Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Ananya Patra

36 Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline

Authors: Krishna Prasad Maity, Narendra Tanty, Ananya Patra, V. Prasad


Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

Keywords: coulomb interaction, magnetoresistance transition, polyaniline composite, polaron-bipolaron

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35 2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI

Authors: Ananya Ananya, Karthik Rao


Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, dilated convolutions, 3 dimensional, fully automated, knee cartilage, MRI, segmentation, U-net

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34 Generalized Chaplygin Gas and Varying Bulk Viscosity in Lyra Geometry

Authors: A. K. Sethi, R. N. Patra, B. Nayak


In this paper, we have considered Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric with generalized Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in the context of Lyra geometry. The viscosity is considered in two different ways (i.e. zero viscosity, non-constant r (rho)-dependent bulk viscosity) using constant deceleration parameter which concluded that, for a special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas reduces to modified Chaplygin gas. The represented model indicates on the presence of Chaplygin gas in the Universe. Observational constraints are applied and discussed on the physical and geometrical nature of the Universe.

Keywords: bulk viscosity, lyra geometry, generalized chaplygin gas, cosmology

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33 Federated Learning in Healthcare

Authors: Ananya Gangavarapu


Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based models are providing diagnostic capabilities on par with the medical specialists in many specialty areas. However, collecting the medical data for training purposes is very challenging because of the increased regulations around data collections and privacy concerns around personal health data. The gathering of the data becomes even more difficult if the capture devices are edge-based mobile devices (like smartphones) with feeble wireless connectivity in rural/remote areas. In this paper, I would like to highlight Federated Learning approach to mitigate data privacy and security issues.

Keywords: deep learning in healthcare, data privacy, federated learning, training in distributed environment

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32 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta


Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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31 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra


A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

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30 Effectiveness of Dry Needling on Pain and Pressure Point Threshold in Cervicogenic Headache

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Patra, Ajay P. Gautam, Patitapaban Mohanty


Headache disorders are one of the 10 most disabling conditions for men and women. Headache that originated from upper cervical spine and refereed to the one side of the head and/or face is known as cervicogenic headache (CH) which constitute15% to 20% among all the headaches. In our best knowledge manual therapy is often advocated for managing CH, but very little focus given on muscle system although it is a musculoskeletal disorder. In this study, 75 patients with CH were selected and divided into two groups Group A: Manual therapy and Group B: dry needling along with manual therapy group. Assessment was done using NPRS (0-10) for pain, wide spread pressure pain threshold using an algometer at the beginning and end of the study. There is a consistent reduction in pain and tenderness in both the group but significant improvement was shown in combined group. Outcome of the study has explored that the effectiveness of dry needling along with Mulligan is more beneficial in patients with cervicogenic headaches.

Keywords: cervicogenic headaches, dry needling, NPRS, pressure point threshold

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29 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal


This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.

Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, waste

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28 Influence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube on Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite

Authors: Alak Kumar Patra, Nilanjan Mitra


Interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT has been investigated through experimental methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (GC) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum assisted resin transfer method (VARTM) used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results are supported by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, foam, glass-epoxy, interfacial fracture, sandwich composite

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27 Mutual Information Based Image Registration of Satellite Images Using PSO-GA Hybrid Algorithm

Authors: Dipti Patra, Guguloth Uma, Smita Pradhan


Registration is a fundamental task in image processing. It is used to transform different sets of data into one coordinate system, where data are acquired from different times, different viewing angles, and/or different sensors. The registration geometrically aligns two images (the reference and target images). Registration techniques are used in satellite images and it is important in order to be able to compare or integrate the data obtained from these different measurements. In this work, mutual information is considered as a similarity metric for registration of satellite images. The transformation is assumed to be a rigid transformation. An attempt has been made here to optimize the transformation function. The proposed image registration technique hybrid PSO-GA incorporates the notion of Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm and is used for finding the best optimum values of transformation parameters. The performance comparision obtained with the experiments on satellite images found that the proposed hybrid PSO-GA algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in terms of mutual information and registration accuracy.

Keywords: image registration, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, hybrid PSO-GA algorithm and mutual information

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26 Contested Visions of Exploration in IR: Theoretical Engagements, Reflections and New Agendas on the Dynamics of Global Order

Authors: Ananya Sharma


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, with mainstream analysis theorizing the State, but theory remains at best a reactionary monolith. Critical Theorists have been pushing the envelope and to that extent, there has been a clear shift in the dominant discourse away from State-centrism to individuals and group-level behaviour. This paradigm shift has been accompanied with more nuanced conceptualizations of other variables at play–power, security, and trust, to name a few. Yet, the ambit of “what is discussed” remains primarily embedded in realist conceptualizations. With this background in mind, this paper will attempt to understand, juxtapose and evaluate how “order” has been conceptualized in International Relations theory. This paper is a tentative attempt to present a “state of the art” and in the process, set the stage for a deeper study to draw attention to what the author feels is a gaping lacuna in IR theory. The paper looks at how different branches of international relations theory envisage world order and the silences embedded therein. Further, by locating order and disorder inhabiting the same reality along a continuum, alternative readings of world orders are drawn from the critical theoretical traditions, in which various articulations of justice impart the key normative pillar to the world order.

