Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1789

Search results for: microwave plasma reactor

1789 Electrohydrodynamic Study of Microwave Plasma PECVD Reactor

Authors: Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy


The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.

Keywords: electron density, electric field, microwave plasma reactor, gas velocity, non-equilibrium plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1788 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani


Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1787 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf


A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1786 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Andy Shaw, Al Shamma'A Ahmed


The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, microwave, plasma reactor, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1785 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado


The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1784 Plasma Treatment of a Lignite Using Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Anton Serov, Alan Maslani, Michal Hlina, Vladimir Kopecky, Milan Hrabovsky


Recycling of organic waste is an increasingly hot topic in recent years. This issue becomes even more interesting if the raw material for the fuel production can be obtained as the result of that recycling. A process of high-temperature decomposition of a lignite (a non-hydrolysable complex organic compound) was studied on the plasma gasification reactor PLASGAS, where water-stabilized plasma torch was used as a source of high enthalpy plasma. The plasma torch power was 120 kW and allowed heating of the reactor to more than 1000 °C. The material feeding rate in the gasification reactor was selected 30 and 60 kg per hour that could be compared with small industrial production. An efficiency estimation of the thermal decomposition process was done. A balance of the torch energy distribution was studied as well as an influence of the lignite particle size and an addition of methane (CH4) in a reaction volume on the syngas composition (H2+CO). It was found that the ratio H2:CO had values in the range of 1,5 to 2,5 depending on the experimental conditions. The recycling process occurred at atmospheric pressure that was one of the important benefits because of the lack of expensive vacuum pump systems. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the project GA15-19444S.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure, lignite, plasma treatment, water-stabilized plasma torch

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1783 Cracking of Tar Analogue in N₂ Carrier Gas Using Non-Thermal Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey


The role of N₂ carrier gas towards the conversion of tar analogue was studied in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The important parameters such as power (5-40W), residence time (1.41-4.23 s), concentration (20-82 g/Nm³), and temperature (Ambient-400°C) were explored. The present study demonstrated that plasma power and residence time played a key role in the decomposition of toluene, and almost complete removal of toluene was observed at 40w and 4.23 s. H₂ is obtained as a major gaseous product with a maximum selectivity of 40% along with some lighter hydrocarbons (5.5%). The removal efficiency of toluene slightly decreases with increasing the concentration of toluene from 20 g/Nm³ to 82 g/Nm³. The solid residue formation takes place inside the plasma reactor. The selectivity of LHC (lower hydrocarbons) increased up to 15% by increasing the temperature to 400°C. Introducing H₂ to the gas at elevated temperature opens up new reaction routes to raise the selectivity to lower hydrocarbons. The selectivity to methane reaches to 42% using 35% H₂ at 400°C and total selectivity of LHC increases to 57%.

Keywords: biomass gasification tar, non-thermal plasma, dielectric barrier discharge, residence time

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
1782 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos


The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 620
1781 Degradation of Different Organic Contaminates Using Corona Discharge Plasma

Authors: A. H. El-Shazly, A. El-Tayeb, M. F. Elkady, Mona G. E. Ibrahim, Abdelazim M. Negm


