Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: leak

62 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft

Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan

Abstract:

Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.

Keywords: leak testing, manned spacecraft, sound transmitting, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
61 Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control

Authors: Jijun Shi, Lichen Sun, Jianchao Zhao, Lizhi Sun, Enjun Liu, Chongwu Guo

Abstract:

Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.

Keywords: leak testing, spacecraft parts, relative error, error control

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
60 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: crack, critical flow, leak, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
59 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective non-destructive, non-invasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: thermography, leakage, water pipelines, thermograms

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
58 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy

Abstract:

By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: energy conversion, gas leak, smartphone, explosion, LPG

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
57 Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Seungho Han, Byungduk Kim, Youngdo Jo, Yongsop Shim, Yeonjae Lee, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company's detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.

Keywords: accuracy improvement, IR gas sensor, gas leak, detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
56 A Development of Portable Intrinsically Safe Explosion-Proof Type of Dual Gas Detector

Authors: Sangguk Ahn, Youngyu Kim, Jaheon Gu, Gyoutae Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we developed a dual gas leak instrument to detect Hydrocarbon (HC) and Monoxide (CO) gases. To two kinds of gases, it is necessary to design compact structure for sensors. And then it is important to draw sensing circuits such as measuring, amplifying and filtering. After that, it should be well programmed with robust, systematic and module coding methods. In center of them, improvement of accuracy and initial response time are a matter of vital importance. To manufacture distinguished gas leak detector, we applied intrinsically safe explosion-proof structure to lithium ion battery, main circuits, a pump with motor, color LCD interfaces and sensing circuits. On software, to enhance measuring accuracy we used numerical analysis such as Lagrange and Neville interpolation. Performance test result is conducted by using standard Methane with seven different concentrations with three other products. We want raise risk prevention and efficiency of gas safe management through distributing to the field of gas safety. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by Small and Medium Business Administration under the research theme of ‘Commercialized Development of a portable intrinsically safe explosion-proof type dual gas leak detector’, (task number S2456036).

Keywords: gas leak, dual gas detector, intrinsically safe, explosion proof

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
55 Fibrin Glue Reinforcement of Choledochotomy Closure Suture Line for Prevention of Bile Leak in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration with Primary Closure: A Pilot Study

Authors: Rahul Jain, Jagdish Chander, Anish Gupta

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) allows cholecystectomy and the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones to be performed during the same sitting, thereby decreasing hospital stay. CBD exploration through choledochotomy can be closed primarily with an absorbable suture material, but can lead to biliary leakage postoperatively. In this study we tried to find a solution to further lower the incidence of bile leakage by using fibrin glue to reinforce the sutures put on choledochotomy suture line. It has haemostatic and sealing action, through strengthening the last step of the physiological coagulation and biostimulation, which favours the formation of new tissue matrix. Methodology: This study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India, from 2011 to 2013. 20 patients with CBD stones documented on MRCP with CBD diameter of 9 mm or more were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups namely Group A in which choledochotomy was closed with polyglactin 4-0 suture and suture line reinforced with fibrin glue, and Group ‘B’ in which choledochotomy was closed with polyglactin 4-0 suture alone. Both the groups were evaluated and compared on clinical parameters such as operative time, drain content, drain output, no. of days drain was required, blood loss & transfusion requirements, length of postoperative hospital stay and conversion to open surgery. Results: The operative time for Group A ranged from 60 to 210 min (mean 131.50 min) and Group B 65 to 300 min (mean 140 minutes). The blood loss in group A ranged from 10 to 120 ml (mean 51.50 ml), in group B it ranged from 10 to 200 ml (mean 53.50 ml). In Group A, there was no case of bile leak but there was bile leak in 2 cases in Group B, minimum 0 and maximum 900 ml with a mean of 97 ml and p value of 0.147 with no statistically significant difference in bile leak in test and control groups. The minimum and maximum serous drainage in Group A was nil & 80 ml (mean 11 ml) and in Group B was nil & 270 ml (mean 72.50 ml). The p value came as 0.028 which is statistically significant. Thus serous leakage in Group A was significantly less than in Group B. The drains in Group A were removed from 2 to 4 days (mean: 3 days) while in Group B from 2 to 9 days (mean: 3.9 days). The patients in Group A stayed in hospital post operatively from 3 to 8 days (mean: 5.30) while in Group B it ranged from 3 to 10 days with a mean of 5 days. Conclusion: Fibrin glue application on CBD decreases bile leakage but in statistically insignificant manner. Fibrin glue application on CBD can significantly decrease post operative serous drainage after LCBDE. Fibrin glue application on CBD is safe and easy technique without any significant adverse effects and can help less experienced surgeons performing LCBDE.

