Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Nikil Kapur

11 Thermal Performance of Fully Immersed Naturally Cooled Server

Authors: Yaser Al-Anii, Abdulmajeed Almaneea, Jonathan L. Summers, Harvey M. Thompson, Nikil Kapur


The natural convection cooling system of a fully immersed server in a dielectric liquid is studied numerically. In the present case study, the dielectric liquid represents working fluid and it is in contact with server inside capsule. The capsule includes electronic component and fluid which can be modeled as saturated porous media. This medium follow Darcy flow regime and assumed to be in balance between its components. The study focus is on role of spatial parameters on thermal behavior of convective heat transfer. Based on server known unit, which is 1U, two parameters Ly and S are changed to test their effect. Meanwhile, wide-range of modified Rayleigh number, which is 0.5 to 300, are covered to better understand thermal performance. Navier-Stokes equations are used to model physical domain. Furthermore, successive over-relaxation and time marching techniques are used to solve momentum and energy equation. From obtained correlation, the in-between distance S is more effective on Nusselt number than distance to edge Ly by approximately 14%. In addition, as S increases, the average Nusselt number of the upper unit increases sharply, whereas the lower one keeps on the same level.

Keywords: convective cooling of server, Darcy flow, liquid-immersed server, porous media

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10 Thermal Performance of Fully Immersed Server into Saturated Fluid Porous Medium

Authors: Yaser Al-Anii, Abdulmajeed Almaneea, Jonathan L. Summers, Harvey M. Thompson, Nikil Kapur


The natural convection cooling system of a fully immersed server in dielectric liquid is studied numerically. In present case study, the dielectric liquid represents working fluid and it is in contact with server inside capsule. The capsule includes electronic component and fluid, which can be modelled as saturated porous media. This medium follow Darcy flow regime and assumed to be in balance between its components. The study focus is on role of spatial parameters on thermal behavior of convective heat transfer. Based on server known unit, which is 1U, two parameters Ly and S are changed to test their effect. Meanwhile, wide range of modified Rayleigh number, which is 0.5 to 300, are covered to better understand thermal performance. Navier-Stokes equations are used to model physical domain. Furthermore, successive over relaxation and time marching techniques are used to solve momentum and energy equation. From obtained correlation, the in-between distance S is more effective on Nusselt number than distance to edge Ly by approximately 14%. In addition, as S increase, the average Nusselt number of the upper unit is increased sharply, whereas the lower one keeps on same level.

Keywords: convective cooling of server, darcy flow, liquid-immersed server, porous media

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9 Microstructure Characterization on Silicon Carbide Formation from Natural Wood

Authors: Noor Leha Abdul Rahman, Koay Mei Hyie, Anizah Kalam, Husna Elias, Teng Wang Dung


Dark Red Meranti and Kapur, kinds of important type of wood in Malaysia were used as a precursor to fabricate porous silicon carbide. A carbon template is produced by pyrolysis at 850°C in an oxygen free atmosphere. The carbon template then further subjected to infiltration with silicon by silicon melt infiltration method. The infiltration process was carried out in tube furnace in argon flow at 1500°C, at two different holding time; 2 hours and 3 hours. Thermo gravimetric analysis was done to investigate the decomposition behavior of two species of plants. The resulting silicon carbide was characterized by XRD which was found the formation of silicon carbide and also excess silicon. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the density was determined by the Archimedes method. An increase in holding time during infiltration will increased the density as well as formation of silicon carbide. Dark Red Meranti precursor is likely suitable for production of silicon carbide compared to Kapur.

Keywords: density, SEM, silicon carbide, XRD

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8 Size Optimization of Microfluidic Polymerase Chain Reaction Devices Using COMSOL

Authors: Foteini Zagklavara, Peter Jimack, Nikil Kapur, Ozz Querin, Harvey Thompson