In this paper, corona discharge plasma reactor was used for degradation of organic pollution in aqueous solutions in batch reactor. This work examines the possibility of increasing the organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater using non-thermal plasma. Three types of organic pollution phenol, acid blue 25 and methylene blue are presented to investigate experimentally the amount of organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater. Measurement results for phenol degradation percentage are 71% in 35 min and 96% when its residence time is 60 min. In addition, the degradation behavior of acid blue 25 utilizing dual pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system displays a removal efficiency of 82% in 11 min. The complete decolorization was accomplished in 35 min for concentration of acid blue 25 up to 100 ppm. Furthermore, the methylene blue degradation touched up to 85% during 35 min treatment in corona discharge plasma a batch reactor system. The decolorization ratio, conductivity, corona current and discharge energy are considered at various concentration molarity for AlCl3, CaCl2, KCl and NaCl under different molar concentration. It was observed that the attendance of salts at the same concentration level considerably diminished the rate and the extent of decolorization. The research presented that the corona system could be positively utilized in a diversity of organically contaminated at diverse concentrations. Energy consumption requirements for decolorization was considered. The consequences will be valuable for designing the plasma treatment systems appropriate for industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, corona discharge, non-thermal plasma, organic pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1780 Plasma-Assisted Decomposition of Cyclohexane in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Usman Dahiru, Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are atmospheric contaminants predominantly derived from petroleum spills, solvent usage, agricultural processes, automobile, and chemical processing industries, which can be detrimental to the environment and human health. Environmental problems such as the formation of photochemical smog, organic aerosols, and global warming are associated with VOC emissions. Research showed a clear relationship between VOC emissions and cancer. In recent years, stricter emission regulations, especially in industrialized countries, have been put in place around the world to restrict VOC emissions. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are a promising technology for reducing VOC emissions by converting them into less toxic/environmentally friendly species. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is of interest due to its flexibility, moderate capital cost, and ease of operation under ambient conditions. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the decomposition of cyclohexane (as a VOC model compound) using nitrogen, dry, and humidified air carrier gases. The effect of specific input energy (1.2-3.0 kJ/L), residence time (1.2-2.3 s) and concentration (220-520 ppm) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of cyclohexane increased with increasing plasma power and residence time. The removal of cyclohexane decreased with increasing cyclohexane inlet concentration at fixed plasma power and residence time. The decomposition products included H₂, CO₂, H₂O, lower hydrocarbons (C₁-C₅) and solid residue. The highest removal efficiency (98.2%) was observed at specific input energy of 3.0 kJ/L and a residence time of 2.3 s in humidified air plasma. The effect of humidity was investigated to determine whether it could reduce the formation of solid residue in the DBD reactor. It was observed that the solid residue completely disappeared in humidified air plasma. Furthermore, the presence of OH radicals due to humidification not only increased the removal efficiency of cyclohexane but also improves product selectivity. This work demonstrates that cyclohexane can be converted to smaller molecules by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor by varying plasma power (SIE), residence time, reactor configuration, and carrier gas.

Keywords: cyclohexane, dielectric barrier discharge reactor, non-thermal plasma, removal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1779 A Study of Heavy Hydrocarbons Upgrading by Microwave Pyrolysis

Authors: Thanida Sritangthong, Suksun Amornraksa


By-product upgrading is crucial in hydrocarbon industries as it can increase overall profit margin of the business. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is relatively new technique which induces heat directly to raw materials. This results in a more energy saving and more energy-efficient process. It is also a promising method to enhance and accelerate chemical reactions, thus reducing the pyrolysis reaction time and increasing the quality of value-added products from different kinds of feedstocks. In this study, upgrading opportunity of fuel oil by-product from an olefins plant is investigated by means of microwave pyrolysis. The experiment was conducted in a lab-scale quartz reactor placed inside a 1,100 watts household microwave oven. Operating temperature was varied from 500 to 900C to observe the consequence on the quality of pyrolysis products. Several microwave receptors i.e. activated carbon, silicon carbide (SiC) and copper oxide (CuO) were used as a material to enhance the heating and reaction in the reactor. The effect of residence time was determined by adjusting flow rate of N2 carrier gas. The chemical composition and product yield were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that hydrogen, methane, ethylene, and ethane were obtained as the main gaseous products from all operating temperatures while the main liquid products were alkane, cycloalkane and polycyclic aromatic groups. The results indicated that microwave pyrolysis has a potential to upgrade low value hydrocarbons to high value products.

