Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: HVDC

21 A Study on the Optimal Placement and Control Scheme for Multi Terminal HVDC in Korea

Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Ju Sik Kwak, Seung Wan Kim


This paper deals about economics and control of optimal placement of multi-terminal HVDC in Korea. Currently, No.1 and 2 HVDC are installed in Jeju and Mainland, Dangjin Godeok HVDC starts operation in 2020. Jeju No.3 HVDC also starts operation in 2022. HVDC systems in Korea are expanding. Also, super grid projects with China, Japan, and Russia are under consideration. In this situation, it is necessary to study how to install optimal HVDC in Korea and how to control it. After initializing the Optical Polwer Flow (OPF) procudure using lossless economic dispatch, grobal iteration will be set. And then, this will be formed as the Lagrangian function and linearizied. We will also analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode for optimal operating conditions of voltage and current complex HVDC in Korea.

Keywords: economics, HVDC, multi terminal, optimal

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20 Protection of the Valves against AC Faults Using the Fast-Acting HVDC Controls

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine


Short circuit causes important damage in power systems. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the effect of short circuit at the AC side inverter in HVDC transmission line. The cutoff of HVDC transmission line implies important economic losses. In this paper it is proposed an efficient procedure which can protect and eliminate the fault quickly. The theoretical development and simulation are well detailed and illustrated.

Keywords: AC inverter, HVDC, short circuit, switcher gate, power system

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19 Enhance Power Quality by HVDC System, Comparison Technique between HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems

Authors: Smko Zangana, Ergun Ercelebi


The alternating current is the main power in all industries and other aspects especially for the short and mid distances, but as far as long a distance which exceeds 500 KMs, using the alternating current technically will face many difficulties and more costs because it's difficult to control the current and also other restrictions. Therefore, recently those reasons led to building transmission lines HVDC to transmit power for long distances. This document presents technical comparison and assessments for power transmission system among distances either ways and studying the stability of the system regarding the proportion of losses in the actual power sent and received between both sides in different systems and also categorizing filters used in the HVDC system and its impact and effect on reducing Harmonic in the power transmission. MATLAB /Simulink simulation software is used to simulate both HVAC & HVDC power transmission system topologies.

Keywords: HVAC power system, HVDC power system, power system simulation (MATLAB), the alternating current, voltage stability

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18 Technical Considerations of High Voltage Direct Current for Interconnection of Iran Grid to Neighboring Countries

Authors: Mojtaba Abolfazli, Mohammad Gahderi, Alireza Ashoorizadeh, Rahim Zeinali


Interconnection between countries provides noticeable economic, technical and environmental benefits. Iran grid has an excellent condition for connection to neighbouring countries. There are two main options including High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) and High Voltage Alternative Current (HVAC) for interconnection between the grids. At present, all of Iran cross border interconnections are HVAC while HVDC brings more benefits in comparison which should be considered by system planners. This paper presents a comprehensive review of technical considerations of HVDC for interconnection of Iran grid to neighbouring countries. Converter technology, converter transformers, converter valves, filters, and transmission link are studied for a good cognition to HVDC. In addition, a comparison between HVDC and HVAC for transmitting of power is discussed. Finally, a conclusion on HVDC technology and components is drawn out to provide a comprehensive knowledge for system planners.

Keywords: interconnection, HVDC, HVAC, voltage sourced converter, current sourced converter

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17 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios


This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

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16 The Response of LCC to DC System Faults and HVDC Re-Establishment

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine


As every power systems short circuit failure can occur for HVDC at the DC link. So, the power devices should be protected against over heath produced by this over-current. This can be achieved through the power switchers or fast breaker. After short circuit the system is unable to restart, only after a time delay, because of the potential distribution along the DC link line. An appropriate fast and safety control is proposed and tested successfully. The detailed development and discussion of these faults is presented in this paper.

Keywords: HVDC, DC link, switchers, short circuit, faults

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15 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim


Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

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14 Numerical Analyze of Corona Discharge on HVDC Transmission Lines

Authors: H. Nouri, A. Tabbel, N. Douib, H. Aitsaid, Y. Zebboudj


This study and the field test comparisons were carried out on the Algerian Derguna-Setif transmission systems. The transmission line of normal voltage 225 kV is 65 km long, transported and uses twin bundle conductors protected with two shield wires of transposed galvanized steel. An iterative finite-element method is used to solve Poisons equation. Two algorithms are proposed for satisfying the current continuity condition and updating the space-charge density. A new approach to the problem of corona discharge in transmission system has been described in this paper. The effect of varying the configurations and wires number is also investigated. The analysis of this steady is important in the design of HVDC transmission lines. The potential and electric field have been calculating in locations singular points of the system.

