internal heating (induction heating) were compared and discussed. Internal heating by iron doping within electrically nonconductive samples is able to decrease sintering temperature and save energy, furthermore it is one explanation for unique features of this material fabrication technology.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, induction heating, alumina, microstructure

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