Keywords: fuel oil, heavy hydrocarbons, microwave pyrolysis, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1778 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej


The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1777 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan


The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1776 Arc Plasma Application for Solid Waste Processing

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alfred Mosse, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev


Hygiene and sanitary study of typical medical-biological waste made in Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus and other countries show that their risk to the environment is much higher than that of most chemical wastes. For example, toxicity of solid waste (SW) containing cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics is comparable to toxicity of radioactive waste of high and medium level activity. This report presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of thermal processing of SW and experiments at the developed plasma unit for SW processing. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the maximum yield of the synthesis gas at plasma gasification of SW in air and steam mediums is achieved at a temperature of 1600K. At the air plasma gasification of SW high-calorific synthesis gas with a concentration of 82.4% (СO – 31.7%, H2 – 50.7%) can be obtained, and at the steam plasma gasification – with a concentration of 94.5% (СO – 33.6%, H2 – 60.9%). Specific heat of combustion of the synthesis gas produced by air gasification amounts to 14267 kJ/kg, while by steam gasification - 19414 kJ/kg. At the optimal temperature (1600 K), the specific power consumption for air gasification of SW constitutes 1.92 kWh/kg, while for steam gasification - 2.44 kWh/kg. Experimental study was carried out in a plasma reactor. This is device of periodic action. The arc plasma torch of 70 kW electric power is used for SW processing. Consumption of SW was 30 kg/h. Flow of plasma-forming air was 12 kg/h. Under the influence of air plasma flame weight average temperature in the chamber reaches 1800 K. Gaseous products are taken out of the reactor into the flue gas cooling unit, and the condensed products accumulate in the slag formation zone. The cooled gaseous products enter the gas purification unit, after which via gas sampling system is supplied to the analyzer. Ventilation system provides a negative pressure in the reactor up to 10 mm of water column. Condensed products of SW processing are removed from the reactor after its stopping. By the results of experiments on SW plasma gasification the reactor operating conditions were determined, the exhaust gas analysis was performed and the residual carbon content in the slag was determined. Gas analysis showed the following composition of the gas at the exit of gas purification unit, (vol.%): СO – 26.5, H2 – 44.6, N2–28.9. The total concentration of the syngas was 71.1%, which agreed well with the thermodynamic calculations. The discrepancy between experiment and calculation by the yield of the target syngas did not exceed 16%. Specific power consumption for SW gasification in the plasma reactor according to the results of experiments amounted to 2.25 kWh/kg of working substance. No harmful impurities were found in both gas and condensed products of SW plasma gasification. Comparison of experimental results and calculations showed good agreement. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.607.21.0118, project RFMEF160715X0118).

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma-fuel system, plasma generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1775 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1774 Catalyst Assisted Microwave Plasma for NOx Formation

Authors: Babak Sadeghi, Rony Snyders, Marie-Paule.Delplancke-Ogletree


Nitrogen fixation (NF) is one of the crucial industrial processes. Many attempts have been made in order to artificially fix nitrogen, and among them, the Haber-Bosch’s (H-B) process is widely used. However, it presents two major drawbacks: huge fossil feedstock consumption and noticeable greenhouse gases emission. It is, therefore, necessary to develop alternatives. Plasma technology, as an inherent “green” technology, is considered to have a great potential for reducing the environmental impacts and improving the energy efficiency of the NF process. In this work, we have studied the catalyst assisted microwave plasma for NF application. Heterogeneous catalysts of MoO₃, with various loads 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 wt%, supported on γ-alumina were prepared by conventional wet impregnation. Crystallinity, surface area, pore size, and microstructure were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of calcined alumina confirm the γ- phase. Characteristic picks of MoO₃ could not be observed for low loads (< 20 wt%), likely indicating a high dispersion of metal oxide over the support. The specific surface area along with pores size are decreasing with increasing calcination temperature and MoO₃ loading. The MoO₃ loading does not modify the microstructure. TEM and SEM results for loading inferior to 20 wt% are coherent with a monolayer of MoO₃ on the support as proposed elsewhere. For loading of 20 wt% and more, TEM and Electron diffraction (ED) show nanocrystalline ₃-D MoO₃ particles. The catalytic performances of these catalysts were investigated in the post-discharge of a microwave plasma for NOx formation from N₂/O₂ mixtures. The plasma is sustained by a surface wave launched in a quartz tube via a surfaguide supplied by a 2.45 GHz microwave generator in pulse mode. In-situ identification and quantification of the products were carried out by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the post-discharge region. FTIR analysis of the exhausted gas reveal NO and NO₂ bands in presence of catalyst while only NO band were assigned without catalyst. On the other hand, in presence of catalyst, a 10% increase of NOₓ formation and of 20% increase in energy efficiency are observed.

