Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: baffle

18 Effect of Number of Baffles on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri, M. Mosavi Navaei


In this paper for a given heat duty, study of number of baffles on pressure drop and heat transfer is considered in a STHX (Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger) with single segmental baffles. The effect of number of baffles from 9 to 52 baffles (baffle spacing variations from 4 to 24 inches) over OHTC (Overall Heat Hransfer Coefficient) to pressure drop ratio (U/Δp ratio). The results show that U/Δp ratio is low when baffle spacing is minimum (4 inches) because pressure drop is high; however, heat transfer coefficient is very significant. Then, with the increase of baffle spacing, pressure drop rapidly decreases and OHTC also decreases, but the decrease of OHTC is lower than pressure drop, so (U/Δp) ratio increases. After increasing baffles more than 12 inches, variation in pressure drop is gradual and approximately constant and OHTC decreases; Consequently, U/Δp ratio decreases again. If baffle spacing reaches to 24 inches, STHX will have minimum pressure drop, but OHTC decreases, so required heat transfer surface increases and U/Δp ratio decreases. After baffle spacing more than 12 inches, variation of shell side pressure drop is negligible. So optimum baffle spacing is suggested between 8 to 12 inches (43 to 63 percent of inside shell diameter) for a sufficient heat duty and low pressure drop.

Keywords: shell and tube heat exchanger, single segmental baffle, overall heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop

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17 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in THTL Test Loop Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: M. Moody, R. Mahmoodi, A. R. Zolfaghari, A. Aminottojari


In this study, flow inside the shell side of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is simulated numerically for laminar and turbulent flows in both steady state and transient mode. Governing equations of fluid flow are discrete using finite volume method and central difference scheme and solved with simple algorithm which is staggered grid by using MATLAB programming language. The heat transfer coefficient is obtained using velocity field from equation Dittus-Bolter. In comparison with, heat exchanger is simulated with ANSYS CFX software and experimental data measured in the THTL test loop. Numerical results obtained from the study show good agreement with experimental data and ANSYS CFX results. In addition, by deliberation the effect of the baffle spacing and the baffle cut on the heat transfer rate for turbulent flow, it is illustrated that the heat transfer rate depends on the baffle spacing and the baffle cut directly. In other word in spied of large turbulence, if these two parameters are not selected properly in the heat exchanger, the heat transfer rate can reduce.

Keywords: shell-and-tube heat exchanger, flow and heat transfer, laminar and turbulence flow, turbulence model, baffle spacing, baffle cut

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16 Experimental and Computational Investigations of Baffle Position Effects on ‎the Performance of Oil and Water Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah‏‎, Md Azlin Md Said ‎


Gravity separator tanks are used to separate oil from water in treatment units. Achieving the best flow ‎uniformity in a separator tank will improve the maximum removal efficiency of oil globules from water. ‎In this study, the effect on hydraulic performance of different baffle structure positions inside a tank ‎was investigated. Experimental data and 2D computation fluid dynamics were used for analysis. In the ‎numerical model, two-phase flow (drift flux model) was used to validate one-phase flow. For ‎laboratory measurements, the velocity fields were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The ‎measurements were compared with the result of the computational model. The results of the ‎experimental and computational simulations indicate that the best location of a baffle structure is ‎achieved when the standard deviation of the velocity profile and the volume of the circulation zone ‎inside the tank are minimized.‎

Keywords: gravity separator tanks, CFD, baffle position, two phase flow, ADV, oil droplet

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15 Fouling Mitigation Using Helical Baffle Heat Exchangers and Comparative Analysis Using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational Software

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi


Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat from one fluid to another via convection and conduction. The need for effective heat transfer has made their presence vital in hundreds of industries including petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, fertiliser plants and pharmaceutical companies. Fouling has been one of the major problems hindering efficient transfer of thermal energy in heat exchangers. Several design changes have been coined for fighting fouling. A recent development involves using helical baffles in place of conventional segmented baffles in shell and tube heat exchangers. The aim of this paper is to understand the advantages of helical baffle exchangers, how they aid in fouling mitigation and its corresponding limitations. A comparative analysis was conducted between a helical baffle heat exchanger and a conventional segmented baffle heat exchanger using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational software and conclusions were drawn to study how the heat transfer process differs in the two cases.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat exchangers, fouling mitigation, helical baffles

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14 The Effect of Inlet Baffle Position in Improving the Efficiency of Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Issa Saket, Md. Azlin


The gravitational effect has been extensively applied to separate oil from water in water and wastewater treatment systems. The maximum oil globules removal efficiency is improved by obtaining the best flow uniformity in separator tanks. This study used 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of different inlet baffle positions inside the separator tank. Laboratory experiment has been conducted, and the measured velocity fields which were by Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) are used to verify the CFD model. Computational investigation results indicated that the construction of an inlet baffle in a suitable location provides the minimum recirculation zone volume, creates the best flow uniformity, and dissipates kinetic energy in the oil and water separator tank. Useful formulas were predicted to design the oil and water separator tanks geometry based on an experimental model.