The invention and development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology have revolutionised molecular biology and molecular diagnostics. There is an urgent need to optimise their performance of those devices while reducing the total construction and operation costs. The present study proposes a CFD-enabled optimisation methodology for continuous flow (CF) PCR devices with serpentine-channel structure, which enables the trade-offs between competing objectives of DNA amplification efficiency and pressure drop to be explored. This is achieved by using a surrogate-enabled optimisation approach accounting for the geometrical features of a CF μPCR device by performing a series of simulations at a relatively small number of Design of Experiments (DoE) points, with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The values of the objectives are extracted from the CFD solutions, and response surfaces created using the polyharmonic splines and neural networks. After creating the respective response surfaces, genetic algorithm, and a multi-level coordinate search optimisation function are used to locate the optimum design parameters. Both optimisation methods produced similar results for both the neural network and the polyharmonic spline response surfaces. The results indicate that there is the possibility of improving the DNA efficiency by ∼2% in one PCR cycle when doubling the width of the microchannel to 400 μm while maintaining the height at the value of the original design (50μm). Moreover, the increase in the width of the serpentine microchannel is combined with a decrease in its total length in order to obtain the same residence times in all the simulations, resulting in a smaller total substrate volume (32.94% decrease). A multi-objective optimisation is also performed with the use of a Pareto Front plot. Such knowledge will enable designers to maximise the amount of DNA amplified or to minimise the time taken throughout thermal cycling in such devices.

Keywords: PCR, optimisation, microfluidics, COMSOL

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7 Heat Treatment on Malaysian Hardwood Timbers: The Effect of Heat Exposure at Different Levels of Temperature on Bending Strength Properties

Authors: Nur Ilya Farhana Md Noh, Zakiah Ahmad


Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers; Pauh Kijang and Kapur in green condition were heat treated at 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C in a specially design electronic furnace in one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated Pauh Kijang and Kapur in term of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature levels applied. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Pauh Kijang were increased when subjected to the specified temperature levels except at 210°C. The values were dropped compared to the control sample and sample treated at 190°C. Heat treated Kapur shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels used and the values dropped at 210°C. However, differ to Pauh Kijang, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C but the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber. As the good strength of Malaysian timbers used as structural material is limited in numbers and expensive, heat treating timber with low strength properties is an alternative way to overcome this issue. Heat treatment is an alternative method need to be explored and made available in Malaysia as this country is still practicing chemical preservative treatment on the timbers.

Keywords: bending strength, hardwood timber, heat treatment, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR)

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6 Accuracy and Depiction of Mental Illness-Popular Cinema

Authors: Ankur Kapur, Moosath Vasudevan


This movie review looks at the depiction of mental illness in popular cinema, using the movie A Beautiful Mind as a case study. It tries to understand cinema and media from a clinical psychology perspective in terms of the portrayal of symptoms and caregiver support. The review aims to analyze the portrayal of schizophrenia in the book and the movie ‘A Beautiful Mind’ on Professor John Nash. It will analyze the differences in portrayal of schizophrenia, under different media and the creative applications of the author, directors and actors in depicting the disorder as closely as it is understood in Clinical Psychology. The differences would be studied for romanticisation of symptoms in the book and the movie. Even within a medium (only the movie), verbal and non-verbal cues of the disorder will be compared for the depiction of schizophrenia. The study will dwell on the comparative description of how the caregivers coped with the patient and his illness. For this, the study will understand it through the lens of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory.

Keywords: caregiver, communication, media, systems theory

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5 Using Wearable Technology to Monitor Perinatal Health: Perspectives of Community Health Workers and Potential Use by Underserved Perinatal Women in California

Authors: Tamara Jimah, Priscilla Kehoe, Pamela Pimentel, Amir Rahmani, Nikil Dutt, Yuqing Guo


Ensuring equitable access to maternal health care is critical for public health. Particularly for underserved women, community health workers (CHWs) have been invaluable in providing support through health education and strategies for improved maternal self-care management. Our research aimed to assess the acceptance of technology by CHWs and perinatal women to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum wellness. This pilot study was conducted at a local community organization in Orange County, California, where CHWs play an important role in supporting low-income women through home visitations. Questionnaires were administered to 14 CHWs and 114 pregnant and postpartum women, literate in English and/or Spanish. CHWs tested two wearable devices (Galaxy watch and Oura ring) and shared their user experience, including potential reception by the perinatal women they served. In addition, perinatal women provided information on access to a smart phone and the internet, as well as their interest in using wearable devices to self-monitor personal health with guidance from a CHW. Over 85% of CHWs agreed that it was useful to track pregnancy with the smart watch and ring. The majority of perinatal women owned a smartphone (97.4%), had access to the internet (80%) and unlimited data plans (78%), expressed interest in using the smart wearable devices to self-monitor health, and were open to receiving guidance from a CHW (87%). Community health workers and perinatal women embraced the use of wearable technology to monitor maternal health. These preliminary findings have formed the basis of an ongoing research study that integrates CHW guidance and technology (i.e., smart watch, smart ring, and a mobile phone app) to promote self-efficacy and self-management among underserved perinatal women.