Keywords: global justice, international relations theory, legitimacy, world order

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25 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki


Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: electrocatalysts, molybdenum disulfide, oxygen evolution reaction, transition metals

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24 Optimization of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate Recovery from Bacillus Subtilis Using Solvent Extraction Process by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Jayprakash Yadav, Nivedita Patra


Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an interesting material in the field of medical science, pharmaceutical industries, and tissue engineering because of its properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophobicity, and elasticity. PHB is naturally accumulated by several microbes in their cytoplasm during the metabolic process as energy reserve material. PHB can be extracted from cell biomass using halogenated hydrocarbons, chemicals, and enzymes. In this study, a cheaper and non-toxic solvent, acetone, was used for the extraction process. The different parameters like acetone percentage, and solvent pH, process temperature, and incubation periods were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). RSM was performed and the determination coefficient (R2) value was found to be 0.8833 from the quadratic regression model with no significant lack of fit. The designed RSM model results indicated that the fitness of the response variable was significant (P-value < 0.0006) and satisfactory to denote the relationship between the responses in terms of PHB recovery and purity with respect to the values of independent variables. Optimum conditions for the maximum PHB recovery and purity were found to be solvent pH 7, extraction temperature - 43 °C, incubation time - 70 minutes, and percentage acetone – 30 % from this study. The maximum predicted PHB recovery was found to be 0.845 g/g biomass dry cell weight and the purity was found to be 97.23 % using the optimized conditions.

Keywords: acetone, PHB, RSM, halogenated hydrocarbons, extraction, bacillus subtilis.

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23 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal


Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter

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22 Water-Bentonite Interaction of Green Pellets through Micro-Structural Analysis

Authors: Satyananda Patra, Venugopal Rayasam


The quality of pellets produced is affected by quality and type of green pellets, amount of addition of binders and fluxing agents along with the provided firing conditions. The green pellet quality depends upon chemistry, mineralogy and granulometry of fines used for pellet making, the feed size, its moisture content and porosity. During firing of green pellets, ingredients present within reacts to form different phases and microstructure. So in turn, physical and metallurgical properties of pellets are influenced by amount and type of binder and flux addition, induration time and temperature. During iron making process, the metallurgical properties of fired pellets are decided by the type and amount of these phases and their chemistry. Green pelletizing and induration studies have been already carried out with magnetite and hematite ore fines but for Indian iron ores of high alumina content showing different pelletizing characters, these studies cannot be directly interpreted. The main objective of proposed research work is to understand the green pelletizing process and determine the water bentonite interaction at different levels. Swelling behavior of bentonite and microstructure of the green pellet are investigated. Conversion of iron ore fines into pellets, the key raw material and process variables that influence the pellet quality needs to be identified and a correlation should be established between them.

Keywords: iron ore, pelletization, binders, green pellets, microstructure

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21 Thick Disc Molecular Gas Fraction in NGC 6946

Authors: Narendra Nath Patra


Several recent studies reinforce the existence of a thick molecular disc in galaxies along with the dynamically cold thin disc. Assuming a two-component molecular disc, we model the disc of NGC 6946 as a four-component system consists of stars, HI, thin disc molecular gas, and thick disc molecular gas in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Following, we set up the joint Poisson-Boltzmann equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and solve it numerically to obtain a three-dimensional density distribution of different baryonic components. Using the density solutions and the observed rotation curve, we further build a three-dimensional dynamical model of the molecular disc and consecutively produce simulated CO spectral cube and spectral width profile. We find that the simulated spectral width profiles distinguishably differs for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fraction. Several CO spectral width profiles are then produced for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fractions and compared with the observed one to obtain the best fit thick disc molecular gas fraction profile. We find that the thick disc molecular gas fraction in NGC 6946 largely remains constant across its molecular disc with a mean value of 0.70 +/- 0.09. We also estimate the amount of extra-planar molecular gas in NGC 6946. We find 60% of the total molecular gas is extra-planar at the central region, whereas this fraction reduces to ~ 35% at the edge of the molecular disc. With our method, for the first time, we estimate the thick disc molecular gas fraction as a function of radius in an external galaxy with sub-kpc resolution.