Keywords: corona discharge, finite element method, electric field, HVDC

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13 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho


Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

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12 Large-Scale Photovoltaic Generation System Connected to HVDC Grid with Centralized High Voltage and High Power DC/DC Converter

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Shanshan Meng, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation system connected to HVDC grid has many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid. DC connection can solve many problems that AC connection faces, such as the grid-connection and power transmission, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a centralized DC/DC converter which uses Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid voltage. Meanwhile, it adopts input current sharing control strategy to realize input current and output voltage balance. A ±30kV/1MW system is modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and a downscaled ±10kV/200kW DC/DC converter platform is built to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, cascaded dc/dc converter, galvanic isolation, high-voltage, direct current (HVDC)

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11 A Quasi Z-Source Based Full Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converter as a Power Module for PV System Connected to HVDC Grid

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Guoen Cao, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) power system is to be developed in the direction of large-scale, clustering. Large-scale PV generation systems connected to HVDC grid have many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system, has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a Quasi Z-Source(QZS) based Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology as a basis power module and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid. The topology has both traditional voltage source and current source advantages, it permit the H-bridge short through and open circuit, which adopt utility duty cycle control and achieved input current and output voltage balancing through input current sharing control strategy. A ±10kV/200kW system model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: PV Generation System, Cascaded DC/DC converter, HVDC, Quasi Z Source Converter

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10 Behavior of Epoxy Insulator with Surface Defect under HVDC Stress

Authors: Qingying Liu, S. Liu, L. Hao, B. Zhang, J. D. Yan


HVDC technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its simplicity in topology and less power loss over long distance of power transmission, in comparison with HVAC technology. However, the dielectric behavior of insulators in the long term under HVDC stress is completely different from that under HVAC stress as a result of charge accumulation in a constant electric field. Insulators used in practical systems are never perfect in their structural conditions. Over time shallow cracks may develop on their surface. The presence of defects can lead to drastic change in their dielectric behaviour and thus increase the probability of surface flashover. In this contribution, experimental investigations have been carried out on the charge accumulation phenomenon on the surface of a rod insulator made of epoxy that is placed between two disk shaped electrodes at different voltage levels and in different gases (SF6, CO2 and N2). Many results obtained, such as, the two-dimensional electrostatic potential distribution along the insulator surface after the removal of the power source following a pre-defined period of application. The probe has been carefully calibrated before each test. Results show that surface charge distribution near the two disk shaped electrodes is not uniform in the circumferential direction, possibly due to the imperfect electrical connections between the embeded conductor in the insulator and the disk shaped electrodes. The axial length of this non-uniform region is experimentally determined, which provides useful information for shielding design. A charge transport model is also used to explain the formation of the long term electrostatic potential distribution under a constant applied voltage.

Keywords: HVDC, power systems, dielectric behavior, insulation, charge accumulation

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9 Internal DC Short-Circuit Fault Analysis and Protection for VSI of Wind Power Generation Systems

Authors: Mehdi Radmehr, Amir Hamed Mashhadzadeh, Mehdi Jafari


Traditional HVDC systems are tough to DC short circuits as they are current regulated with a large reactance connected in series with cables. Multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies are attracting increasing research attempt. With AC/DC converters on the generator side, this topology can be developed into a multi-terminal DC network for wind power collection, which is especially suitable for large-scale offshore wind farms. For wind farms, the topology uses high-voltage direct-current transmission based on voltage-source converters (VSC-HVDC). Therefore, they do not suffer from over currents due to DC cable faults and there is no over current to react to. In this study, the multi-terminal DC wind farm topology is introduced. Then, possible internal DC faults are analyzed according to type and characteristic. Fault over current expressions are given in detail. Under this characteristic analysis, fault detection and detailed protection methods are proposed. Theoretical analysis and PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are provided.

Keywords: DC short circuits, multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies, HVDC transmission based on VSC, fault analysis

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8 PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India

Authors: Toushik Maiti, Saibal Chatterjee, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Arijit Basuray


Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.