Keywords: oil/water separator tanks, inlet baffles, CFD, VOF

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13 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: baffle, instability, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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12 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu


In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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11 Structural Integrity Analysis of Baffle Former Assembly in Pressurized Water Reactors Considering Irradiation Aging

Authors: Jong-Sung Kim, Myung-Jo Jhung


BFA is one of the reactor internals components in PWR. The BFA has the intended functions to support fuel assembly, to keep structural integrity of upper/lower core support structures, and to secure reactor coolant flow path. Failure of the BFA may give rise to significant effect on reactor safety operation and stop. The BFA is subject to relatively high neutron irradiation dose due to location close to the core. Therefore, IASCC can occur on the BFA due to damage accumulation as operating year increases. In this study, IASCC susceptibility on the BFA was assessed via the FEA considering variations of mechanical material behaviors with neutron irradiation. As a result of the assessment, some points have susceptibility more than 0.2 to IASCC during design lifetime.

Keywords: baffle former assembly, finite element analysis, irradiation aging, nuclear power plant, pressurized water reactor

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10 Solar Still Absorber Plate Modification and Exergy Analysis

Authors: Dudul Das, Pankaj Kalita, Sangeeta Borah


Freshwater availability in the world is as low as 1% of total water available and in many geographical locations dissolved fluoride and arsenic are serious problem. In India availability of freshwater will be stressed by 2025, so the availability saline water from sea is a hope for the people of Indian sub-continent, but saline water is not drinkable it need to be processed, which again require a huge amount of energy. So the most easy and handy option in such situation for all those problems is solar still, this investigation presents various scopes for improvement of its efficiency. Experiments showed that by increasing the absorber plate area through better design can increase the distillate output by two fold and by using jute wicks in the modified absorber plate increases the output up to three times that of conventional solar still available in the Department of Energy, Tezpur University. The experiment is carried out at constant water depth of 8.5 cm and glass cover inclination of 27o facing South. The exergy analysis carried out clearly resulted that with the use of jute wick and baffle plated basin the efficiency achieved more than the simple baffle plated basin. The Instantaneous exergy without jute wick ranges from 2.5% to 4.5% while using jute it ranges from 1.5% to 5.15%.

Keywords: fluoride, absorber plate, jute wick, instantaneous exergy

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9 A Computational Study of Very High Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Circular Duct with Hemispherical Inline Baffles

Authors: Dipak Sen, Rajdeep Ghosh


This paper presents a computational study of steady state three dimensional very high turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in a constant temperature-surfaced circular duct fitted with 900 hemispherical inline baffles. The computations are based on realizable k-ɛ model with standard wall function considering the finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. Computational Study are carried out for Reynolds number, Re ranging from 80000 to 120000, Prandtl Number, Pr of 0.73, Pitch Ratios, PR of 1,2,3,4,5 based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, hydrodynamic entry length, thermal entry length and the test section. Ansys Fluent 15.0 software has been used to solve the flow field. Study reveals that circular pipe having baffles has a higher Nusselt number and friction factor compared to the smooth circular pipe without baffles. Maximum Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained for the PR=5 and PR=1 respectively. Nusselt number increases while pitch ratio increases in the range of study; however, friction factor also decreases up to PR 3 and after which it becomes almost constant up to PR 5. Thermal enhancement factor increases with increasing pitch ratio but with slightly decreasing Reynolds number in the range of study and becomes almost constant at higher Reynolds number. The computational results reveal that optimum thermal enhancement factor of 900 inline hemispherical baffle is about 1.23 for pitch ratio 5 at Reynolds number 120000.It also shows that the optimum pitch ratio for which the baffles can be installed in such very high turbulent flows should be 5. Results show that pitch ratio and Reynolds number play an important role on both fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

Keywords: friction factor, heat transfer, turbulent flow, circular duct, baffle, pitch ratio

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8 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim


Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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7 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Tattep Techopittayakul, Channarong Asavatesanupap


Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor.  It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil, transesterification, oscillatory baffled reactor

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6 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi


Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

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5 Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid

Authors: Hassan Hajabdollahi


Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.