Keywords: galaxies: kinematics and dynamic, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure , ISM: molecules, molecular data

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20 An IVRs Storytelling Model for Learning Entrepreneurial Mindsets in Media Dark Zones

Authors: Ananya Agrawal, Vineesh Amin


In a prolonged period of uncertainty and disruptions in the pre-said normal order, non-cognitive skills, especially entrepreneurial mindsets, have become a pillar that can reform the educational models to inform the economy. Born in the middle of the pandemic, Udhyam Learning Foundation's IVR-based storytelling program - Call-a-Kahaani – is an evolving experiment with an aim to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in the remotest locations of India in an accessible and engaging manner. At the heart of this experiment is the belief that at every phase in our life’s story, we have a choice to make that will direct how the next phase of our life unfolds. This interactive program is thus designed using real-time storytelling principles to empower learners, ages 24 and below, to make choices and take decisions as they become more self-aware practice grit, try new things through stories and guided activities and interactions, simply over a phone call. This research paper highlights a framework to build and deliver a scalable, data-oriented, low-tech program to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in media dark zones supported by iterative design and prototyping to reach a scale of 9000+ unique learners from across 15+ states in India within one year of its inception. The paper provides an in-depth account of the technical development, content creation, learning and assessment frameworks, as well as mobilization models which have been leveraged to build this end-to-end system.

Keywords: non-cognitive skills, entrepreneurial mindsets, speech interface, remote learning, storytelling

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19 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal


The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: evolution, history, origin, textiles

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18 Tumour Radionuclides Therapy: in vitro and in vivo Dose Distribution Study

Authors: Rekaya A. Shabbir, Marco Mingarelli, Glenn Flux, Ananya Choudhury, Tim A. D. Smith


Introduction: Heterogeneity of dose distributions across a tumour is problematic for targeted radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhance dose-distributions of targeted radionuclides. The aim of this study is to demonstrate if tumour dose-distribution of targeted AuNPs radiolabelled with either of two radioisotopes (¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y) in breast cancer cells produced homogeneous dose distributions. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to study the importance of receptor level on cytotoxicity of EGFR-targeted AuNPs in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were functionalised with DOTA and OPPS-PEG-SVA to optimise labelling with radionuclide tracers and targeting with Erbitux. Radionuclides were chelated with DOTA, and the uptake of the radiolabelled AuNPs and targeted activity in vitro in both cell lines measured using liquid scintillation counting. Cells with medium (HCT8) and high (MDA-MB-468) EGFR expression were incubated with targeted ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs for 4h, then washed and allowed to form colonies. Nude mice bearing tumours were used to study the biodistribution by injecting ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs or ⁹⁰Y-AuNPs via the tail vein. Heterogeneity of dose-distribution in tumours was determined using autoradiography. Results: Colony formation (% control) was 81 ± 4.7% (HCT8) and 32 ± 9% (MDA-MB-468). High uptake was observed in the liver and spleen, indicating hepatobiliary excretion. Imaging showed heterogeneity in dose-distributions for both radionuclides across the tumours. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of EGFR-targeted AuNPs is greater in cells with higher EGFR expression. Dose-distributions for individual radiolabelled nanoparticles were heterogeneous across tumours. Further strategies are required to improve the uniformity of dose distribution prior to clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer cells, dose distributions, radionuclide therapy, targeted gold nanoparticles

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17 Comparison of Tidalites in Siliciclastics and Mixed Siliciclastic Carbonate Systems: An Outstanding Example from Proterozoic Simla Basin, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Tithi Banerjee, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


The comparison of ancient tidalites recorded in both siliciclastics and carbonates has not been well documented due to a lack of suitable outcropping examples. The Proterozoic Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya serves a unique example in this regard. An attempt has been made in the present work to differentiate sedimentary facies and architectural elements of tidalites in both siliciclastics and carbonates recorded in the Simla Basin. Lithofacies and microfacies analysis led to identification of 11 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements from the siliciclastics, 6 lithofacies and 3 architectural elements from the carbonates. The most diagnostic features for comparison of the two tidalite systems are sedimentary structures, textures, and architectural elements. The physical features such as flaser-lnticular bedding, mud/silt couplets, tidal rhythmites, tidal bundles, cross stratified successions, tidal bars, tidal channels, microbial structures are common to both the environments. The architecture of these tidalites attests to sedimentation in shallow subtidal to intertidal flat facies, affected by intermittent reworking by open marine waves/storms. The seventeen facies attributes were categorized into two major facies belts (FA1 and FA2). FA1 delineated from the lower part of the Chhaosa Formation (middle part of the Simla Basin) represents a prograding muddy pro-delta deposit whereas FA2 delineated from the upper part of the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Basin) bears the signature of an inner-mid carbonate ramp deposit. Facies distribution indicates development of highstand systems tract (HST) during sea level still stand related to normal regression. The aggradational to progradational bedsets record the history of slow rise in sea level.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Basin, tidalites, inner-mid carbonate ramp, prodelta, TST, HST