Keywords: HVDC, load flow, PSS®E, unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults

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7 A Review of HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters Subjected to DC and AC Faults

Authors: Jude Inwumoh, Adam P. R. Taylor, Kosala Gunawardane


Modular multilevel converters (MMC) exhibit a highly scalable and modular characteristic with good voltage/power expansion, fault tolerance capability, low output harmonic content, good redundancy, and a flexible front-end configuration. Fault detection, location, and isolation, as well as maintaining fault ride-through (FRT), are major challenges to MMC reliability and power supply sustainability. Different papers have been reviewed to seek the best MMC configuration with fault capability. DC faults are the most common fault, while the probability that AC fault occurs in a modular multilevel converter (MCC) is low; though, AC faults consequence are severe. This paper reviews several MMC topologies and modulation techniques in tackling faults. These fault control strategies are compared based on cost, complexity, controllability, and power loss. A meshed network of half-bridge (HB) MMC topology was optimal in rendering fault ride through than any other MMC topologies but only when combined with DC circuit breakers (CBS), AC CBS, and fault current limiters (FCL).

Keywords: MMC-HVDC, DC faults, fault current limiters, control scheme

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6 Supergrid Modeling and Operation and Control of Multi Terminal DC Grids for the Deployment of a Meshed HVDC Grid in South Asia

Authors: Farhan Beg, Raymond Moberly


The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to energy security in member countries, to provide reliable electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and consequently achieve the developmental targets. The instability of the current precarious situation is observable in the frequent system failures and blackouts. The deployment of interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the Indian sub-continent is proposed in this paper. Besides enabling energy security in the subcontinent, it will also provide a platform for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on Voltage Source High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) converters for the Supergrid modeling. Various control schemes for the control of voltage and power are utilized for the regulation of the network parameters. A 3 terminal Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) network is used for the simulations.

Keywords: super grid, wind and solar energy, high voltage direct current, electricity management, load flow analysis

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5 Partial Discharge Characteristics of Free- Moving Particles in HVDC-GIS

Authors: Philipp Wenger, Michael Beltle, Stefan Tenbohlen, Uwe Riechert


The integration of renewable energy introduces new challenges to the transmission grid, as the power generation is located far from load centers. The associated necessary long-range power transmission increases the demand for high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines and DC distribution grids. HVDC gas-insulated switchgears (GIS) are considered being a key technology, due to the combination of the DC technology and the long operation experiences of AC-GIS. To ensure long-term reliability of such systems, insulation defects must be detected in an early stage. Operational experience with AC systems has proven evidence, that most failures, which can be attributed to breakdowns of the insulation system, can be detected and identified via partial discharge (PD) measurements beforehand. In AC systems the identification of defects relies on the phase resolved partial discharge pattern (PRPD). Since there is no phase information within DC systems this method cannot be transferred to DC PD diagnostic. Furthermore, the behaviour of e.g. free-moving particles differs significantly at DC: Under the influence of a constant direct electric field, charge carriers can accumulate on particles’ surfaces. As a result, a particle can lift-off, oscillate between the inner conductor and the enclosure or rapidly bounces at just one electrode, which is known as firefly motion. Depending on the motion and the relative position of the particle to the electrodes, broadband electromagnetic PD pulses are emitted, which can be recorded by ultra-high frequency (UHF) measuring methods. PDs are often accompanied by light emissions at the particle’s tip which enables optical detection. This contribution investigates PD characteristics of free moving metallic particles in a commercially available 300 kV SF6-insulated HVDC-GIS. The influences of various defect parameters on the particle motion and the PD characteristic are evaluated experimentally. Several particle geometries, such as cylinder, lamella, spiral and sphere with different length, diameter and weight are determined. The applied DC voltage is increased stepwise from inception voltage up to UDC = ± 400 kV. Different physical detection methods are used simultaneously in a time-synchronized setup. Firstly, the electromagnetic waves emitted by the particle are recorded by an UHF measuring system. Secondly, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) detects light emission with a wavelength in the range of λ = 185…870 nm. Thirdly, a high-speed camera (HSC) tracks the particle’s motion trajectory with high accuracy. Furthermore, an electrically insulated electrode is attached to the grounded enclosure and connected to a current shunt in order to detect low frequency ion currents: The shunt measuring system’s sensitivity is in the range of 10 nA at a measuring bandwidth of bw = DC…1 MHz. Currents of charge carriers, which are generated at the particle’s tip migrate through the gas gap to the electrode and can be recorded by the current shunt. All recorded PD signals are analyzed in order to identify characteristic properties of different particles. This includes e.g. repetition rates and amplitudes of successive pulses, characteristic frequency ranges and detected signal energy of single PD pulses. Concluding, an advanced understanding of underlying physical phenomena particle motion in direct electric field can be derived.