Keywords: bile leak, fibrin glue, LCBDE, serous leak

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
54 Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration

Authors: Young Gyu Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Gyoutae Park, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.

Keywords: gas sensor, leak detector, lower concentration, and calibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
53 Exceptional Cost and Time Optimization with Successful Leak Repair and Restoration of Oil Production: West Kuwait Case Study

Authors: Nasser Al-Azmi, Al-Sabea Salem, Abu-Eida Abdullah, Milan Patra, Mohamed Elyas, Daniel Freile, Larisa Tagarieva

Abstract:

Well intervention was done along with Production Logging Tools (PLT) to detect sources of water, and to check well integrity for two West Kuwait oil wells started to produce 100 % water. For the first well, to detect the source of water, PLT was performed to check the perforations, no production observed from the bottom two perforation intervals, and an intake of water was observed from the top most perforation. Then a decision was taken to extend the PLT survey from tag depth to the Y-tool. For the second well, the aim was to detect the source of water and if there was a leak in the 7’’liner in front of the upper zones. Data could not be recorded in flowing conditions due to the casing deformation at almost 8300 ft. For the first well from the interpretation of PLT and well integrity data, there was a hole in the 9 5/8'' casing from 8468 ft to 8494 ft producing almost the majority of water, which is 2478 bbl/d. The upper perforation from 10812 ft to 10854 ft was taking 534 stb/d. For the second well, there was a hole in the 7’’liner from 8303 ft MD to 8324 ft MD producing 8334.0 stb/d of water with an intake zone from10322.9-10380.8 ft MD taking the whole fluid. To restore the oil production, W/O rig was mobilized to prevent dump flooding, and during the W/O, the leaking interval was confirmed for both wells. The leakage was cement squeezed and tested at 900-psi positive pressure and 500-psi drawdown pressure. The cement squeeze job was successful. After W/O, the wells kept producing for cleaning, and eventually, the WC reduced to 0%. Regular PLT and well integrity logs are required to study well performance, and well integrity issues, proper cement behind casing is essential to well longevity and well integrity, and the presence of the Y-tool is essential as monitoring of well parameters and ESP to facilitate well intervention tasks. Cost and time optimization in oil and gas and especially during rig operations is crucial. PLT data quality and the accuracy of the interpretations contributed a lot to identify the leakage interval accurately and, in turn, saved a lot of time and reduced the repair cost with almost 35 to 45 %. The added value here was more related to the cost reduction and effective and quick proper decision making based on the economic environment.

Keywords: leak, water shut-off, cement, water leak

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
52 Fault Detection of Pipeline in Water Distribution Network System

Authors: Shin Je Lee, Go Bong Choi, Jeong Cheol Seo, Jong Min Lee, Gibaek Lee

Abstract:

Water pipe network is installed underground and once equipped; it is difficult to recognize the state of pipes when the leak or burst happens. Accordingly, post management is often delayed after the fault occurs. Therefore, the systematic fault management system of water pipe network is required to prevent the accident and minimize the loss. In this work, we develop online fault detection system of water pipe network using data of pipes such as flow rate or pressure. The transient model describing water flow in pipelines is presented and simulated using Matlab. The fault situations such as the leak or burst can be also simulated and flow rate or pressure data when the fault happens are collected. Faults are detected using statistical methods of fast Fourier transform and discrete wavelet transform, and they are compared to find which method shows the better fault detection performance.

Keywords: fault detection, water pipeline model, fast Fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
51 Intraoperative ICG-NIR Fluorescence Angiography Visualization of Intestinal Perfusion in Primary Pull-Through for Hirschsprung Disease

Authors: Mohammad Emran, Colton Wayne, Shannon M Koehler, P. Stephen Almond, Haroon Patel

Abstract:

Purpose: Assessment of anastomotic perfusion in Hirschsprung disease using Indocyanine Green (ICG)-near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography. Introduction: Anastomotic stricture and leak are well-known complications of Hirschsprung pull-through procedures. Complications are due to tension, infection, and/or poor perfusion. While a surgeon can visually determine and control the amount of tension and contamination, assessment of perfusion is subject to surgeon determination. Intraoperative use of ICG-NIR enhances this decision-making process by illustrating perfusion intensity and adequacy in the pulled-through bowel segment. This technique, proven to reduce anastomotic stricture and leak in adults, has not been studied in children to our knowledge. ICG, an FDA approved, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, intravascular (IV) dye, has been used in adults and children for over 60 years, with few side effects. ICG-NIR was used in this report to demonstrate the adequacy of perfusion during transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung’s disease. Method: 8 patients with Hirschsprung disease were evaluated with ICG-NIR technology. Levels of affected area ranged from sigmoid to total colonic Hirschsprung disease. After leveling, but prior to anastomosis, ICG was administered at 1.25 mg (< 2 mg/kg) and perfusion visualized using an NIR camera, before and during anastomosis. Video and photo imaging was performed and perfusion of the bowel was compared to surrounding tissues. This showed the degree of perfusion and demarcation of perfused and non-perfused bowel. The anastomosis was completed uneventfully and the patients all did well. Results: There were no complications of stricture or leak. 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) had modification of the plan based on ICG-NIR imaging. Conclusion: Technologies that enhance surgeons’ ability to visualize bowel perfusion prior to anastomosis in Hirschsprung’s patients may help reduce post-operative complications. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits.

Keywords: colonic anastomosis, fluorescence angiography, Hirschsprung disease, pediatric surgery, SPY

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
50 Fluid Structure Interaction of Offshore Concrete Columns under Explosion Loads

Authors: Ganga K. V. Prakhya, V. Karthigeyan

Abstract:

The paper describes the influences of the fluid and structure interaction in concrete structures that support large oil platforms in the North Sea. The dynamic interaction of the fluid both in 2D and 3D are demonstrated through a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis in the event of explosion following a gas leak inside of the concrete column. The structural response characteristics of the column in water under dynamic conditions are quite complex involving axial, radial and circumferential modes. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) modelling showed that there are some frequencies of the column in water which are not found for a column in air. For example, it was demonstrated that one of the axial breathing modes can never be simulated without the use of FSI models. The occurrence of a shift in magnitude and time of pressure from explosion following gas leak along the height of the shaft not only excited the modes of vibration involving breathing (axial), bending and squashing (radial) modes but also magnified the forces in the column. FSI models revealed that dynamic effects resulted in dynamic amplification of loads. The results are summarized from a detailed study that was carried out by the first author for the Offshore Safety Division of Health & Safety Executive United Kingdom.

Keywords: concrete, explosion, fluid structure interaction, offshore structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
49 Considering Aerosol Processes in Nuclear Transport Package Containment Safety Cases

Authors: Andrew Cummings, Rhianne Boag, Sarah Bryson, Gordon Turner

Abstract:

Packages designed for transport of radioactive material must satisfy rigorous safety regulations specified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Higher Activity Waste (HAW) transport packages have to maintain containment of their contents during normal and accident conditions of transport (NCT and ACT). To ensure containment criteria is satisfied these packages are required to be leak-tight in all transport conditions to meet allowable activity release rates. Package design safety reports are the safety cases that provide the claims, evidence and arguments to demonstrate that packages meet the regulations and once approved by the competent authority (in the UK this is the Office for Nuclear Regulation) a licence to transport radioactive material is issued for the package(s). The standard approach to demonstrating containment in the RWM transport safety case is set out in BS EN ISO 12807. In this document a method for measuring a leak rate from the package is explained by way of a small interspace test volume situated between two O-ring seals on the underside of the package lid. The interspace volume is pressurised and a pressure drop measured. A small interspace test volume makes the method more sensitive enabling the measurement of smaller leak rates. By ascertaining the activity of the contents, identifying a releasable fraction of material and by treating that fraction of material as a gas, allowable leak rates for NCT and ACT are calculated. The adherence to basic safety principles in ISO12807 is very pessimistic and current practice in the demonstration of transport safety, which is accepted by the UK regulator. It is UK government policy that management of HAW will be through geological disposal. It is proposed that the intermediate level waste be transported to the geological disposal facility (GDF) in large cuboid packages. This poses a challenge for containment demonstration because such packages will have long seals and therefore large interspace test volumes. There is also uncertainty on the releasable fraction of material within the package ullage space. This is because the waste may be in many different forms which makes it difficult to define the fraction of material released by the waste package. Additionally because of the large interspace test volume, measuring the calculated leak rates may not be achievable. For this reason a justification for a lower releasable fraction of material is sought. This paper considers the use of aerosol processes to reduce the releasable fraction for both NCT and ACT. It reviews the basic coagulation and removal processes and applies the dynamic aerosol balance equation. The proposed solution includes only the most well understood physical processes namely; Brownian coagulation and gravitational settling. Other processes have been eliminated either on the basis that they would serve to reduce the release to the environment further (pessimistically in keeping with the essence of nuclear transport safety cases) or that they are not credible in the conditions of transport considered.