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16 Behavioral Effects of Oxidant and Reduced Chemorepellent on Mutant and Wild-Type Tetrahymena thermophila

Authors: Ananya Govindarajan


Tetrahymena thermophila is a single-cell, eukaryotic organism that belongs to the Protozoa Kingdom. Tetrahymena thermophila is often used in signal transduction pathway studies because of its ability to model sensory input and the effects of environmental conditions such as chemicals and temperature. The recently discovered G37 chemorepellent receptor showed increased responsiveness to all chemorepellents. Investigating the mutant G37 Tetrahymena gene in various test solutions, including ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, tetrazolium blue, potassium chloride, and dithiothreitol were performed to determine the role of oxidants and reducing agents with the mutant and wild-type cells (CU427) to assess the role of the receptor. Behavioral assays and recordings processed by ImageJ indicated that ferric chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and tetrazolium blue yielded little to no chemorepellent responses from G37 cells (<20% ARs). CU427 cells were over-responsive based on the mean percent of cells (>50% ARs). Reducing agents elicited chemorepellent responses from both G37 and CU427, in addition to potassium chloride. Cell responses were classified as over-responsive (>50% ARs). Dithiothreitol yielded unexpected results as G37 (37.0% ARs) and CU427 (38.1% ARs) had relatively similar responses and were only responsive and not over-responsive to the reducing agent test chemical solution. Ultimately, this indicates that the G37 receptor is more interactive with molecules that are reducing agents or non-oxidant compounds; G37 may be unable to sense and respond to oxidants effectively, further elucidating the pathways of the G37 strain and nature of this receptor. Results also indicate that the CSF most likely contained an oxidant, like ferric chloride. This research can be further applied to neuronal influences and how specific compounds may affect human neurons individually and their excitability as the responses model action potentials and membrane potential.

Keywords: tetrahymena thermophila, signal transduction, chemosensory, oxidant, reducing agent

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15 Failure Analysis of Recoiler Mandrel Shaft Used for Coiling of Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: Sachin Pawar, Suman Patra, Goutam Mukhopadhyay


The primary function of a shaft is to transfer power. The shaft can be cast or forged and then machined to the final shape. Manufacturing of ~5 m length and 0.6 m diameter shaft is very critical. More difficult is to maintain its straightness during heat treatment and machining operations, which involve thermal and mechanical loads, respectively. During the machining operation of a such forged mandrel shaft, a deflection of 3-4mm was observed. To remove this deflection shaft was pressed at both ends which led to the development of cracks in it. To investigate the root cause of the deflection and cracking, the sample was cut from the failed shaft. Possible causes were identified with the help of a cause and effect diagram. Chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, and hardness measurement were done to confirm whether the shaft meets the required specifications or not. Chemical composition analysis confirmed that the material grade was 42CrMo4. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of untempered martensite, indicating improper heat treatment. Due to this, ductility and impact toughness values were considerably lower than the specification of the mentioned grade. Residual stress measurement of one more bent shaft manufactured by a similar route was done by portable X-ray diffraction(XRD) technique. For better understanding, measurements were done at twelve different locations along the length of the shaft. The occurrence of a high amount of undesirable tensile residual stresses close to the Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of the material was observed. Untempered martensitic structure, lower ductility, lower impact strength, and presence of a high amount of residual stresses all confirmed the improper tempering heat treatment of the shaft. Tempering relieves the residual stresses. Based on the findings of this study, stress-relieving heat treatment was done to remove the residual stresses and deflection in the shaft successfully.

Keywords: residual stress, mandrel shaft, untempered martensite, portable XRD

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14 Stabilization of Metastable Skyrmion Phase in Polycrystalline Chiral β-Mn Type Co₇Zn₇Mn₆ Alloy