Keywords: current shunt, free moving particles, high-speed imaging, HVDC-GIS, UHF

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4 Effects of Surface Insulation of Silicone Rubber Composites in HVDC

Authors: Min-Hae Park, Ju-Na Hwang, Cheong-won Seo, Ji-Ho Kim, Kee-Joe Lim


Polymeric insulators are high hardness, corrosion resistant, lightweight and also good dielectric strength in electric equipment. For such reasons, the amount of polymeric insulators is increased consistently abroad. The current outdoor insulators are replaced by polymeric insulators. Silicone rubber of polymeric insulators is widely used in insulation materials for outdoor application since it has excellent electrical characteristics and high surface hydrophobic. However, it can be evade exposure to pollutant on surface using at outdoor. It also improve the pollution for dust and smoke due to the large are increasing, because most of the industrial area in which the electric power loads are concentrated are located at the coastal area with salt attack. Thus it is important to detect the main cause of the deterioration for outdoor insulation materials. But there has no standards for valuation to apply reliably and determine accurately deterioration under DC, still lacks DC characteristic researches in proportion to AC. In addition, a lot of ATH was added to improve tracking resistivity of silicone rubber, although the problem has been brought up about falling sharply mechanical properties. Therefore, we might compare surface resistivities of silicone rubber compounding of three kinds of filler. In this paper, specimens of silicone rubber composite usable as outdoor insulators were prepared. Micro-silica (SiO2), nano- alumina (Al2O3) and nano-ATH (Al(OH)3) were used in additives. The study aims to investigate properties of DC surface insulation on silicone rubber composite which were filled with various fillers from surface resistivity measurement and salt-fog test.

Keywords: composite, silicone rubber, surface insulation, HVDC

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3 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan


Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

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2 Technical and Economic Evaluation of Harmonic Mitigation from Offshore Wind Power Plants by Transmission Owners

Authors: A. Prajapati, K. L. Koo, F. Ghassemi, M. Mulimakwenda


In the UK, as the volume of non-linear loads connected to transmission grid continues to rise steeply, the harmonic distortion levels on transmission network are becoming a serious concern for the network owners and system operators. This paper outlines the findings of the study conducted to verify the proposal that the harmonic mitigation could be optimized and can be managed economically and effectively at the transmission network level by the Transmission Owner (TO) instead of the individual polluter connected to the grid. Harmonic mitigation studies were conducted on selected regions of the transmission network in England for recently connected offshore wind power plants to strategize and optimize selected harmonic filter options. The results – filter volume and capacity – were then compared against the mitigation measures adopted by the individual connections. Estimation ratios were developed based on the actual installed and optimal proposed filters. These estimation ratios were then used to derive harmonic filter requirements for future contracted connections. The study has concluded that a saving of 37% in the filter volume/capacity could be achieved if the TO is to centrally manage the harmonic mitigation instead of individual polluter installing their own mitigation solution.

Keywords: C-type filter, harmonics, optimization, offshore wind farms, interconnectors, HVDC, renewable energy, transmission owner

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1 Enhancing the Stability of Vietnamese Power System - from Theory to Practical

Authors: Edwin Lerch, Dirk Audring, Cuong Nguyen Mau, Duc Ninh Nguyen, The Cuong Nguyen, The Van Nguyen


The National Load Dispatch Centre of Electricity Vietnam (EVNNLDC) and Siemens PTI investigated the stability of the electrical 500/220 kV transportation system of Vietnam. The general scope of the investigations is improving the stability of the Vietnam power system and giving the EVNNLDC staff the capability to decide how to deal with expected stability challenges in the future, which are related to the very fast growth of the system. Rapid system growth leads to a very high demand of power transmission from North to South. This was investigated by stability studies of interconnected power system with neighboring countries. These investigations are performed in close cooperation and coordination with the EVNNLDC project team. This important project includes data collection, measurement, model validation and investigation of relevant stability phenomena as well as training of the EVNNLDC staff. Generally, the power system of Vietnam has good voltage and dynamic stability. The main problems are related to the longitudinal system with more power generation in the North and Center, especially hydro power, and load centers in the South of Vietnam. Faults on the power transmission system from North to South risks the stability of the entire system due to a high power transfer from North to South and high loading of the 500 kV backbone. An additional problem is the weak connection to Cambodia power system which leads to interarea oscillations mode. Therefore, strengthening the power transfer capability by new 500kV lines or HVDC connection and balancing the power generation across the country will solve many challenges. Other countermeasures, such as wide area load shedding, PSS tuning and correct SVC placement will improve and stabilize the power system as well. Primary frequency reserve should be increased.

Keywords: dynamic power transmission system studies, blackout prevention, power system interconnection, stability

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