Keywords: aerosol processes, Brownian coagulation, gravitational settling, transport regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
48 Study of Chlorine Gas Leak Consequences in Direct Chlorination System Failure in Cooling Towers in the Petrochemical Industry

Authors: Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mahdi Goharrokhi, Mahsa Ghasemi, Artadokht Ostadsarayi

Abstract:

In this paper, we are aiming to study the consequences of chlorine gas leak in direct chlorine gas injection compared to using bleach (sodium hypochlorite), studying the negative effects both on the environment and individuals. This study was performed in the cooling towers of a natural fractioning unit of Bandar-e-IMAM petrochemical plant. Considering that chlorine gas is highly toxic and based on the health regulation, its release into the surrounding environment can be very dangerous for people and even fatal for individuals. We studied performing quantitative studies in the worst cases of event incidence. In addition, studying alternative methods with a lower risk was also on the agenda to select the least likely possible option causing an accident. In this paper chlorine gas release consequences have been evaluated by using PHAST software. Reaching to 10 ppm of chlorine gas concentration was basis of hazardous area determination. The results show that the full chlorine gas line rupture scenario in Pasquill category F, were worst case, and many people could be harmed around cooling towers area because of chlorine gas inhalation.

Keywords: chlorine gas, consequence modeling, cooling towers, direct chlorination, risk assessment, system failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
47 Study on Reusable, Non Adhesive Silicone Male External Catheter: Clinical Proof of Study and Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Venkata Buddharaju, Irene Mccarron, Hazel Alba

Abstract:

Introduction: Male external catheters (MECs) are commonly used to collect and drain urine. MECs are increasingly used in acute care, long-term acute care hospitals, and nursing facilities, and in other patients as an alternative to invasive urinary catheters to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI).MECs are also used to avoid the need for incontinence pads and diapers. Most of the Male External Catheters are held in place by skin adhesive, with the exception of a few, which uses a foam strap clamp around the penile shaft. The adhesive condom catheters typically stay for 24 hours or less. It is also a common practice that extra skin adhesive tape is wrapped around the condom catheter for additional security of the device. The fixed nature of the adhesive will not allow the normal skin expansion of penile size over time. The adhesive can cause skin irritation, redness, erosion, and skin damage. Acanthus condom catheter (ACC) is a patented, specially designed, stretchable silicone catheter without adhesive, adapts to the size and contour of the penis. It is held in place with a single elastic strap that wraps around the lower back and tied to the opposite catheter ring holescriss cross. It can be reused for up to 5 days on the same patient after daily cleaning and washingpotentially reducing cost. Methods: The study was conducted from September 17th to October 8th, 2020. The nursing staff was educated and trained on how to use and reuse the catheter. After identifying five (5) appropriate patients, the catheter was placed and maintained by nursing staff. The data on the ease of use, leak, and skin damage were collected and reported by nurses to the nursing education department of the hospital for analysis. Setting: RML Chicago, long-term acute care hospital, an affiliate of Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, IL USA. Results: The data showed that the catheter was easy to apply, remove, wash and reuse, without skin problems or urine infections. One patient had used for 16 days after wash, reuse, and replacement without any urine leak or skin issues. A minimal leak was observed on two patients. Conclusion: Acanthus condom catheter was easy to use, functioned well with minimal or no leak during use and reuse. The skin was intact in all patients studied. There were no urinary tract infections in any of the studied patients.

Keywords: CAUTI, male external catheter, reusable, skin adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
46 Characterizing the Fracture Toughness Properties of Aluminum I-Rod Removed from National Research Universal Reactor

Authors: Michael Bach

Abstract:

Extensive weld repair was carried out in 2009 after a leak was detected in the aluminum 5052 vessel of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. This was the second vessel installed since 1974. In support of the NRU vessel leak repair and fitness for service assessments, an estimate of property changes due to irradiation exposure is required to extend the service of the reactor until 2018. In order to fully evaluate the property changes in the vessel wall, an Iodine-125 rod (I rod) made from the same material and irradiated in the NRU reactor from 1974 1991, was retrieved and sectioned for microstructure characterization and mechanical testing. The different sections of the I rod were exposed to various levels of thermal neutron fluences from 0 to a maximum of 11.9 x 1022 n/cm2. The end of life thermal neutron fluence of the NRU vessel is estimated to be 2.2 x 1022 n/cm2 at 35 years of service. Tensile test and fracture toughness test was performed on the I-rod material at various axial locations. The changes in tensile properties were attributed primarily to the creation of finely dispersed Mg-Si precipitates that harden the material and reduced the ductility. Despite having a reduction in fracture toughness, the NRU vessel is still operation at the current fluence levels.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, fitness-for-service assessment , fracutre toughness, nuclear reactor, precipitate strengthening, radiation damage, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
45 Predicting Loss of Containment in Surface Pipeline using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Supervised Machine Learning Model to Improve Process Safety in Oil and Gas Operations