Authors: Pardeep, Yugandhar Bitla, A. K. Patra, G. A. Basheed


The topological protected nanosized particle-like swirling spin textures, “skyrmion,” has been observed in various ferromagnets with chiral crystal structures like MnSi, FeGe, Cu₂OSeO₃ alloys, however the magnetic ordering in these systems takes place at very low temperatures. For skyrmion-based spintronics devices, the skyrmion phase is required to stabilize in a wide temperature – field (T - H) region. The equilibrium skyrmion phase (SkX) in Co₇Zn₇Mn₆ alloy exists in a narrow T – H region just below transition temperature (TC ~ 215 K) and can be quenched by field cooling as a metastable skyrmion phase (MSkX) below SkX region. To realize robust MSkX at 110 K, field sweep ac susceptibility χ(H) measurements were performed after the zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) process. In ZFC process, the sample was cooled from 320 K to 110 K in zero applied magnetic field and then field sweep measurement was performed (up to 2 T) in positive direction (black curve). The real part of ac susceptibility (χ′(H)) at 110 K in positive field direction after ZFC confirms helical to conical phase transition at low field HC₁ (= 42 mT) and conical to ferromagnetic (FM) transition at higher field HC₂ (= 300 mT). After ZFC, FC measurements were performed i.e., sample was initially cooled in zero fields from 320 to 206 K and then a sample was field cooled in the presence of 15 mT field down to the temperature 110 K. After FC process, isothermal χ(H) was measured in positive (+H, red curve) and negative (-H, blue curve) field direction with increasing and decreasing field upto 2 T. Hysteresis behavior in χ′(H), measured after ZFC and FC process, indicates the stabilization of MSkX at 110 K which is in close agreement with literature. Also, the asymmetry between field-increasing curves measured after FC process in both sides confirm the stabilization of MSkX. In the returning process from the high field polarized FM state, helical state below HC₁ is destroyed and only the conical state is observed. Thus, the robust MSkX state is stabilized below its SkX phase over a much wider T - H region by FC in polycrystalline Co₇Zn₇Mn₆ alloy.

Keywords: skyrmions, magnetic susceptibility, metastable phases, topological phases

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13 Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Immune Response Induced in Lungs by Intranasal Immunization with Mycobacterium indicus pranii

Authors: Ananya Gupta, Sangeeta Bhaskar


Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a saprophytic mycobacterium. It is a predecessor of M. avium complex (MAC). Whole genome analysis and growth kinetics studies have placed MIP in between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. It shares significant antigenic repertoire with M. tuberculosis and have unique immunomodulatory properties. MIP provides better protection than BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models. Immunization with MIP by aerosol route provides significantly higher protection as compared to immunization by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. However, mechanism behind differential protection has not been studied. In this study, using mice model we have evaluated and compared the M.tb specific immune response in lung compartments (airway lumen / lung interstitium) as well as spleen following MIP immunization via nasal (i.n.) and s.c. route. MIP i.n. vaccination resulted in increased seeding of memory T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in the airway lumen. Frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 migratory marker (CXCR3) and activation marker (CD69) were also high in airway lumen of MIP i.n. group. Significantly high ex vivo secretion of cytokines- IFN-, IL-12, IL-17 and TNF- from cells of airway luminal spaces provides evidence of antigen-specific lung immune response, besides generating systemic immunity comparable to MIP s.c. group. Analysis of T cell response on per cell basis revealed that antigen specific T-cells of MIP i.n. group were functionally superior as higher percentage of these cells simultaneously secreted IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha cytokines as compared to MIP s.c. group. T-cells secreting more than one of the cytokines simultaneously are believed to have robust effector response and crucial for protection, compared with single cytokine secreting T-cells. Adoptive transfer of airway luminal T-cells from MIP i.n. group into trachea of naive B6 mice revealed that MIP induced CD8 T-cells play crucial role in providing long term protection. Thus the study demonstrates that MIP intranasal vaccination induces M.tb specific memory T-cells in the airway lumen that results in an early and robust recall response against M.tb infection.

Keywords: airway lumen, Mycobacterium indicus pranii, Th1 migratory markers, vaccination

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12 Exceptional Cost and Time Optimization with Successful Leak Repair and Restoration of Oil Production: West Kuwait Case Study

Authors: Nasser Al-Azmi, Al-Sabea Salem, Abu-Eida Abdullah, Milan Patra, Mohamed Elyas, Daniel Freile, Larisa Tagarieva