Keywords: γ-Al2O₃-MoO₃, µ-waveplasma, N2 fixation, Plasma-catalysis, Plasma diagnostic

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1773 Nitriding of Super-Ferritic Stainless Steel by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency and Microwave Plasma System

Authors: H. Bhuyan, S. Mändl, M. Favre, M. Cisternas, A. Henriquez, E. Wyndham, M. Walczak, D. Manova


The 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr are two alloys belonging to the next generation of super-ferritic nickel free stainless steel grades, containing titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb) and small percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The addition of Ti and Nb improves in general the corrosion resistance while the low interstitial content of C and N assures finer precipitates and greater ductility compared to conventional ferritic grades. These grades are considered an economic alternative to AISI 316L and 304 due to comparable or superior corrosion. However, since 316L and 304 can be nitrided to improve the mechanical surface properties like hardness and wear; it is hypothesize that the tribological properties of these super-ferritic stainless steels grades can also be improved by plasma nitriding. Thus two sets of plasma immersion ion implantation experiments have been carried out, one with a high pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma at PUC Chile and the other using a low pressure microwave plasma at IOM Leipzig, in order to explore further improvements in the mechanical properties of 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr steel. Nitrided and unnitrided substrates have been subsequently investigated using different surface characterization techniques including secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Vickers hardness, wear resistance, as well as corrosion test. In most of the characterizations no major differences have been observed for nitrided 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr. Due to the ion bombardment, an increase in the surface roughness is observed for higher treatment temperature, independent of the steel types. The formation of chromium nitride compound takes place only at a treatment temperature around 4000C-4500C, or above. However, corrosion properties deteriorate after treatment at higher temperatures. The physical characterization results show up to 25 at.% of nitrogen for a diffusion zone of 4-6 m, and a 4-5 times increase in hardness for different experimental conditions. The samples implanted with temperature higher than 400 °C presented a wear resistance around two orders of magnitude higher than the untreated substrates. The hardness is apparently affected by the different roughness of the samples and their different profile of nitrogen.

Keywords: ion implantation, plasma, RF and microwave plasma, stainless steel

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1772 Microwave Production of Geopolymers Using Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom Ash

Authors: Osholana Tobi Stephen, Rotimi Emmanuel Sadiku, Bilainu Oboirien.o


Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a clean coal technology used in the combustion of low-grade coals for power generation. The production of large solid wastes such as bottom ashes from this process is a problem. The bottom ash contains some toxic elements which can leach out soils and contaminate surface and ground water; for this reason, they can neither be disposed in landfills nor lagoons anymore. The production of geopolymers from bottom ash for structural and concrete applications is an option for their disposal. In this study, the waste bottom ash obtained from the combustion of three low grade South African coals in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor was used to produce geopolymers. The geopolymers were cured in a household microwave. The results showed that the microwave curing enhanced the reactivity and strength of the geopolymers.