Keywords: shell and tube heat exchanger, nanoparticles additive, total annual cost, particle volumetric concentration

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4 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi


This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

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3 The Effect of Bottom Shape and Baffle Length on the Flow Field in Stirred Tanks in Turbulent and Transitional Flow

Authors: Jie Dong, Binjie Hu, Andrzej W Pacek, Xiaogang Yang, Nicholas J. Miles


The effect of the shape of the vessel bottom and the length of baffles on the velocity distributions in a turbulent and in a transitional flow has been simulated. The turbulent flow was simulated using standard k-ε model and simulation was verified using LES whereas transitional flow was simulated using only LES. It has been found that both the shape of tank bottom and the baffles’ length has significant effect on the flow pattern and velocity distribution below the impeller. In the dished bottom tank with baffles reaching the edge of the dish, the large rotating volume of liquid was formed below the impeller. Liquid in this rotating region was not fully mixing. A dead zone was formed here. The size and the intensity of circulation within this zone calculated by k-ε model and LES were practically identical what reinforces the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Both types of simulations also show that employing full-length baffles can reduce the size of dead zone formed below the impeller. The LES was also used to simulate the velocity distribution below the impeller in transitional flow and it has been found that secondary circulation loops were formed near the tank bottom in all investigated geometries. However, in this case the length of baffles has smaller effect on the volume of rotating liquid than in the turbulent flow.

Keywords: baffles length, dished bottom, dead zone, flow field

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Reservoir for Dwell Time Prediction

Authors: Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula, Megha Anawat


Hydraulic reservoir is the key component in the mobile construction vehicles; most of the off-road earth moving construction machinery requires bigger side hydraulic reservoirs. Their reservoir construction is very much non-uniform and designers used such design to utilize the space available under the vehicle. There is no way to find out the space utilization of the reservoir by oil and validity of design except virtual simulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps to predict the reservoir space utilization by vortex mapping, path line plots and dwell time prediction to make sure the design is valid and efficient for the vehicle. The dwell time acceptance criteria for effective reservoir design is 15 seconds. The paper will describe the hydraulic reservoir simulation which is carried out using CFD tool acuSolve using automated mesh strategy. The free surface flow and moving reference mesh is used to define the oil flow level inside the reservoir. The first baseline design is not able to meet the acceptance criteria, i.e., dwell time below 15 seconds because the oil entry and exit ports were very close. CFD is used to redefine the port locations for the reservoir so that oil dwell time increases in the reservoir. CFD also proposed baffle design the effective space utilization. The final design proposed through CFD analysis is used for physical validation on the machine.

Keywords: reservoir, turbulence model, transient model, level set, free-surface flow, moving frame of reference

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1 Targeting and Developing the Remaining Pay in an Ageing Field: The Ovhor Field Experience

Authors: Christian Ihwiwhu, Nnamdi Obioha, Udeme John, Edward Bobade, Oghenerunor Bekibele, Adedeji Awujoola, Ibi-Ada Itotoi


Understanding the complexity in the distribution of hydrocarbon in a simple structure with flow baffles and connectivity issues is critical in targeting and developing the remaining pay in a mature asset. Subtle facies changes (heterogeneity) can have a drastic impact on reservoir fluids movement, and this can be crucial to identifying sweet spots in mature fields. This study aims to evaluate selected reservoirs in Ovhor Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria, with the objective of optimising production from the field by targeting undeveloped oil reserves, bypassed pay, and gaining an improved understanding of the selected reservoirs to increase the company’s reservoir limits. The task at the Ovhor field is complicated by poor stratigraphic seismic resolution over the field. 3-D geological (sedimentology and stratigraphy) interpretation, use of results from quantitative interpretation, and proper understanding of production data have been used in recognizing flow baffles and undeveloped compartments in the field. The full field 3-D model has been constructed in such a way as to capture heterogeneities and the various compartments in the field to aid the proper simulation of fluid flow in the field for future production prediction, proper history matching and design of good trajectories to adequately target undeveloped oil in the field. Reservoir property models (porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross) have been constructed by biasing log interpreted properties to a defined environment of deposition model whose interpretation captures the heterogeneities expected in the studied reservoirs. At least, two scenarios have been modelled for most of the studied reservoirs to capture the range of uncertainties we are dealing with. The total original oil in-place volume for the four reservoirs studied is 157 MMstb. The cumulative oil and gas production from the selected reservoirs are 67.64 MMstb and 9.76 Bscf respectively, with current production rate of about 7035 bopd and 4.38 MMscf/d (as at 31/08/2019). Dynamic simulation and production forecast on the 4 reservoirs gave an undeveloped reserve of about 3.82 MMstb from two (2) identified oil restoration activities. These activities include side-tracking and re-perforation of existing wells. This integrated approach led to the identification of bypassed oil in some areas of the selected reservoirs and an improved understanding of the studied reservoirs. New wells have/are being drilled now to test the results of our studies, and the results are very confirmatory and satisfying.

Keywords: facies, flow baffle, bypassed pay, heterogeneities, history matching, reservoir limit

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