Keywords: community health workers, health promotion and education, health equity, maternal and child health, technology

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4 The Effect of CPU Location in Total Immersion of Microelectronics

Authors: A. Almaneea, N. Kapur, J. L. Summers, H. M. Thompson


Meeting the growth in demand for digital services such as social media, telecommunications, and business and cloud services requires large scale data centres, which has led to an increase in their end use energy demand. Generally, over 30% of data centre power is consumed by the necessary cooling overhead. Thus energy can be reduced by improving the cooling efficiency. Air and liquid can both be used as cooling media for the data centre. Traditional data centre cooling systems use air, however liquid is recognised as a promising method that can handle the more densely packed data centres. Liquid cooling can be classified into three methods; rack heat exchanger, on-chip heat exchanger and full immersion of the microelectronics. This study quantifies the improvements of heat transfer specifically for the case of immersed microelectronics by varying the CPU and heat sink location. Immersion of the server is achieved by filling the gap between the microelectronics and a water jacket with a dielectric liquid which convects the heat from the CPU to the water jacket on the opposite side. Heat transfer is governed by two physical mechanisms, which is natural convection for the fixed enclosure filled with dielectric liquid and forced convection for the water that is pumped through the water jacket. The model in this study is validated with published numerical and experimental work and shows good agreement with previous work. The results show that the heat transfer performance and Nusselt number (Nu) is improved by 89% by placing the CPU and heat sink on the bottom of the microelectronics enclosure.

Keywords: CPU location, data centre cooling, heat sink in enclosures, immersed microelectronics, turbulent natural convection in enclosures

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3 The Beacon of Collective Hope: Mixed Method Study on the Participation of Indian Youth with Regard to Mass Demonstrations Fueled by Social Activism Media

Authors: Akanksha Lohmore, Devanshu Arya, Preeti Kapur


Rarely does the human mind look at the positive fallout of highly negative events. Positive psychology attempts to emphasize on the strengths and positives for human well-being. The present study examines the underpinning socio-cognitive factors of the protest movements regarding the gang rape case of December 16th, 2012 through the lens of positive psychology. A gamut of negative emotions came to the forum globally: of anger, shame, hatred, violence, death penalty for the perpetrators, amongst other equally strong. In relation to this incident, a number of questions can be raised. Can such a heinous crime have some positive inputs for contemporary society? What is it that has held people to protests for long even when they see faded lines of success in view? This paper explains the constant feeding of protests and continuation of movements by the robust model of Collective Hope by Snyder, a phenomenon unexplored by social psychologists. In this paper, mixed method approach was undertaken. Results confirmed the interaction of various socio-psychological factors that imitated the Snyders model of collective hope. Emergence of major themes was: Sense of Agency, Sense of Worthiness, Social Sharing and Common Grievances and Hope of Collective Efficacy. Statistical analysis (correlation and regression) showed significant relationship between media usage and occurrence of these themes among participants. Media-communication processes and educational theories for development of citizenship behavior can find implications from these results. Theory development as indicated by theorists working in the area of Social Psychology of Protests can be furthered by the direction of research.

Keywords: agency, collective, hope, positive psychology, protest, social media

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2 Ancient Malay and Spice Trade Routes: A Study of Ancient Malay from the Perspectives of Linguistics and Archaeology