Well intervention was done along with Production Logging Tools (PLT) to detect sources of water, and to check well integrity for two West Kuwait oil wells started to produce 100 % water. For the first well, to detect the source of water, PLT was performed to check the perforations, no production observed from the bottom two perforation intervals, and an intake of water was observed from the top most perforation. Then a decision was taken to extend the PLT survey from tag depth to the Y-tool. For the second well, the aim was to detect the source of water and if there was a leak in the 7’’liner in front of the upper zones. Data could not be recorded in flowing conditions due to the casing deformation at almost 8300 ft. For the first well from the interpretation of PLT and well integrity data, there was a hole in the 9 5/8'' casing from 8468 ft to 8494 ft producing almost the majority of water, which is 2478 bbl/d. The upper perforation from 10812 ft to 10854 ft was taking 534 stb/d. For the second well, there was a hole in the 7’’liner from 8303 ft MD to 8324 ft MD producing 8334.0 stb/d of water with an intake zone from10322.9-10380.8 ft MD taking the whole fluid. To restore the oil production, W/O rig was mobilized to prevent dump flooding, and during the W/O, the leaking interval was confirmed for both wells. The leakage was cement squeezed and tested at 900-psi positive pressure and 500-psi drawdown pressure. The cement squeeze job was successful. After W/O, the wells kept producing for cleaning, and eventually, the WC reduced to 0%. Regular PLT and well integrity logs are required to study well performance, and well integrity issues, proper cement behind casing is essential to well longevity and well integrity, and the presence of the Y-tool is essential as monitoring of well parameters and ESP to facilitate well intervention tasks. Cost and time optimization in oil and gas and especially during rig operations is crucial. PLT data quality and the accuracy of the interpretations contributed a lot to identify the leakage interval accurately and, in turn, saved a lot of time and reduced the repair cost with almost 35 to 45 %. The added value here was more related to the cost reduction and effective and quick proper decision making based on the economic environment.

Keywords: leak, water shut-off, cement, water leak

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11 Influence of Long-Term Variability in Atmospheric Parameters on Ocean State over the Head Bay of Bengal

Authors: Anindita Patra, Prasad K. Bhaskaran


The atmosphere-ocean is a dynamically linked system that influences the exchange of energy, mass, and gas at the air-sea interface. The exchange of energy takes place in the form of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum commonly referred to as fluxes along the atmosphere-ocean boundary. The large scale features such as El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a classic example on the interaction mechanism that occurs along the air-sea interface that deals with the inter-annual variability of the Earth’s Climate System. Most importantly the ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system acts in tandem thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system, a manifestation of the coupled air-sea interaction process. The present work is an attempt to understand the long-term variability in atmospheric parameters (from surface to upper levels) and investigate their role in influencing the surface ocean variables. More specifically the influence of atmospheric circulation and its variability influencing the mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) has been explored. The study reports on a critical examination of both ocean-atmosphere parameters during a monsoon season over the head Bay of Bengal region. A trend analysis has been carried out for several atmospheric parameters such as the air temperature, geo-potential height, and omega (vertical velocity) for different vertical levels in the atmosphere (from surface to the troposphere) covering a period from 1992 to 2012. The Reanalysis 2 dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) was used in this study. The study signifies that the variability in air temperature and omega corroborates with the variation noticed in geo-potential height. Further, the study advocates that for the lower atmosphere the geo-potential heights depict a typical east-west contrast exhibiting a zonal dipole behavior over the study domain. In addition, the study clearly brings to light that the variations over different levels in the atmosphere plays a pivotal role in supporting the observed dipole pattern as clearly evidenced from the trends in SLP, associated surface wind speed and significant wave height over the study domain.

Keywords: air temperature, geopotential height, head Bay of Bengal, long-term variability, NCEP reanalysis 2, omega, wind-waves

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10 Recognition of a Thinly Bedded Distal Turbidite: A Case Study from a Proterozoic Delta System, Chaossa Formation, Simla Group, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Priyanka Mazumdar, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


A lot of progress has been achieved in the research of turbidites during the last decades. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further attention. This paper addresses example of fine grained turbidite from a pro-deltaic deposit of a Proterozoic mixed energy delta system exposed along Chaossa-Baliana river section of the Chaossa Formation of the Simla Basin. Lithostratigraphic analysis of the Chaossa Formation reveals three major facies associations (prodelta deposit-FA1, delta slope deposit-FA2 and delta front deposit-FA3) based on lithofacies types, petrography and sedimentary structures. Detailed process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analysis of the study area have led to identification of more than150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of fine grained turbidites overlain by delta slope deposits. Erosional features are locally common at the base of turbidite beds and still more widespread at the top. The complete sequence has eight sub-divisions that are here termed T1 to T8. The basal subdivision (T1) comprises a massive graded unit with a sharp, scoured base, internal parallel-lamination and cross-lamination. The overlying sequence shows textural and compositional grading through alternating silt and mud laminae (T2). T2 is overlying by T3 which is characterized by climbing ripple and cross lamination. Parallel laminae are the predominant facies attributes of T4 which caps the T3 unit. T5 has a loaded scour base and is mainly characterized laminated silt. The topmost three divisions, graded mud (T6), ungraded mud (T7) and laminated mud (T8). The proposed sequence is analogous to the Bouma (1962) structural scheme for sandy turbidites. Repetition of partial sequences represents deposition from different stages of evolution of a large, muddy, turbidity flow. Detailed facies analysis of the study area reveals that the sediments of the turbidites developed during normal regression at the stage of stable or marginally rising sea level. Thin-bedded turbidites were deposited predominantly by turbidity currents in the relatively shallower part of the Simla basin. The fine-grained turbidites are developed by resedimentation of delta-front sands and slumping of upper pro-delta muds.

