Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: MCNPX

8 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography

Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo


This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damage

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7 Radiosensitization Properties of Gold Nanoparticles in Brachytherapy of Uterus Cancer by High Dose Rate I-125 Seed: A Simulation Study by MCNPX and MCNP6 Codes

Authors: Elham Mansouri, Asghar Mesbahi


Purpose: In the current study, we aimed to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic dose enhancement effect of metallic nanoparticles in interstitial brachytherapy of uterus cancer by Iodin-125 source using a nano-lattice model in MCNPX (5) and MCNP6.1 codes. Materials and methods: Based on a nano-lattice simulation model containing a radiation source and a tumor tissue with cellular compartments loaded with 7mg/g spherical nanoparticles (bismuth, gold, and gadolinium), the energy deposited by the secondary electrons in microscopic and macroscopic level was estimated. Results: The results show that the values of macroscopic DEF is higher than microscopic DEF values and the macroscopic DEF values decreases as a function of distance from the brachytherapy source surface. Also, the results revealed a remarkable discrepancy between the DEF and secondary electron spectra calculated by MCNPX (5) and MCNP6.1 codes, which could be justified by the difference in energy cut-off and electron transport algorithms of two codes. Conclusion: According to the both MCNPX (5) and MCNP6.1 outputs, it could be concluded that the presence of metallic nanoparticles in the tumor tissue of uteruscancer increases the physical effectiveness of brachytherapy by I-125 source. The results presented herein give a physical view of radiosensitization potential of different metallic nanoparticles and could be considered in design of analytical and experimental radiosensitization studies in tumor regions using various radiotherapy modalities in the presence of heavy nanomaterials.

Keywords: MCNPX, MCNP6, nanoparticle, brachytherapy

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6 Investigation of Efficient Production of ¹³⁵La for the Auger Therapy Using Medical Cyclotron in Poland

Authors: N. Zandi, M. Sitarz, J. Jastrzebski, M. Vagheian, J. Choinski, A. Stolarz, A. Trzcinska


¹³⁵La with the half-life of 19.5 h can be considered as a good candidate for Auger therapy. ¹³⁵La decays almost 100% by electron capture to the stable ¹³⁵Ba. In this study, all important possible reactions leading to ¹³⁵La production are investigated in details, and the corresponding theoretical yield for each reaction using the Monte-Carlo method (MCNPX code) are presented. Among them, the best reaction based on the cost-effectiveness and production yield regarding Poland facilities equipped with medical cyclotron has been selected. ¹³⁵La is produced using 16.5 MeV proton beam of general electric PET trace cyclotron through the ¹³⁵Ba(p,n)¹³⁵La reaction. Moreover, for a consistent facilitating comparison between the theoretical calculations and the experimental measurements, the beam current and also the proton beam energy is measured experimentally. Then, the obtained proton energy is considered as the entrance energy for the theoretical calculations. The production yield finally is measured and compared with the results obtained using the MCNPX code. The results show the experimental measurement and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement.

Keywords: efficient ¹³⁵La production, proton cyclotron energy measurement, MCNPX code, theoretical and experimental production yield

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5 Verifying the Performance of the Argon-41 Monitoring System from Fluorine-18 Production for Medical Applications

Authors: Nicole Virgili, Romolo Remetti


The aim of this work is to characterize, from radiation protection point of view, the emission into the environment of air contaminated by argon-41. In this research work, 41Ar is produced by a TR19PET cyclotron, operated at 19 MeV, installed at 'A. Gemelli' University Hospital, Rome, Italy, for fluorine-18 production. The production rate of 41Ar has been calculated on the basis of the scheduled operation cycles of the cyclotron and by utilising proper production algorithms. Then extensive Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by MCNP code, have allowed to determine the absolute detection efficiency to 41Ar gamma rays of a Geiger Muller detector placed in the terminal part of the chimney. Results showed unsatisfactory detection efficiency values and the need for integrating the detection system with more efficient detectors.