Authors: Muhammmad Riandhy Anindika Yudhy, Harry Patria, Ramadhani Santoso

Abstract:

Loss of containment is the primary hazard that process safety management is concerned within the oil and gas industry. Escalation to more serious consequences all begins with the loss of containment, starting with oil and gas release from leakage or spillage from primary containment resulting in pool fire, jet fire and even explosion when reacted with various ignition sources in the operations. Therefore, the heart of process safety management is avoiding loss of containment and mitigating its impact through the implementation of safeguards. The most effective safeguard for the case is an early detection system to alert Operations to take action prior to a potential case of loss of containment. The detection system value increases when applied to a long surface pipeline that is naturally difficult to monitor at all times and is exposed to multiple causes of loss of containment, from natural corrosion to illegal tapping. Based on prior researches and studies, detecting loss of containment accurately in the surface pipeline is difficult. The trade-off between cost-effectiveness and high accuracy has been the main issue when selecting the traditional detection method. The current best-performing method, Real-Time Transient Model (RTTM), requires analysis of closely positioned pressure, flow and temperature (PVT) points in the pipeline to be accurate. Having multiple adjacent PVT sensors along the pipeline is expensive, hence generally not a viable alternative from an economic standpoint.A conceptual approach to combine mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics and a supervised machine learning model has shown promising results to predict leakage in the pipeline. Mathematical modeling is used to generate simulation data where this data is used to train the leak detection and localization models. Mathematical models and simulation software have also been shown to provide comparable results with experimental data with very high levels of accuracy. While the supervised machine learning model requires a large training dataset for the development of accurate models, mathematical modeling has been shown to be able to generate the required datasets to justify the application of data analytics for the development of model-based leak detection systems for petroleum pipelines. This paper presents a review of key leak detection strategies for oil and gas pipelines, with a specific focus on crude oil applications, and presents the opportunities for the use of data analytics tools and mathematical modeling for the development of robust real-time leak detection and localization system for surface pipelines. A case study is also presented.

Keywords: pipeline, leakage, detection, AI

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
44 Enhanced Water Vapor Flow in Silica Microtubes Explained by Maxwell’s Tangential Momentum Accommodation and Langmuir’s Adsorption

Authors: Wenwen Lei, David R. Mckenzie

Abstract:

Recent findings of anomalously high gas flow rates in carbon nanotubes show smooth hydrophobic walls can increase specular reflection of molecules and reduce the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Here we report the first measurements of water vapor flows in microtubes over a wide humidity range and show that for hydrophobic silica there is a range of humidity over which an adsorbed water layer reduces TMAC and accelerates flow. Our results show that this association between hydrophobicity and accelerated moisture flow occurs in readily available materials. We develop a hierarchical theory that unifies Maxwell’s ideas on TMAC with Langmuir’s ideas on adsorption. We fit the TMAC data as a function of humidity with the hierarchical theory based on two stages of Langmuir adsorption and derive total adsorption isotherms for water on hydrophobic silica that agree with direct observations. We propose structures for each stage of the water adsorption, the first reducing TMAC by a passivation of adsorptive patches and a smoothing of the surface, the second resembling bulk water with large TMAC. We find that leak testing of moisture barriers with an ideal gas such as helium may not be accurate enough for critical applications and that direct measurements of the water leak rate should be made.

Keywords: water vapor flows, silica microtubes, TMAC, enhanced flow rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
43 A pilot Study of Umbilical Cord Mini-Clamp

Authors: Seng Sing Tan

Abstract:

Clamping of the umbilical cord after birth is widely practiced as a part of labor management. Further improvements were proposed to produce a smaller, lighter and more comfortable clamp while still maintaining current standards of clamping. A detachable holder was also developed to facilitate the clamping process. This pilot study on the efficacy of the mini-clamp was conducted to evaluate a tightness of the seal and a firm grip of the clamp on the umbilical cord. The study was carried out at National University Hospital, using 5 sets of placental cord. 18 samples of approximate 10 cm each were harvested. The test results showed that the mini-clamp was able to stop the flow through the cord after clamping without rupturing the cord. All slip tests passed with a load of 0.2 kg. In the pressure testing, 30kPa of saline was exerted into the umbilical veins. Although there was no physical sign of fluid leaking through the end secured by the mini-clamp, the results showed the pressure was not able to sustain the pressure set during the tests. 12 out of the 18 test samples have more than 7% of pressure drop in 30 seconds. During the pressure leak test, it was observed on several samples that when pressurized, small droplets of saline were growing on the outer surface of the cord lining membrane. It was thus hypothesized that the pressure drop was likely caused by the perfusion of the injected saline through the Wharton’s jelly and the cord lining membrane. The average pressure in the umbilical vein is roughly 2.67kPa (20 mmHg), less than 10% of 30kPa (~225mmHg), set for the pressure testing. As such, the pressure set could be over-specified, leading to undesirable outcomes. The development of the mini-clamp was an attempt to increase the comfort of newly born babies while maintaining the usability and efficacy of hospital grade umbilical cord clamp. The pressure leak in this study would be unfair to fully attribute it to the design and efficacy of the mini-clamp. Considering the unexpected leakage of saline through the umbilical membrane due to over-specified pressure exerted on the umbilical veins, improvements can definitely be made to the existing experimental setup to obtain a more accurate and conclusive outcome. If proven conclusive and effective, the mini-clamp with a detachable holder could be a smaller and potentially cheaper alternative to existing umbilical cord clamps. In addition, future clinical trials could be conducted to determine the user-friendliness of the mini-clamp and evaluate its practicality in the clinical setting by labor ward clinicians. A further potential improvement could be proposed on the sustainability factor of the mini-clamp. A biodegradable clamp would revolutionise the industry in this increasingly environmentally sustainability world.

Keywords: leak test, mini-clamp, slip test, umbilical cord

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
42 The Study of Implications on Modern Businesses Performances by Digital Communities: Case of Data Leak

Authors: Asim Majeed, Anwar Ul Haq, Ayesha Asim, Mike Lloyd-Williams, Arshad Jamal, Usman Butt

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the impact of data leak of M&S customers on digital communities. Modern businesses are using digital communities as an important public relations tool for marketing purposes. This form of communication helps companies to build better relationship with their customers which also act as another source of information. The communication between the customers and the organizations is not regulated so users may post positive and negative comments. There are new platforms being developed on a daily basis and it is very crucial for the businesses to not only get themselves familiar with those but also know how to reach their existing and perspective consumers. The driving force of marketing and communication in modern businesses is the digital communities and these are continuously increasing and developing. This phenomenon is changing the way marketing is conducted. The current research has discussed the implications on M&S business performance since the data was exploited on digital communities; users contacted M&S and raised the security concerns. M&S closed down its website for few hours to try to resolve the issue. The next day M&S made a public apology about this incidence. This information was proliferated on various digital communities and it has impacted negatively on M&S brand name, sales and customers. The content analysis approach is being used to collect qualitative data from 100 digital bloggers including social media communities such as Facebook and Twitter. The results and finding provide useful new insights into the nature and form of security concerns of digital users. Findings have theoretical and practical implications. This research will showcase a large corporation utilizing various digital community platforms and can serve as a model for future organizations.

Keywords: Digital, communities, performance, dissemination, implications, data, exploitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
41 Non-Revenue Water Management in Palestine

Authors: Samah Jawad Jabari

Abstract:

Water is the most important and valuable resource not only for human life but also for all living things on the planet. The water supply utilities should fulfill the water requirement quantitatively and qualitatively. Drinking water systems are exposed to both natural (hurricanes and flood) and manmade hazards (risks) that are common in Palestine. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a manmade risk which remains a major concern in Palestine, as the NRW levels are estimated to be at a high level. In this research, Hebron city water distribution network was taken as a case study to estimate and audit the NRW levels. The research also investigated the state of the existing water distribution system in the study area by investigating the water losses and obtained more information on NRW prevention and management practices. Data and information have been collected from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Hebron Municipality (HM) archive. In addition to that, a questionnaire has been designed and administered by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data for water auditing. The questionnaire also assessed the views of stakeholder in PWA and HM (staff) on the current status of the NRW in the Hebron water distribution system. The important result obtained by this research shows that NRW in Hebron city was high and in excess of 30%. The main factors that contribute to NRW were the inaccuracies in billing volumes, unauthorized consumption, and the method of estimating consumptions through faulty meters. Policy for NRW reduction is available in Palestine; however, it is clear that the number of qualified staff available to carry out the activities related to leak detection is low, and that there is a lack of appropriate technologies to reduce water losses and undertake sufficient system maintenance, which needs to be improved to enhance the performance of the network and decrease the level of NRW losses.