Keywords: turbidites, prodelta, proterozoic, Simla Basin, Bouma sequence

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9 Effect of Irrigation and Hydrogel on the Water Use Efficiency of Zeto-Tiled Green-Gram Relay System in the Eastern Indo Gangetic-Plain

Authors: Benukar Biswas, S. Banerjee, P. K. Bandhyopadhyaya, S. K. Patra, S. Sarkar


Jute can be sown as relay crop in between the lines of 15-20 days old green gram for additional pulse yield without reducing the yield of jute. The main problem of this system is water use efficiency (WUE). The increase in water productivity and reduction in production cost were reported in the zero-tilled crop. The hydrogel can hold water up to 400 times of its weight and can release 95 % of the retained water. The present field study was carried out during 2015-16 at BCKV (tropical sub-humid, 1560 mm annual rainfall, 22058/ N, 88051/ E, 9.75 m AMSL, sandy loam soil, aeric Haplaquept, pH 6.75, organic carbon 5.4 g kg-1, available N 85 kg ha-1, P2O5 15.3 kg ha-1 and K2O 40 kg ha-1) with four levels of irrigation regimes: no irrigation - RF, cumulative pan evaporation 250mm (CPE250), CPE125 and CPE83 and three levels of hydrogel: no hydrogel (H0), 2.5 kg ha-1 (H2.5) and 5 kg ha-1 (H5). Throughout the crop growing period a linear positive relationship remained between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and evapotranspiration rate. The strength of the relationship between ETa and LAI started increasing and reached its peak at 7 WAS (R2=0.78) when green gram was at its maturity, and both the crops covered the nearly entire base area. This relation starts weakening from 13 WAS due to jute leaf shading. A linear relationship between system yield and ET was also obtained in the present study. The variation in system yield might be predicted 75% with ET alone. Effective rainfall was reduced with increasing irrigation frequency due to enhanced water supply in contrast to hydrogel application due to the difference in water storage capacity. Irrigation contributed a major source of variability of ET. Higher irrigation frequency resulted in higher ET loss ranging from 574 mm in RF to 764 mm in CPE83. Hydrogel application also increased water storage on a sustained basis and supplied to crops resulting higher ET from 639 mm in H0 to 671mm in H5. WUE ranged between 0.4 kg m-3 (RF) to 0.63 kg m-3 (CPE83 H5). WUE increased with increased application of irrigation water from 0.42 kg m-3 in RF to 0.57 kg m-3 in CPE 83. Hydrogel application significantly improves the WUE from 0.45 kg m-3 in H0 to 0.50 in H2.5 and 0.54 in H5. Under relatively dry root zone (RF), both evaporation and transpiration remain at suboptimal level resulting in lower ET as well as lower system yield. Green gram – jute relay system can be water use efficient with 38% higher yield with application of hydrogel @ 2.5 kg ha-1 under deficit irrigation regime of CPE 125 over rainfed system without application of the gel. Application of gel conditioner improved water storage, checked excess water loss from the system, and mitigated ET demand of the relay system for a longer time. Hence, irrigation frequency was reduced from five times at CPE 83 to only three times in CPE 125.

Keywords: zero tillage, deficit irrigation, hydrogel, relay system

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8 Lamivudine Continuation/Tenofovir Add-on Adversely Affects Treatment Response among Lamivudine Non-Responder HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients from Eastern India

Authors: Ananya Pal, Neelakshi Sarkar, Debraj Saha, Dipanwita Das, Subhashish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha, Runu Chakravarty