Keywords: bottom ash, coal, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) geopolymer, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1771 Plasma Treatment of Poppy and Flax Seeds in Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Jakub Perner, Jindrich Matousek, Hana Malinska


Adverse environmental conditions at planting (especially water shortage) can lead into reduced germination rate of seeds. The plasma treatment is one of the possibilities that can solve this problem. Such treatment can increase the germination rate of seeds and make germs grow faster due to increased wettability of seeds surface or disrupted seed coat. This could lead to enhanced oxygen and water transport into the seed and improve germination. Poppy and flax seeds were treated in fluidized bed reactor, and discharge power ranging from 10 to 40 W was used. The working gas was air at pressure 100 Pa. Poppy seeds were then planted into Petri dishes on 7 layers of filter paper saturated with water, and the number of germinated seeds was observed from 3 to 6 days after planting. Every plasma treated sample showed improved germination rate compared to untreated seeds (75.5%) six days after planting. Samples treated in 40W discharge had the highest germination rate (81.2%). The decreased contact angle of water on treated poppy seeds was observed from 85° (untreated) to 30–35° (treated). Untreated flax seeds have a germination rate over 98%; therefore, the weight of seeds was taken to be a measure of the successful germination. Treated flax seeds had a slightly higher weight than untreated. Also, the contact angle of water decreased from 99° (untreated) to 65-73° (treated); therefore the treatment of both species is considered to be successful.

Keywords: flax, germination, plasma treatment, poppy

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1770 A Simple, Precise and Cost Effective PTFE Container Design Capable to Work in Domestic Microwave Oven

Authors: Mehrdad Gholami, Shima Behkami, Sharifuddin B. Md. Zain, Firdaus A. B. Kamaruddin


Starting from the first application of a microwave oven for sample preparation in 1975 for the purpose of wet ashing of biological samples using a domestic microwave oven, many microwave-assisted dissolution vessels have been developed. The advanced vessels are armed with special safety valve that release the excess of pressure while the vessels are in critical conditions due to applying high power of microwave. Nevertheless, this releasing of pressure may cause lose of volatile elements. In this study Teflon bottles are designed with relatively thicker wall compared to commercial ones and a silicone based polymer was used to prepare an O-ring which plays the role of safety valve. In this design, eight vessels are located in an ABS holder to keep them stable and safe. The advantage of these vessels is that they need only 2 mL of HNO3 and 1mL H2O2 to digest different environmental samples, namely, sludge, apple leave, peach leave, spinach leave and tomato leave. In order to investigate the performance of this design an ICP-MS instrument was applied for multi elemental analysis of 20 elements on the SRM of above environmental samples both using this design and a commercial microwave digestion design. Very comparable recoveries were obtained from this simple design with the commercial one. Considering the price of ultrapure chemicals and the amount of them which normally is about 8-10 mL, these simple vessels with the procedures that will be discussed in detail are very cost effective and very suitable for environmental studies.

Keywords: inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), PTFE vessels, Teflon bombs, microwave digestion, trace element

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1769 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.


A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

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1768 Condition for Plasma Instability and Stability Approaches

Authors: Ratna Sen


As due to very high temperature of Plasma it is very difficult to confine it for sufficient time so that nuclear fusion reactions to take place, As we know Plasma escapes faster than the binary collision rates. We studied the ball analogy and the ‘energy principle’ and calculated the total potential energy for the whole Plasma. If δ ⃗w is negative, that is decrease in potential energy then the plasma will be unstable. We also discussed different approaches of stability analysis such as Nyquist Method, MHD approximation and Vlasov approach of plasma stability. So that by using magnetic field configurations we can able to create a stable Plasma in Tokamak for generating energy for future generations.

Keywords: jello, magnetic field configuration, MHD approximation, energy principle

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1767 Low- and High-Temperature Methods of CNTs Synthesis for Medicine

Authors: Grzegorz Raniszewski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Lukasz Szymanski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza


One of the most promising area for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) application is medicine. One of the most devastating diseases is cancer. Carbon nanotubes may be used as carriers of a slowly released drug. It is possible to use of electromagnetic waves to destroy cancer cells by the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In our research we focused on thermal ablation by ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs). In the cancer cell hyperthermia functionalized carbon nanotubes are exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic field. Properly functionalized Fe-CNTs join the cancer cells. Heat generated in nanoparticles connected to nanotubes warm up nanotubes and then the target tissue. When the temperature in tumor tissue exceeds 316 K the necrosis of cancer cells may be observed. Several techniques can be used for Fe-CNTs synthesis. In our work, we use high-temperature methods where arc-discharge is applied. Low-temperature systems are microwave plasma with assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). In the arc discharge system, the plasma reactor works with a pressure of He up to 0,5 atm. The electric arc burns between two graphite rods. Vapors of carbon move from the anode, through a short arc column and forms CNTs which can be collected either from the reactor walls or cathode deposit. This method is suitable for the production of multi-wall and single-wall CNTs. A disadvantage of high-temperature methods is a low purification, short length, random size and multi-directional distribution. In MPCVD system plasma is generated in waveguide connected to the microwave generator. Then containing carbon and ferromagnetic elements plasma flux go to the quartz tube. The additional resistance heating can be applied to increase the reaction effectiveness and efficiency. CNTs nucleation occurs on the quartz tube walls. It is also possible to use substrates to improve carbon nanotubes growth. HPCVD system involves both chemical decomposition of carbon containing gases and vaporization of a solid or liquid source of catalyst. In this system, a tube furnace is applied. A mixture of working and carbon-containing gases go through the quartz tube placed inside the furnace. As a catalyst ferrocene vapors can be used. Fe-CNTs may be collected then either from the quartz tube walls or on the substrates. Low-temperature methods are characterized by higher purity product. Moreover, carbon nanotubes from tested CVD systems were partially filled with the iron. Regardless of the method of Fe-CNTs synthesis the final product always needs to be purified for applications in medicine. The simplest method of purification is an oxidation of the amorphous carbon. Carbon nanotubes dedicated for cancer cell thermal ablation need to be additionally treated by acids for defects amplification on the CNTs surface what facilitates biofunctionalization. Application of ferromagnetic nanotubes for cancer treatment is a promising method of fighting with cancer for the next decade. Acknowledgment: The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013

Keywords: arc discharge, cancer, carbon nanotubes, CVD, thermal ablation

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1766 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee


One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

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1765 Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluids for Hyperthermia

Authors: Z. Kolacinski, L. Szymanski. G. Raniszewski, D. Koza, L. Pietrzak


Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluid (BNF) can be composed of a buffer fluid such as plasma and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron, nickel, cobalt and their oxides. However iron is one of the best elements for magnetization by electromagnetic radiation. It can be used as a tool for medical diagnosis and treatment. Radio frequency (RF) radiation is able to heat iron nanoparticles due to magnetic hysteresis. Electromagnetic heating of iron nanoparticles and ferro-fluids BNF can be successfully used for non-invasive thermal ablation of cancer cells. Moreover iron atoms can be carried by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) if iron is used as catalyst for CNTs synthesis. Then CNTs became the iron containers and they screen the iron content against oxidation. We will present a method of CNTs addressing to the required cells. For thermal ablation of cancer cells we use radio frequencies for which the interaction with human body should be limited to minimum. Generally, the application of RF energy fields for medical treatment is justified by deep tissue penetration. The highly iron doped CNTs as the carriers creating magnetic fluid will be presented. An excessive catalyst injection method using electrical furnace and microwave plasma reactor will be presented. This way it is possible to grow the Fe filled CNTs on a moving surface in continuous synthesis process. This also allows producing uniform carpet of the Fe filled CNTs carriers. For the experimental work targeted to cell ablation we used RF generator to measure the increase in temperature for some samples like: solution of Fe2O3 in BNF which can be plasma-like buffer, solutions of pure iron of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture, solutions of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture. Then the targeted therapies which can be effective if the carriers are able to distinguish the difference between cancerous and healthy cell’s physiology are considered. We have developed an approach based on ligand-receptor or antibody-antigen interactions for the case of colon cancer.

Keywords: cancer treatment, carbon nano tubes, drag delivery, hyperthermia, iron

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1764 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

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1763 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo


Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

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1762 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani


Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

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1761 Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.

Keywords: Listeria innocua ATCC 33092, inactivation, gas phase plasma, cellular leakage, recovery of cells

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1760 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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