Keywords: non-revenue water, water auditing, leak detection, water meters

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
40 Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow

Authors: Mohand Kessal, Rachid Boucetta, Mourad Tikobaini, Mohammed Zamoum

Abstract:

Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.

Keywords: fluid transients, pipelines leaks, method of characteristics, leakage problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
39 Buoyant Gas Dispersion in a Small Fuel Cell Enclosure: A Comparison Study Using Plain and Pressed Louvre Vent Passive Ventilation Schemes

Authors: T. Ghatauray, J. Ingram, P. Holborn

Abstract:

The transition from a ‘carbon rich’ fossil fuel dependent to a ‘sustainable’ and ‘renewable’ hydrogen based society will see the deployment of hydrogen fuel cells (HFC) in transport applications and in the generation of heat and power for buildings, as part of a decentralised power network. Many deployments will be low power HFCs for domestic combined heat and power (CHP) and commercial ‘transportable’ HFCs for environmental situations, such as lighting and telephone towers. For broad commercialisation of small fuel cells to be achieved there needs to be significant confidence in their safety in both domestic and environmental applications. Low power HFCs are housed in protective steel enclosures. Standard enclosures have plain rectangular ventilation openings intended for thermal management of electronics and not the dispersion of a buoyant gas. Degradation of the HFC or supply pipework in use could lead to a low-level leak and a build-up of hydrogen gas in the enclosure. Hydrogen’s wide flammable range (4-75%) is a significant safety concern, with ineffective enclosure ventilation having the potential to cause flammable mixtures to develop with the risk of explosion. Mechanical ventilation is effective at managing enclosure hydrogen concentrations, but drains HFC power and is vulnerable to failure. This is undesirable in low power and remote installations and reliable passive ventilation systems are preferred. Passive ventilation depends upon buoyancy driven flow, with the size, shape and position of ventilation openings critical for producing predictable flows and maintaining low buoyant gas concentrations. With environmentally sited enclosures, ventilation openings with pressed horizontal and angled louvres are preferred to protect the HFC and electronics inside. There is an economic cost to adding louvres, but also a safety concern. A question arises over whether the use of pressed louvre vents impairs enclosure passive ventilation performance, when compared to same opening area plain vents. Comparison small enclosure (0.144m³) tests of same opening area pressed louvre and plain vents were undertaken. A displacement ventilation arrangement was incorporated into the enclosure with opposing upper and lower ventilation openings. A range of vent areas were tested. Helium (used as a safe analogue for hydrogen) was released from a 4mm nozzle at the base of the enclosure to simulate a hydrogen leak at leak rates from 1 to 10 lpm. Helium sensors were used to record concentrations at eight heights in the enclosure. The enclosure was otherwise empty. These tests determined that the use of pressed and angled louvre ventilation openings on the enclosure impaired the passive ventilation flow and increased helium concentrations in the enclosure. High-level stratified buoyant gas layers were also found to be deeper than with plain vent openings and were within the flammable range. The presence of gas within the flammable range is of concern, particularly as the addition of the fuel cell and electronics in the enclosure would further reduce the available volume and increase concentrations. The opening area of louvre vents would need to be greater than equivalent plain vents to achieve comparable ventilation flows or alternative schemes would need to be considered.

Keywords: enclosure, fuel cell, helium, hydrogen safety, louvre vent, passive ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
38 Overview on the Failure in the Multiphase Mechanical Seal in Centrifugal Pumps

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Ahmed Al. Azizi

Abstract:

Mechanical seals are essential components in centrifugal pumps since they help in controlling leaking out of the liquid that is pumped under pressure. Unlike the common types of packaging, mechanical seals are highly efficient and they reduce leakage by a great extent. However, all multiphase mechanical seals leak and they are subject to failure. Some of the factors that have been recognized to their failure include excessive heating, open seal faces, as well as environment related factors that trigger failure of the materials used to manufacture seals. The proposed research study will explore the failure of multiphase mechanical seal in centrifugal pumps. The objective of the study includes how to reduce the failure in multiphase mechanical seals and to make them more efficient.

Keywords: mechanical seals, centrifugal pumps, multi phase failure, excessive heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
37 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
36 Simulation of Welded Steel Tube Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: H. Zedira, M. T. Hannachi, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche

Abstract:

The rapid pace of technology development and strong competition in the market, prompted us to consider the field of manufacturing of steel pipes by a process complies fully with the requirements of industrial induction welding is high frequency (HF), this technique is better known today in Algeria, more precisely for the manufacture of tubes diameters Single Annabib TG Tebessa. The aim of our study is based on the characterization of processes controlling the mechanical behavior of steel pipes (type E24-2), welded by high frequency induction, considering the different tests and among the most destructive known test internal pressure. The internal pressure test is performed according to the application area of welded pipes, or as leak test, either as a test of strength (bursting). All tubes are subjected to a hydraulic test pressure of 50 bar kept at room temperature for a period of 6 seconds. This study provides information that helps optimize the design and implementation to predict the behavior of the tubes during operation.