Presently, tenofovir disoproxil fumurate (TDF) is the most effective anti-viral agent for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in individuals co-infected with HIV and HBV as TDF has activity to suppress both wild-type and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant HBV. However, suboptimal response to TDF was reported in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals with prior 3TC therapy from different countries recently. The incidence of 3TC-resistant HBV strains is quite high in HIV-HBV co-infected patients experiencing long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in eastern India. In spite of this risk, most of the patients with long-term 3TC treatment are continued with the same anti-viral agent in this country. Only a few have received TDF in addition to 3TC in the ART regimen since TDF has been available in India for the treatment of HIV-infected patients in 2012. In this preliminary study, we investigated the virologic and biochemical parameters among HIV-HBV co-infected patients who are non-responders to 3TC treatment during the continuation of 3TC or TDF add-on to 3TC in their ART regimen. Fifteen HIV-HBV co-infected patients who experienced long-term 3TC (mean duration months 36.87 ± 24.08 months) were identified with high HBV viremia ( > 20,000 IU/ml) or harbouring 3TC-resistant HBV. These patients receiving ART from School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, the main ART centre in eastern India were followed-up semi-annually for next three visits. Different virologic parameters including quantification of plasma HBV load by real-time PCR, detection of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by commercial ELISA and anti-viral resistant mutations by sequencing were studied. During three follow-up among study subjects, 86%, 47%, and 43% had 3TC-mono-therapy (mean treatment-duration 41.54±18.84, 49.67±11.67, 54.17±12.37 months respectively) whereas 14%, 53%, and 57% experienced TDF in addition to 3TC (mean treatment duration 4.5±2.12, 16.56±11.06, and 23±4.07 months respectively). Mean CD4 cell-count in patients receiving 3TC was tended to be lower during third follow-up as compared to the first and the second [520.67±380.30 (1st), 454.8±196.90 (2nd), and 397.5±189.24 (3rd) cells/mm3) and similar trend was seen in patients experiencing TDF in addition to 3TC [334.5±330.218 (1st), 476.5±194.25 (2nd), and 461.17±269.89 (3rd) cells/mm3]. Serum HBV load was increased during successive follow-up of patients with 3TC-mono-therapy. Initiation of TDF lowered serum HBV-load among 3TC-non-responders at the time of second visit ( < 2,000 IU/ml), interestingly during third follow-up, mean HBV viremia increased >1 log IU/ml (mean 3.56±2.84 log IU/ml). Persistence of 3TC-resistant double and triple mutations was also observed in both the treatment regimens. Mean serum alanine aminotransferase remained elevated in these patients during this follow-up study. Persistence of high HBV viraemia and 3TC-resistant mutation in HBV during the continuation of 3TC might lead to major public health threat in India. The inclusion of TDF in the ART regimen of 3TC non-responder HIV-HBV co-infected patients showed adverse treatment response in terms of virologic and biochemical parameters. Therefore, serious attention is necessary for proper management of long-term 3TC experienced HIV-HBV co-infected patients with high HBV viraemia or 3TC-resistant HBV mutants in India.

Keywords: HBV, HIV, TDF, 3TC-resistant

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7 Wave Agitated Signatures in the Oolitic Limestones of Kunihar Formation, Proterozoic Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Alono Thorie, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


Ooid bearing horizons of the Proterozoic Kunihar Formation, Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya have been addressed in the present work. The study is concentrated around the outskirts of Arki town, Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Based on the sedimentary facies associations, the processes that promote the formation of ooids have been documented. The facies associations that have been recorded are: (i) Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1), (ii) Oolitic grainstone (FA2), (iii) Boundstone (FA3), (iv) Dolomudstone (FA4) and (v) Rudstone (FA5). Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1) mainly consists of well sorted ooids with concentric laminae and intraclasts. Large ooids with grain sizes more than 4 mm are characteristic of oolites throughout the area. Normally graded beds consisting of ooids and intraclasts are frequently documented in storm sediments in shelf environments and carbonate platforms. The well-sorted grainstone fabric indicates deposition in a high-energy shoal with tidal currents and storm reworking. FA2 comprises spherical to elliptical grains up to 8.5cm in size with concentric cortex and micritic nuclei. Peloids in FA2 are elliptical, rounded objects <0.3 mm in size. FA1 and FA2 have been recorded alongside boundstones (FA3) comprising stromatolites having columnar, wavy and domal morphology. Boundstones (FA3) reflect microbial growth in carbonate platforms and reefs. Dolomudstones (FA4) interbedded with cross laminated sandstones and erosional surfaces reflect sedimentation in storm dominated zones below fair-weather wave base. Rudstone (FA5) is composed of oolitic grainstone (FA2), boundstone (FA3) and dolomudstone (FA4). These clasts are few mm to more than 10 cm in length. Rudstones indicate deposition along a slope with intermittent influence of wave currents and storm activities. Most ooids from the Kunihar Formation are regular ooids with abundance of broken ooids. Compound and concentric ooids indicating medium to low energy environments are present but scarce. Ooids from high energy domains are more dominant than ooids developed from low energy environments. The unusually large size of the Kunihar ooids (more than 8.5 cm) is rare in the geological record. Development of carbonate deposits such as oolitic- intraclastic Grainstones (FA1), oolitic grainstones (FA2) and rudstones (FA5), and reflect deposition in an agitated beach environment with abundant microbial activity and high energy shallow marine waters influenced by tide, wave and storm currents. Occurrences of boundstone (FA4) or stromatolitic carbonate amongst oolitic facies (FA1 and FA2) and appearance of compound and concentric ooids indicate intervals of calm in between agitated phases of storm, wave and tidal activities.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Group, ooids, stromatolites

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