Authors: Totok Suhardijanto, Ninie Susanti Tedjowasono


This paper discusses the relationship between the distribution of Ancient Malay inscriptions and Spice Trade Route, especially in the relation with material cultures that accompany them, to understand how Malay could spread out around the archipelago beyond its original native-speakers’ region. The archipelago was known as the Spice Islands from the very beginning of the first century due to mace, cloves, and nutmeg that were originally exclusively found there. According to the Indian record, since the 2nd century, there has been a contact established between Indian and Indonesian people. A Chinese document from 3rd Century has mentioned Wangka (now widely known as Bangka) an island near Sumatra where some Chinese expeditions had visited. All of these records supported the existence of a maritime trade system and route between the archipelago and other countries during the first millennium. This paper will discuss first the Ancient Malay inscription spread around the archipelago from the perspectives of language variation and writing system style. Analyzing language variations of inscriptions certainly is not as easy as studying current spoken language variations in modern sociolinguistics. A huge amount of data is available for such kind of studies. On the contrary, in language variation research with inscription texts as an object, data is insufficient. Other resources will be needed to support the linguistic analysis. For this reason, this research made use of epigraphical evidence in the surrounding areas of the inscriptions to explain the variation of language and writing style. The research next expands the analysis to figure out the relationship between language variation and inscriptions distribution to the Spice Trade Route that spreads from the Molucca Sea to Mediterranian Sea. Data in this research consists of six different inscriptions: Kedukan Bukit, Koto Kapur, Dapunta Salendra, Sang Hyang Wintang, Ligor, and Laguna from the 7th-9th Century and found in Sumatra, Jawa, and the Philippines. In addition, as a comparative resource, this research also used Hikayat Tanjung Tanah, the first-founded Ancient Malay manuscript. In language analysis, we conduct a sociolinguistic method to explore the language variation and writing style of the inscriptions. For dealing with archaeological data, we conducted a hermeneutic method to analyze the possible meaning and social uses of the data. Language variations and writing system style in this research can be classified into two main groups. The language, epigraphical, and archaeological evidence explain that Ancient Malay had been widely used in the Eastern area of Spice Trade Route because it played an important role in the region as a lingua franca between people from different ethnic groups with different languages.

Keywords: Ancient Malay, Spice trade route, language variation, writing system variation

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1 Environmental Catalysts for Refining Technology Application: Reduction of CO Emission and Gasoline Sulphur in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit

Authors: Loganathan Kumaresan, Velusamy Chidambaram, Arumugam Velayutham Karthikeyani, Alex Cheru Pulikottil, Madhusudan Sau, Gurpreet Singh Kapur, Sankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar


Environmentally driven regulations throughout the world stipulate dramatic improvements in the quality of transportation fuels and refining operations. The exhaust gases like CO, NOx, and SOx from stationary sources (e.g., refinery) and motor vehicles contribute to a large extent for air pollution. The refining industry is under constant environmental pressure to achieve more rigorous standards on sulphur content in the fuel used in the transportation sector and other off-gas emissions. Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is a major secondary process in refinery for gasoline and diesel production. CO-combustion promoter additive and gasoline sulphur reduction (GSR) additive are catalytic systems used in FCCU to assist the combustion of CO to CO₂ in the regenerator and regulate sulphur in gasoline faction respectively along with main FCC catalyst. Effectiveness of these catalysts is governed by the active metal used, its dispersion, the type of base material employed, and retention characteristics of additive in FCCU such as attrition resistance and density. The challenge is to have a high-density microsphere catalyst support for its retention and high activity of the active metals as these catalyst additives are used in low concentration compare to the main FCC catalyst. The present paper discusses in the first part development of high dense microsphere of nanocrystalline alumina by hydro-thermal method for CO combustion promoter application. Performance evaluation of additive was conducted under simulated regenerator conditions and shows CO combustion efficiency above 90%. The second part discusses the efficacy of a co-precipitation method for the generation of the active crystalline spinels of Zn, Mg, and Cu with aluminium oxides as an additive. The characterization and micro activity test using heavy combined hydrocarbon feedstock at FCC unit conditions for evaluating gasoline sulphur reduction activity are studied. These additives were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, NH₃-TPD & N₂ sorption analysis, TPR analysis to establish structure-activity relationship. The reaction of sulphur removal mechanisms involving hydrogen transfer reaction, aromatization and alkylation functionalities are established to rank GSR additives for their activity, selectivity, and gasoline sulphur removal efficiency. The sulphur shifting in other liquid products such as heavy naphtha, light cycle oil, and clarified oil were also studied. PIONA analysis of liquid product reveals 20-40% reduction of sulphur in gasoline without compromising research octane number (RON) of gasoline and olefins content.

Keywords: hydrothermal, nanocrystalline, spinel, sulphur reduction

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