Keywords: castem, pressure, stress, tubes, thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
35 The Characteristics of the Fragments from Cylindrical Casing with One of End Caps Fully Constrained

Authors: Yueguang Gao, Qi Huang, Shunshan Feng

Abstract:

In order to study the process and characteristic of the fragments in the warhead with one end cap under full constraint condition, we established a cylindrical casing with two end caps which one of which was fully constrained using the simulation analysis. The result showed that the fragmentation of cylindrical casing with one end full constrained has its own characteristic. The Mach stem was generated when the detonation wave propagated to the fully constrained end cap under the condition of one end detonation, working on unreactive explosives and causing the nearby fragment subjected to nearly 2.5 times the normal pressure to obtain a higher speed. The cylindrical casing first ruptured at the contact surface with the fully constrained end, and then at the end cover of the initiating end, and then the rupture extends to the whole cylindrical casing. The detonation products started to leak out from the rupture. Driving fragments to fly and forming two dense flying areas. The analysis of this paper can provide a reference for the optimal design of this kind of warhead.

Keywords: fragment, cylindrical casing, detonation waves, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
34 Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Woosuk Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Seungmo Kim, Minjun Kim, Jinhan Lee, Youngdo Jo, Jongsam Moon, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.

Keywords: gas leak detector, inspection instrument, extracting numerals, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
33 The Technique of Mobilization of the Colon for Pull-Through Procedure in Hirschsprung's Disease

Authors: Medet K. Khamitov, Marat M. Ospanov, Vasiliy M. Lozovoy, Zhenis N. Sakuov, Dastan Z. Rustemov

Abstract:

With a high rectosigmoid transitional zone in children with Hirschsprung’s disease, the upper rectal, sigmoid, left colon arteries are ligated during the pull-through of the descending part of the colon. As a result, the inferior mesenteric artery ceases to participate in the blood supply to the descending part of the colon. As a result, the reduced colon is supplied with blood only by the middle colon artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery. Insufficiency of blood supply to the reduced colon is the cause of the development of chronic hypoxia of the intestinal wall or necrosis of the reduced descending colon. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the left colon artery. However, it is possible to stretch the mesentery, which can lead to bowel retraction to anastomotic leaks and stenosis. Chronic hypoxia of the reduced colon, in turn, is the cause of acquired (secondary) aganglionosis. The highest frequency of anastomotic leaks is observed in children older than five years. The purpose is to reduce the risk of complications in the pull-through procedure of the descending part of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease by ensuring its sufficient mobility and maintaining blood supply to the lower mesenteric artery. Methodology and events. Two children aged 5 and 7 years with Hirschsprung’s disease were operated under the conditions of the hospital in Nur-Sultan. The diagnosis was made using x-ray contrast enema and histological examination. Operational technique. After revision of the left part of the colon and assessment of the architectonics of its blood vessels, parietal mobilization of the affected sigmoid and rectum was performed on laparotomy access, while maintaining the arterial and venous terminal arcades of the sigmoid vessels. Then, the descending branch of the left colon artery was crossed (if there is an insufficient length of the reduced intestine, the left colonic artery itself may also be crossed). This manipulation provides additional mobility of the pull-through descending part of the colon. The resulting "windows" in the mesentery of the reduced intestine were sutured to prevent the development of an internal hernia. Formed a full-blooded, sufficiently long transplant from the transverse loops of the splenic angle and the descending parts of the colon with blood supply from the upper and lower mesenteric artery, freely, without tension, is reduced to the rectal zone with the coloanal anastomosis 1.5 cm above the dentate line. Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patients were discharged on the 7th day. The observation was carried out for six months. In no case, there was a bowel retraction, anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, or other complications. Conclusion. The presented technique of mobilization of the colon for the pull-through procedure in a high transitional rectosigmoid zone of Hirschsprung’s disease allows to maintain normal blood supply to the distal part of the colon and to avoid the tension of the colon. The technique allows reducing the risk of anastomotic leak, bowel necrosis, chronic ischemia, to exclude colon retraction and anastomotic stenosis.

Keywords: blood supply, children, colon mobilization, Hirschsprung's disease, pull-through

Procedia PDF Downloads 55