Keywords: Cyclotron, Geiger Muller detector, MCNPX, argon-41, emission of radioactive gas, detection efficiency determination

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4 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod


The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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3 Investigation of Minor Actinide-Contained Thorium Fuel Impacts on CANDU-Type Reactor Neutronics Using Computational Method

Authors: S. A. H. Feghhi, Z. Gholamzadeh, Z. Alipoor, C. Tenreiro


Currently, thorium fuel has been especially noticed because of its proliferation resistance than long half-life alpha emitter minor actinides, breeding capability in fast and thermal neutron flux and mono-isotopic naturally abundant. In recent years, efficiency of minor actinide burning up in PWRs has been investigated. Hence, a minor actinide-contained thorium based fuel matrix can confront both proliferation resistance and nuclear waste depletion aims. In the present work, minor actinide depletion rate in a CANDU-type nuclear core modeled using MCNP code has been investigated. The obtained effects of minor actinide load as mixture of thorium fuel matrix on the core neutronics has been studiedwith comparingpresence and non-presence of minor actinide component in the fuel matrix.Depletion rate of minor actinides in the MA-contained fuel has been calculated using different power loads.According to the obtained computational data, minor actinide loading in the modeled core results in more negative reactivity coefficients. The MA-contained fuel achieves less radial peaking factor in the modeled core. The obtained computational results showed 140 kg of 464 kg initial load of minor actinide has been depleted in during a 6-year burn up in 10 MW power.

Keywords: minor actinide burning, CANDU-type reactor, MCNPX code, neutronic parameters

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2 Preliminary Study on the Factors Affecting Safety Parameters of (Th, U)O₂ Fuel Cycle: The Basis for Choosing Three Fissile Enrichment Zones

Authors: E. H. Uguru, S. F. A. Sani, M. U. Khandaker, M. H. Rabir


The beginning of cycle transient safety parameters is paramount for smooth reactor operation. The enhanced operational safety of UO₂ fuelled AP1000 reactor being the first using three fissile enrichment zones motivated this research for (Th, U)O₂ fuel. This study evaluated the impact of fissile enrichment, soluble boron, and gadolinia on the transient safety parameters to determine the basis for choosing the three fissile enrichment zones. Fuel assembly and core model of Westinghouse small modular reactor were investigated using different fuel and reactivity control arrangements. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) integrated with CINDER90 burn-up code was used for the calculations. The results show that the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) and the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity (FTC) were respectively negative and decreased with increasing fissile enrichment. Soluble boron significantly decreased the MTC but slightly increased FTC while gadolinia followed the same trend with a minor impact. However, the MTC and FTC respectively decreased significantly with increasing change in temperature. These results provide a guide on the considerable factors in choosing the three fissile enrichment zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel in anticipation of their impact on safety parameters. Therefore, this study provides foundational results on the factors that must be considered in choosing three fissile arrangement zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel.

Keywords: reactivity, safety parameters, small modular reactor, soluble boron, thorium fuel cycle

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1 Radiation Protection Assessment of the Emission of a d-t Neutron Generator: Simulations with MCNP Code and Experimental Measurements in Different Operating Conditions

Authors: G. M. Contessa, L. Lepore, G. Gandolfo, C. Poggi, N. Cherubini, R. Remetti, S. Sandri


Practical guidelines are provided in this work for the safe use of a portable d-t Thermo Scientific MP-320 neutron generator producing pulsed 14.1 MeV neutron beams. The neutron generator’s emission was tested experimentally and reproduced by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Simulations were particularly accurate, even generator’s internal components were reproduced on the basis of ad-hoc collected X-ray radiographic images. Measurement campaigns were conducted under different standard experimental conditions using an LB 6411 neutron detector properly calibrated at three different energies, and comparing simulated and experimental data. In order to estimate the dose to the operator vs. the operating conditions and the energy spectrum, the most appropriate value of the conversion factor between neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent has been identified, taking into account both direct and scattered components. The results of the simulations show that, in real situations, when there is no information about the neutron spectrum at the point where the dose has to be evaluated, it is possible - and in any case conservative - to convert the measured value of the count rate by means of the conversion factor corresponding to 14 MeV energy. This outcome has a general value when using this type of generator, enabling a more accurate design of experimental activities in different setups. The increasingly widespread use of this type of device for industrial and medical applications makes the results of this work of interest in different situations, especially as a support for the definition of appropriate radiation protection procedures and, in general, for risk analysis.

Keywords: instrumentation and monitoring, management of radiological safety, measurement of individual dose, radiation protection of workers

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